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1.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(2): 137-149, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) is a non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase, an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene. Tyk2, together with three other family subtypes, namely, Jak1, Jak2, and Jak3, belong to the JAK family. Before 2014, far more publications and patents appeared in public domain attributing to the development of selective Jak2 and Jak3 inhibitors than those for selective Tyk2 and Jak1 inhibitors. AREAS COVERED: This review sought to give an overview of patents related to small molecule selective Tyk2 inhibitors published from 2015 to 2018. The article also covers clinical activities of small molecule selective Tyk2 inhibitors in recent years. EXPERT OPINION: As a key component of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, Tyk2 regulates INFα, IL12, and IL23. Selective inhibition of Tyk2 can provide pharmacological benefits in the treatment of many diseases such as psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cancer, and diabetes. The selectivity against other Jak family subtypes (such as Jak2) is crucial in order to minimize the potential side effects and to maximize the desired pharmacological effects. In this context, this review of recent selective Tyk2 inhibitor patents may prove valid, interesting, and promising within the therapeutic paradigm.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , TYK2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Patentes como Assunto , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , TYK2 Quinase/genética
2.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(12): 1170-1174, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613321

RESUMO

BMS-823778 (2), a 1,2,4-triazolopyridinyl-methanol derived analog, was identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme (IC50 = 2.3 nM) with >10,000-fold selectivity over 11ß-HSD-2. Compound 2 exhibits robust acute pharmacodynamic effects in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 = 0.6 mg/kg) and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (ED50 = 34 mg/kg). Compound 2 also showed excellent inhibition in an ex vivo adipose DIO mouse model (ED50 = 5.2 mg/kg). Oral bioavailability ranges from 44% to 100% in preclinical species. Its favorable development properties, pharmacokinetics, high adipose-to-plasma concentration ratio, and preclinical pharmacology profile have prompted the evaluation of 2 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in phase 2 clinical trials.

3.
J Med Chem ; 60(14): 6166-6190, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635286

RESUMO

Agonism of the 5-HT2C receptor represents one of the most well-studied and clinically proven mechanisms for pharmacological weight reduction. Selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors is critical as their activation has been shown to lead to undesirable side effects and major safety concerns. In this communication, we report the development of a new screening paradigm that utilizes an active site mutant D134A (D3.32) 5-HT2C receptor to identify atypical agonist structures. We additionally report the discovery and optimization of a novel class of nonbasic heterocyclic amide agonists of 5-HT2C. SAR investigations around the screening hits provided a diverse set of potent agonists at 5-HT2C with high selectivity over the related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor subtypes. Further optimization through replacement of the amide with a variety of five- and six-membered heterocycles led to the identification of 6-(1-ethyl-3-(quinolin-8-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-3-amine (69). Oral administration of 69 to rats reduced food intake in an ad libitum feeding model, which could be completely reversed by a selective 5-HT2C antagonist.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Flavonas/química , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Arginina/síntese química , Arginina/química , Arginina/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/síntese química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Membranas Artificiais , Camundongos Knockout , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2B de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/síntese química , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 4932-4948, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537398

RESUMO

BMS-816336 (6n-2), a hydroxy-substituted adamantyl acetamide, has been identified as a novel, potent inhibitor against human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) enzyme (IC50 3.0 nM) with >10000-fold selectivity over human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2). 6n-2 exhibits a robust acute pharmacodynamic effect in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 0.12 mg/kg) and in DIO mice. It is orally bioavailable (%F ranges from 20 to 72% in preclinical species) and has a predicted pharmacokinetic profile of a high peak to trough ratio and short half-life in humans. This ADME profile met our selection criteria for once daily administration, targeting robust inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme for the first 12 h period after dosing followed by an "inhibition holiday" so that the potential for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation might be mitigated. 6n-2 was found to be well-tolerated in phase 1 clinical studies and represents a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other human diseases modulated by glucocorticoid control.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/química , Adamantano/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Obesos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(11): 2539-45, 2014 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755425

RESUMO

Through appropriate medicinal chemistry design tactics and computer-assisted conformational modeling, the initial lead A was evolved into a series of dihydrobenzofuran derivatives 3 as potent GPR119 agonists. This Letter describes the optimization of general structure 3, including the substituent(s) on dihydrobenzofuran, the R(1) attachment on right-hand piperidine nitrogen, and the left-hand piperidine/piperazine and its attachment R(2). The efforts led to the identification of compounds 13c and 24 as potent human GPR119 modulators with favorable metabolic stability, ion channel activity, and PXR profiles.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Benzofuranos/química , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(2): 654-60, 2014 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24360604

RESUMO

A series of 2-adamantylmethyl tetrazoles bearing a quaternary carbon at the 2-position of the adamantane ring (i.e. structure A) have been designed and synthesized as novel, potent, and selective inhibitors of human 11ß-HSD1 enzyme. Based on the SAR and the docking experiment, we report for the first time a tetrazole moiety serving as the active pharmacophore for inhibitory activity of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme. Optimization of two regions of A, R(1) and R(2) respectively, was explored with a focus on improving the inhibitory activity (IC50) and the microsomal stability in both human and mouse species. These efforts led to the identification of 26, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of human 11ß-HSD1 with a favorable development profile.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/síntese química , Tetrazóis/síntese química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Adamantano/farmacologia , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/farmacologia
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 20(9): 2933-7, 2010 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20356736

RESUMO

The synthesis and follow-up SAR studies of our development candidate 1 by incorporating 2-aryl-4-oxazolylmethoxy and 2-aryl-4-thiazolylmethoxy moieties into the oxybenzylglycine framework of the PPARalpha/gamma dual agonist muraglitazar is described. SAR studies indicate that different substituents on the aryloxazole/thiazole moieties as well as the choice of carbamate substituent on the glycine moiety can significantly modulate the selectivity of PPARalpha versus PPARgamma. Potent, highly selective PPARalpha activators 2a and 2l, as well as PPARalpha activators with significant PPARgamma activity, such as 2s, were identified. The in vivo pharmacology of these compounds in preclinical animal models as well as their ADME profiles are discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Glicina/análogos & derivados , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Sítios de Ligação , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Glicina/síntese química , Glicina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Masculino , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
J Med Chem ; 53(7): 2854-64, 2010 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20218621

RESUMO

An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, with an EC(50) of 10 nM for human PPARalpha and approximately 410-fold selectivity vs human PPARgamma in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPARdelta. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPARalpha ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPARalpha in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Oxazóis/química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Glicina/síntese química , Glicina/química , Glicina/farmacologia , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Oxazóis/síntese química , Oxazóis/toxicidade , PPAR alfa/química , PPAR alfa/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Pharm Sci ; 99(7): 3234-45, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20112434

RESUMO

Identification and quantitation of drug metabolites are important for understanding and predicting drug-drug interactions and toxicities. For chiral compounds, metabolic interconversion of enantiomers may present unique challenges. If the stereoisomers are biologically distinguishable, regulatory agencies consider them distinct chemical entities and require individual characterization since enantiomers may exhibit different pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic, and toxicologic properties. Efforts to predict enantiomeric ratios in humans from animal studies are frequently hampered by a lack of understanding of the enzymes responsible and potential interspecies differences. In this study, liver microsomes from rats, dogs, and monkeys were used to investigate the kinetics of interconversion of two enantiomeric secondary alcohols (Compounds A and C) via oxidation to a ketone intermediate (Compound B) and subsequent reduction of the ketone to either regenerate the starting alcohol, or produce the enantiomer. A mechanistic model was established using in vitro microsomal data to predict the ratios of the enantiomer concentrations in plasma 24 hours after dosing and the ratios of AUC values for the enantiomers. Plasma concentrations of the enantiomers and ketone intermediate were determined after single intravenous and oral doses of Compound C. The observed concentration and AUC ratios were similar to the values predicted by the mechanistic model.


Assuntos
Álcoois/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/farmacocinética , Animais , Cães , Haplorrinos , Cinética , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(12): 3545-50, 2008 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18511276

RESUMO

Several series of substituted dehydropiperidine and piperidine-4-carboxylic acid analogs have been designed and synthesized as novel, potent dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists. The SAR of these series of analogs is discussed. A rare double bond migration occurred during the basic hydrolysis of the alpha,beta-unsaturated dehydropiperidine esters 12, and the structures of the migration products were confirmed through a series of 2D NMR experiments.


Assuntos
Ácidos Carboxílicos , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Piperidinas , Ligação Competitiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Carboxílicos/síntese química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 125(29): 8736-7, 2003 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12862463

RESUMO

Ramoplanin is a lipglycodepsipeptide antibiotic that inhibits peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Its mechanism of action has been the subject of debate. It was originally proposed to inhibit the MurG step of peptidoglycan synthesis by binding Lipid I. In this paper, we report that ramoplanin inhibits bacterial transglycosylases by binding to Lipid II, the substrate for these enzymes. The inhibition curves reveal that the inhibitory species has a stoichiometry of 2:1 ramoplanin:Lipid II. A Job titration confirms that ramoplanin binds as a dimer to Lipid II. The apparent dissociation constant is in the nanomolar range, which is unusually low given the nature of the interacting species. We show that Lipid II binding is coupled to the formation of a higher order species, which may explain the tight binding. We also present a testable model for the binding-competent dimeric conformation of ramoplanin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Proteínas de Bactérias , Proteínas de Transporte , Depsipeptídeos , Hexosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexos Multienzimáticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Muramilpentapeptídeo Carboxipeptidase , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Peptidil Transferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/análogos & derivados , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Dimerização , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cinética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
13.
Chem Biol ; 9(12): 1305-14, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12498883

RESUMO

Analogs of the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin with alterations in one or both sugar moieties of the disaccharide have been prepared by tandem action of the vancomycin pathway glycosyltransferases GtfE and GtfD. All four regioisomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 6-) of TDP-deoxyglucoses and UDP/TDP-aminoglucoses were prepared, predominantly by action of D-glucopyranosyl-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase, E(p). GtfE transferred the deoxyglucoses or aminoglucoses onto the 4-OH of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine of both the vancomycin and teicoplanin aglycone scaffolds. Kinetic analysis indicated the 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-amino-glucoses were transferred by GtfE with only a 4- to 30-fold drop in k(cat) and no effect on K(m) compared to the native substrate, UDP/TDP-glucose, suggesting preparative utility. The next enzyme, GtfD, could utilize the variant glucosyl-peptides as substrates for transfer of L-4-epi-vancosamine. The aminosugar moieties in these variant glycopeptides introduce sites for acylation or reductive alkylation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glicopeptídeos/biossíntese , Vancomicina/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicopeptídeos/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Especificidade por Substrato , Teicoplanina/análogos & derivados , Teicoplanina/biossíntese , Vancomicina/biossíntese
14.
Biochemistry ; 41(21): 6824-33, 2002 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12022887

RESUMO

MurG, the last enzyme involved in the intracellular phase of peptidoglycan synthesis, is a membrane-associated glycosyltransferase that couples N-acetyl glucosamine to the C4 hydroxyl of a lipid-linked N-acetyl muramic acid derivative (lipid I) to form the beta-linked disaccharide (lipid II) that is the minimal subunit of peptidoglycan. Lipid I is anchored to the bacterial membrane by a 55 carbon undecaprenyl chain. Because this long lipid chain impedes kinetic analysis of MurG, we have been investigating alternative substrates containing shortened lipid chains. We now describe the intrinsic lipid preferences of MurG and show that the optimal substrate for MurG in the absence of membranes is not the natural substrate. Thus, while the undecaprenyl carrier lipid may be critical for certain steps in the biosynthetic pathway to peptidoglycan, it is not required-in fact, is not preferred-by MurG. Using synthetic substrate analogues and products containing different length lipid chains, as well as a synthetic dead-end acceptor analogue, we have also shown that MurG follows a compulsory ordered Bi Bi mechanism in which the donor sugar binds first. This information should facilitate obtaining crystals of MurG with substrates bound, an important goal because MurG belongs to a major superfamily of NDP-glycosyltransferases for which no structures containing intact substrates have yet been solved.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/análogos & derivados , Uridina Difosfato Ácido N-Acetilmurâmico/metabolismo , Catálise , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Cinética , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Especificidade por Substrato
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