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1.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899582

RESUMO

Oncolytic viruses armed with therapeutic transgenes of interest show great potential in cancer immunotherapy. Here, a novel oncolytic adenovirus carrying a signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα)-IgG1Fc fusion gene (termed SG635-SF) was constructed, which could block the CD47 "don't eat me" signal of cancer cells. A strong promoter sequence (CCAU) was chosen to control the expression of the SF fusion protein, and a 5/35 chimeric fiber was utilized to enhance the efficiency of infection. As a result, SG635-SF was found to specifically proliferate in hTERT-positive cancer cells and largely increased the abundance of the SF gene. The SF fusion protein was effectively detected, and CD47 was successfully blocked in SK-OV3 and HO8910 ovarian cancer cells expressing high levels of CD47. Although the ability to induce cell cycle arrest and cell death was comparable to that of the control empty SG635 oncolytic adenovirus in vitro, the anti-tumor effect of SG635-SF was significantly superior to that of SG635 in vivo. Furthermore, CD47 was largely blocked and macrophage infiltration distinctly increased in xenograft tissues of SK-OV3 cells but not in those of CD47-negative HepG2 cells, indicating that the enhanced antitumor effect of SG635-SF was CD47-dependent. Collectively, these findings highlight a potent anti-tumor effect of SG635-SF in the treatment of CD47-positive cancers.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National investigations on the interaction of insulin resistance, ß-cell dysfunction, and obesity with the development of diabetes are scarce in China. We aimed to investigate the individual and joint associations of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction with incident diabetes, and to examine the modifying effect of BMI and waist circumference on these associations among adults with normal glucose tolerance and with prediabetes. METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study, we analysed data from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study, which recruited adults aged 40 years or older during 2011-12 (baseline) and invited participants to attend follow-up visits in 2014-16. Patients with diabetes at baseline, missing data for baseline measures of glucose tolerance status, missing data for baseline homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes, missing data for baseline covariates, and missing data for measures of glucose tolerance status at follow-up visits were excluded. At baseline and follow-up visits, a comprehensive set of questionnaires, clinical measurements, oral glucose tolerance tests, and laboratory examinations were carried out following standardised protocols. Glucose tolerance status and prediabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. In the main analysis, we examined the contributions of insulin resistance (HOMA of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and ß-cell dysfunction (HOMA of ß-cell function [HOMA-B]) to diabetes risk, and evaluated the impact of obesity on these associations. FINDINGS: 94 952 participants (31 517 men and 63 435 women) were included in the analysis. High HOMA-IR was associated with a greater hazard of diabetes (quartile 4 vs 1: hazard ratio [HR] 6·70, 95% CI 6·08-7·39; per unit increase in Z score: HR 2·17, 95% CI 2·10-2·24) than low HOMA-B (quartile 1 vs 4: 4·08, 3·72-4·48; per unit decrease in Z score: 1·92, 1·85-2·00). Approximately 24·4% (95% CI 23·6-25·2) of the incident diabetes could be attributed to insulin resistance and 12·4% (11·2-13·7) could be attributed to ß-cell dysfunction. The HRs for diabetes were 1·83 (95% CI 1·72-1·95) per unit increase in Z score of HOMA-IR and 2·03 (1·86-2·21) per unit decrease in Z score of HOMA-B among participants with normal weight; the corresponding HRs for diabetes were 2·02 (1·93-2·11) and 1·88 (1·79-1·98) among participants with obesity (pinteraction=0·0091). These associations and interactions were similar for participants with normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes. INTERPRETATION: Insulin resistance shows a stronger association with incident diabetes than does ß-cell dysfunction in Chinese adults, and this association pattern was more prominent among adults with obesity. Given the limitations of HOMA indexes as surrogate measures of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction, these findings should be interpreted with caution. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

3.
Nature ; 575(7784): 699-703, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748743

RESUMO

Oncogenes are commonly amplified on particles of extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) in cancer1,2, but our understanding of the structure of ecDNA and its effect on gene regulation is limited. Here, by integrating ultrastructural imaging, long-range optical mapping and computational analysis of whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate the structure of circular ecDNA. Pan-cancer analyses reveal that oncogenes encoded on ecDNA are among the most highly expressed genes in the transcriptome of the tumours, linking increased copy number with high transcription levels. Quantitative assessment of the chromatin state reveals that although ecDNA is packaged into chromatin with intact domain structure, it lacks higher-order compaction that is typical of chromosomes and displays significantly enhanced chromatin accessibility. Furthermore, ecDNA is shown to have a significantly greater number of ultra-long-range interactions with active chromatin, which provides insight into how the structure of circular ecDNA affects oncogene function, and connects ecDNA biology with modern cancer genomics and epigenetics.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14644, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601887

RESUMO

Shandong Province is an area of China with a high incidence of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); however, the general epidemic trend of HFRS in Shandong remains unclear. Therefore, we established a mathematical model to predict the incidence trend of HFRS and used Joinpoint regression analysis, a generalised additive model (GAM), and other methods to evaluate the data. Incidence data from the first half of 2018 were included in a range predicted by a modified sum autoregressive integrated moving average-support vector machine (ARIMA-SVM) combination model. The highest incidence of HFRS occurred in October and November, and the annual mortality rate decreased by 7.3% (p < 0.05) from 2004 to 2017. In cold months, the incidence of HFRS increased by 4%, -1%, and 0.8% for every unit increase in temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall, respectively; in warm months, this incidence changed by 2%, -3%, and 0% respectively. Overall, HFRS incidence and mortality in Shandong showed a downward trend over the past 10 years. In both cold and warm months, the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall on HFRS incidence varied. A modified ARIMA-SVM combination model could effectively predict the occurrence of HFRS.

5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(12): 8355-8368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603626

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is the most common osteolytic disease characterized by excessive osteoclast formation and resultant bone loss, which afflicts millions of patients around the world. Astilbin, a traditional herb, is known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antihepatic properties, but its role in osteoporosis treatment has not yet been confirmed. In our study, astilbin was found to have an inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced formation and function of OCs in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. These effects were attributed to its ability to suppress the activity of two transcription factors (NFATc1 and c-Fos) indispensable for osteoclast formation, followed by inhibition of the expression of bone resorption-related genes and proteins (Acp5/TRAcP, CTSK, V-ATPase-d2 and integrin ß3). Furthermore, we examined the underlying mechanisms and found that astilbin repressed osteoclastogenesis by blocking Ca2+ oscillations and the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. In addition, the therapeutic effect of MA on preventing bone loss in vivo was further confirmed in an ovariectomized mouse model. Therefore, considering its ability to inhibit RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and the underlying mechanisms, astilbin might be a potential candidate for treating osteolytic bone diseases.

6.
PeerJ ; 7: e7602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579577

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies showed that circRNAs are involved in the biological process of some human cancers. However, little is known about their functions in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Here we first revealed the expression profiles of circRNAs in the CRC tissues and the adjacent non-tumorous tissues using high-throughput sequencing. The sequence feature, chromosome location, alternative splicing and other characteristics of the circRNAs were also explored. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles were then obtained by analyzing relevant CRC data retrived from the TCGA database. We obtained and analyzed the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network of the top three pairs of the largest up-regulated and down-regulated circRNAs. Results: In this study, we obtained 50,410 circRNAs in the CRC tissue and the adjacent non-tumor tissues, of which 33.7% (16,975) were new, and revealed differential changes in circRNA expression during colorectal carcinogenesis. We have identified six potential key circRNAs (circPIEZO1-3, hsa_circ_0067163, hsa_circ_0140188, hsa_circ_0002632, hsa_circ_0001998 and hsa_circ_0023990) associated with CRC, which play important roles in carcinogenesis as ceRNA for regulation of miRNA-mRNA network. In the subsequent KEGG analysis, several CRC-related pathways were found. Conclusions: Our findings advance the understanding of the pathogenesis of CRC from the perspective of circRNAs and provide some circRNAs as candidate diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets.

7.
Nature ; 574(7779): 575-580, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645732

RESUMO

The Warburg effect, which originally described increased production of lactate in cancer, is associated with diverse cellular processes such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, polarization of macrophages and activation of T cells. This phenomenon is intimately linked to several diseases including neoplasia, sepsis and autoimmune diseases1,2. Lactate, which is converted from pyruvate in tumour cells, is widely known as an energy source and metabolic by-product. However, its non-metabolic functions in physiology and disease remain unknown. Here we show that lactate-derived lactylation of histone lysine residues serves as an epigenetic modification that directly stimulates gene transcription from chromatin. We identify 28 lactylation sites on core histones in human and mouse cells. Hypoxia and bacterial challenges induce the production of lactate by glycolysis, and this acts as a precursor that stimulates histone lactylation. Using M1 macrophages that have been exposed to bacteria as a model system, we show that histone lactylation has different temporal dynamics from acetylation. In the late phase of M1 macrophage polarization, increased histone lactylation induces homeostatic genes that are involved in wound healing, including Arg1. Collectively, our results suggest that an endogenous 'lactate clock' in bacterially challenged M1 macrophages turns on gene expression to promote homeostasis. Histone lactylation thus represents an opportunity to improve our understanding of the functions of lactate and its role in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including infection and cancer.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Glicólise/genética , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Acetilação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Lisina/química , Lisina/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transcrição Genética
8.
Mol Cell ; 76(3): 453-472.e8, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519520

RESUMO

MYOD-directed fibroblast trans-differentiation into skeletal muscle provides a unique model to investigate how one transcription factor (TF) reconfigures the three-dimensional chromatin architecture to control gene expression, which is otherwise achieved by the combinatorial activities of multiple TFs. Integrative analysis of genome-wide high-resolution chromatin interactions, MYOD and CTCF DNA-binding profile, and gene expression, revealed that MYOD directs extensive re-wiring of interactions involving cis-regulatory and structural genomic elements, including promoters, enhancers, and insulated neighborhoods (INs). Re-configured INs were hot-spots of differential interactions, whereby MYOD binding to highly constrained sequences at IN boundaries and/or inside INs led to alterations of promoter-enhancer interactions to repress cell-of-origin genes and to activate muscle-specific genes. Functional evidence shows that MYOD-directed re-configuration of chromatin interactions temporally preceded the effect on gene expression and was mediated by direct MYOD-DNA binding. These data illustrate a model whereby a single TF alters multi-loop hubs to drive somatic cell trans-differentiation.

10.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 519-528, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401926

RESUMO

Context: The interruption of cerebral blood circulation may cause stroke characterized by high neurological deficits (NDs) as a result of neuronal dysfunction or destruction. Heparin may exert a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of heparin pre-treatment on cerebral injury in the gerbil. Materials and methods: A total of 80 healthy Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into four groups to establish cerebral ischaemia model by bilateral carotid artery occlusion: control (no anaesthesia and surgery), sham (no occlusion), non-anticoagulation (occlusion), and anti-coagulation treatment groups (50 IU/100 g heparin pre-treated, occlusion). Gerbils were anesthetized with 40 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium through intraperitoneal injection before operation except for the control group. Then, the ND and histopathological damage (HD) scores were determined. The percentage of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α- and interleukin (IL)-1ß-positive cells were calculated based on immunohistochemical results. The mRNA and protein levels of caspase-9, caspase-8, FasL, and calpain were evaluated with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. Results: Compared with non-anticoagulation group, heparin pre-treatment (50 IU/100 g) delayed the onset of dyspnoea (p < 0.05), and showed a significant decrease in ND (p < 0.01), mortality rate (p < 0.05), HD (p < 0.01) and percentage of positive cells for TNF-α, IL-1ß (p < 0.01) in cerebral ischaemia gerbils. Besides, the expression levels of caspase-9, caspase-8, FasL, and calpain were reduced after pre-treatment with 50 IU/100 g heparin. Discussion and conclusions: The damage caused to gerbil brain was reduced upon pre-treatment with heparin, possibly through the amelioration of neuronal cell apoptosis and expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß. These findings are expected to provide a new breakthrough in the study and treatment of cerebral ischaemia.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(9): 1380-1388, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427791

RESUMO

Chromatin architecture has been implicated in cell type-specific gene regulatory programs, yet how chromatin remodels during development remains to be fully elucidated. Here, by interrogating chromatin reorganization during human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation, we discover a role for the primate-specific endogenous retrotransposon human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERV-H) in creating topologically associating domains (TADs) in hPSCs. Deleting these HERV-H elements eliminates their corresponding TAD boundaries and reduces the transcription of upstream genes, while de novo insertion of HERV-H elements can introduce new TAD boundaries. The ability of HERV-H to create TAD boundaries depends on high transcription, as transcriptional repression of HERV-H elements prevents the formation of boundaries. This ability is not limited to hPSCs, as these actively transcribed HERV-H elements and their corresponding TAD boundaries also appear in pluripotent stem cells from other hominids but not in more distantly related species lacking HERV-H elements. Overall, our results provide direct evidence for retrotransposons in actively shaping cell type- and species-specific chromatin architecture.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365039

RESUMO

Importance: Whether optimal cardiovascular health metrics may counteract the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with prediabetes or diabetes is unclear. Objective: To investigate the associations of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among participants with prediabetes or diabetes as compared with participants with normal glucose regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study was a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study of 20 communities from various geographic regions in China. The study included 111 765 participants who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed between 2011 and 2016. Exposures: Prediabetes and diabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. Seven ICVHMs were adapted from the American Heart Association recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The composite of incident fatal or nonfatal CVD, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure. Results: Of the 111 765 participants, 24 881 (22.3%) had normal glucose regulation, 61 024 (54.6%) had prediabetes, and 25 860 (23.1%) had diabetes. Mean (SD) age ranged from 52.9 (8.6) years to 59.4 (8.7) years. Compared with participants with normal glucose regulation, among participants with prediabetes, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CVD was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.16-1.55) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43-0.75) for participants who had at least 5 ICVHMs; among participants with diabetes, the hazard ratios for CVD were 2.05 (95% CI, 1.76-2.38) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.56-1.15) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and at least 5 ICVHMs, respectively. Such pattern of association between ICVHM and CVD was more prominent for participants younger than 55 years (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.63; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.58, 95% CI, 1.13-2.21; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.44-2.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.71-3.54; compared with normal glucose regulation) than for participants 65 years or older (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50-1.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79-1.31; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.46-1.35; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.36-2.22, compared with normal glucose regulation; P values for interaction ≤.02). Additionally, the hazard ratio for CVD per additional ICVHM was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) among participants with prediabetes and was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.89) among participants with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: Participants with prediabetes or diabetes who had 5 or more ICVHMs exhibited lower or no significant excess CVD risks compared with the participants with normal glucose regulation.

14.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between birth weight and diabetes in a Chinese population, and the effects of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors in later life on this association. METHODS: Data from 49 118 participants aged ≥40 years with recalled birth weight from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study, a nationwide population-based cohort, were used. Diabetes diagnosis was based on oral glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c measurements. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of birth weight and risk of diabetes in later life. RESULTS: Increased risk of diabetes was associated with lower or higher birth weight. Compared with individuals with a birth weight of 2500 to 3499 g, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of diabetes for individuals with a birth weight of <2500, between 3500 and 3999, and ≥4000 g were 1.28 (1.11-1.47), 1.11 (1.04-1.19), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34), respectively. Significant associations were prominent in participants with a current BMI ≥24 kg/m2 , but not detected in those with a normal BMI (OR 1.20 [95% CI 0.96-1.49], 1.11 [95% CI 0.98-1.25], and 1.10 [95% CI 0.89-1.37], respectively). Moreover, there was no increased risk of diabetes in individuals with a low birth weight but with healthy dietary habits (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.29) or ideal physical activity (OR 1.41; 95% CI 0.97-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between birth weight and the risk of diabetes. Healthy lifestyles (healthy dietary habits or ideal physical activity) may eliminate the negative effects of low birth weight in the development of diabetes, but not the effect of high birth weight.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1539-1548, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uncertainty remains regarding the predictive value of various glycemic measures as they relate to the risk of diabetes and its complications. Using the cutoffs recommended by the American Diabetes Association's 2010 criteria, we determined the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postload glucose (2h-PG), and HbA1c with the outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline medical history, FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c were obtained from a population-based cohort of 193,846 adults aged ≥40 years in China during 2011-2012. A follow-up visit was conducted during 2014-2016 in order to assess incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality. RESULTS: We documented 8,063 cases of diabetes, 3,014 CVD-related events, 1,624 cases of cancer, and 2,409 deaths during up to 5 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CIs) of diabetes associated with prediabetes based on FPG of 100-125 mg/dL, 2h-PG of 140-199 mg/dL, or HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol) were 1.60 (1.43-1.79), 2.72 (2.43-3.04), and 1.49 (1.36-1.62), respectively. Restricted cubic spline analyses suggested J-shaped associations of FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c levels with CVD, cancer, and mortality. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with untreated diabetes based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL, 2h-PG ≥200 mg/dL, or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) were 1.18 (1.05-1.33), 1.31 (1.18-1.45), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34) for CVD; 1.10 (0.92-1.32), 1.44 (1.25-1.67), and 1.08 (0.92-1.28) for cancer; and 1.37 (1.20-1.57), 1.57 (1.41-1.76), and 1.33 (1.17-1.52) for mortality, respectively. 2h-PG remained significantly associated with outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c as spline terms. Furthermore, 2h-PG significantly improved the ability of the C statistic to predict diabetes, CVD, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: 2h-PG remains independently predictive of outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c. Therefore, in addition to FPG and HbA1c, routine testing of 2h-PG should be considered in order to better assess the risks of outcomes.

16.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 4209-4221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118816

RESUMO

Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abnormally expressed in various human tumors and play an important role in multiple tumorigeneses, including pancreatic cancer (PC). Materials and methods: The present study was designed to evaluate the role of lncRNA DLX6-AS1 in tumorigenesis of PC. The expression of DLX6-AS1 and its effect on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion was investigated in vitro. Its effect on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and its potential targets were also examined. Results: We observed that DLX6-AS1 was highly expressed in PC tissues and PC cell lines, and was negatively correlated with the survival of PC patients. We found that overexpression of DLX6-AS1 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of PC cells, inhibited apoptosis, increased Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and MMP-2 expression, and decreased cleaved caspase 3, p27, and E-cadherin expression in PC cells. In addition, overexpression of DLX6-AS1 promoted PC growth by increasing tumor volume and weight and increasing the number of liver and lung metastatic foci. Knockdown of DLX6-AS1 showed an opposite effect in all the experiments. miR-497-5p was demonstrated to be a direct target of DLX6-AS1 and was regulated by DLX6-AS1. We also demonstrated that miR-497-5p targeted FZD4 and FZD6 and decreased their expression. miR-497-5p mimics also decreased the expression of FZD4, FZD6, and ß-catenin; the expression of FZD4 or FZD6 was reversed by the overexpression of vectors FZD4 or FZD6, respectively, while the expression of ß-catenin was reversed by either vector. Finally, the effect of DLX6-AS1 on proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of cells and expression of FZD4, FZD6, and ß-catenin was neutralized by overexpression of vectors of miR-497-5p, FZD4, or FZD6, totally or partially. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings suggested that DLX6-AS1/miR-497-5p/FZD4/FZD6/Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of PC, and DLX6-AS1 could be a potential biomarker and target for PC treatment.

17.
Water Res ; 158: 417-423, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059936

RESUMO

This study investigated the VUV/UV photodegradation of three iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs), namely, triiodomethane (TIM), diiodoacetamide (DIAcAm) and triiodoacetic acid (TIAA), based on a mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system (MVPS). The pseudo-first-order rate constants (k) of TIM, DIAcAm and TIAA under VUV/UV irradiation (1769, 1301 and 1174 m2 einstein-1, respectively) were higher than those under UV irradiation (1003, 832 and 766 m2 einstein-1, respectively). The enhancement of photodegradation could be attributed to the indirect HO• oxidation rather than the direct VUV photolysis. As a whole, compared with the indirect HO• oxidation, the direct UV photolysis had a relatively greater contribution to the degradation of the three I-DBPs, especially DIAcAm and TIAA (ca. 57% and 60%, respectively). The two electron-withdrawing groups in DIAcAm and TIAA (i.e., acylamino and carboxyl) decreased the electron density of the C-I bonds, thus weakening the electrophilic attack of HO•. The iodine in the three I-DBPs was released to form I- and a small fraction (< 6%) of I- was oxidized to IO3-, indicating that HO• preferred to break the C-I bonds rather than oxidize I-. The direct UV photolysis proceeded via H2O-catalyzed deiodination reactions, while the indirect HO• oxidation proceeded via deiodination reactions along with HO• addition. The VUV/UV photodegradation of the three I-DBPs was more favored at an acidic pH but inhibited by the water matrix components (i.e., NOM, Cl- and alkalinity) to different extents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Fotólise , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909473

RESUMO

Deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway leads to colorectal cancer progression. Natural dietary compounds serve as promising candidates for development as chemopreventive agents by suppressing the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Physalis peruviana-derived 4ßHWE showed a significant inhibitory activity with a calculated IC50 of 0.09 µΜ in a screening of novel inhibitors of Wnt signaling with the dual-luciferase reporter assay. This study investigated the anti-tumor effect of 4ßHWE and the potential Wnt signaling inhibitory mechanism. Both the western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay showed that 4ßHWE promoted the phosphorylation and degradation of ß-catenin and the subsequent inhibition of its nuclear translocation to attenuate the endogenous Wnt target gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The cell viability assay indicated that 4ßHWE preferentially inhibited the proliferation of CRC compared with CCD-841-CoN, a normal human colonic epithelial cell line. 4ßHWE-mediated G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction contributed to the suppression of the proliferation of CRC in the cell cycle and Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide apoptosis analysis. Moreover, in vivo, 4ßHWE dramatically inhibited tumor growth in HCT116 xenografts by attenuating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, our study suggested that 4ßHWE could be of potential use in anti-tumor agent development as a novel Wnt signaling inhibitor.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Physalis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vitanolídeos/química
19.
FASEB J ; 33(2): 3051-3062, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351993

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that peroxiredoxin1/2 (Prx1/2) may be involved in the pathophysiology of postischemic inflammatory responses in the brain. In this study, we assessed the distribution and function of Prx1/2 in mice after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We investigated the distribution of Prx1/2 in the brains of mice both in vivo and in vitro using immunofluorescence staining. The expression of Prx1/2 after SAH was determined by Western blot. Adenanthin was used to inhibit Prx1/2 function, and Prx1/2 overexpression was achieved by injecting adeno-associated virus. Oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis were assessed both in vivo and in vitro. The neurologic function, inflammatory response, and related cellular signals were analyzed. The results showed that Prx1 was mainly expressed in astrocytes, and Prx2 was abundant in neurons. The expression of Prx1/2 was elevated after SAH, and their expression levels peaked before proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibiting Prx1/2 promoted neuronal apoptosis by increasing the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels via the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1/p38 pathway. By contrast, overexpression of Prx1/2 attenuated oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis after SAH. Thus, early expression of Prx1/2 may protect the brain from oxidative damage after SAH and may provide a novel target for treating SAH.-Lu, Y., Zhang, X.-S., Zhou, X.-M., Gao, Y.-Y., Chen, C.-L., Liu, J.-P., Ye, Z.-N., Zhang, Z.-H., Wu, L.-Y., Li, W., Hang, C.-H. Peroxiredoxin 1/2 protects brain against H2O2-induced apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Córtex Cerebral , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(33): 33548-33555, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269277

RESUMO

Although a growing number of epidemiological studies have been conducted on size-specific health effects of particulate matter in China, results remain inconsistent. In this study, we investigated acute effect of fine and coarse particular matter on cardiovascular hospital visits in Ningbo, China. We used generalized additive models to examine short-term effects of PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 on cardiovascular hospital visits by adjustment for temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects. Subgroup analyses were conducted by age, sex, and season. We also examined the stability of their effects in multi-pollutant models. We found that PM2.5 were associated with cardiovascular hospital visits (RR = 1.006; 95% CI 1.000, 1.011) and results remained similar after adjustment for PM10-2.5 (RR = 1.005; 95% CI 0.998, 1.013). There was a borderline association between PM10-2.5 and cardiovascular hospital visits (RR = 1.007; 95% CI 0.997, 1.016), which disappeared after controlling for PM2.5 (RR = 1.000; 95% CI 0.988, 1.013). The associations appeared to be stronger in the cold season and among the elderly (≥ 75 years). The findings of this study suggested significant adverse effects of PM2.5, but no independent effects of PM10-2.5 on cardiovascular hospital visits. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Propriedades de Superfície
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