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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(11): e14203, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of controlled clinical trial data based on research with Indigenous peoples. A lack of data specific to Indigenous peoples means that new therapeutic methods, such as those involving electronic health (eHealth), will be extrapolated to these groups based on research with other populations. Rigorous, ethical research can be undertaken in collaboration with Indigenous communities but requires careful attention to culturally safe research practices. Literature on how to involve Indigenous peoples in the development and evaluation of eHealth or mobile health apps that responds to the needs of Indigenous patients, providers, and communities is still scarce; however, the need for community-based participatory research to develop culturally safe technologies is emerging as an essential focus in Indigenous eHealth research. To be effective, researchers must first gain an in-depth understanding of Indigenous determinants of health, including the harmful consequences of colonialism. Second, researchers need to learn how colonialism affects the research process. The challenge then for eHealth researchers is to braid Indigenous ethical values with the requirements of good research methodologies into a culturally safe research protocol. OBJECTIVE: A recent systematic review showed that Indigenous peoples are underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), primarily due to a lack of attention to providing space for Indigenous perspectives within the study frameworks of RCTs. Given the lack of guidelines for conducting RCTs with Indigenous communities, we conducted an analysis of our large evaluation data set collected in the Diagnosing Hypertension-Engaging Action and Management in Getting Lower Blood Pressure in Indigenous Peoples and Low- and Middle- Income Countries (DREAM-GLOBAL) trial over a period of five years. Our goal is to identify wise practices for culturally safe, collaborative eHealth and RCT research with Indigenous communities. METHODS: We thematically analyzed survey responses and qualitative interview/focus group data that we collected over five years in six culturally diverse Indigenous communities in Canada during the evaluation of the clinical trial DREAM-GLOBAL. We established themes that reflect culturally safe approaches to research and then developed wise practices for culturally safe research in pragmatic eHealth research. RESULTS: Based on our analysis, successful eHealth research in collaboration with Indigenous communities requires a focus on cultural safety that includes: (1) building a respectful relationship; (2) maintaining a respectful relationship; (3) good communication and support for the local team during the RCT; (4) commitment to co-designing the innovation; (5) supporting task shifting with the local team; and (6) reflecting on our mistakes and lessons learned or areas for improvement that support learning and cultural safety. CONCLUSIONS: Based on evaluation data collected in the DREAM-GLOBAL RCT, we found that there are important cultural safety considerations in Indigenous eHealth research. Building on the perspectives of Indigenous staff and patients, we gleaned wise practices for RCTs in Indigenous communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02111226; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02111226.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 70% of all cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and many of these cancer deaths are preventable. In high-income countries (HICs), patient navigation strategies have been successfully implemented to facilitate the patient's journey at multiple points along the cancer care continuum. The purpose of this scoping review is to understand and describe the scope of patient navigation interventions and services employed in LMICs. METHODS: A systematic search of published articles was conducted including Medline, Biosis, Embase, Global Health, and Web of Science. Articles were examined for evidence of patient navigation interventions used in cancer care in LMICs. Evidence was synthesized by navigation service provided and by type of outcome. RESULTS: Fourteen studies reported on patient navigation interventions in cancer care in low-income and middle-income countries in Asia, South America, and Africa. Most studies reported on women's cancers and included navigation interventions at most points along the cancer care continuum i.e. awareness, education, screening participation, adherence to treatment and surveillance protocols. CONCLUSION: Few studies report on cancer patient navigation in LMICs. With the use of an implementation science framework, patient navigation research can explore a broader range of outcomes to better evaluate its potential role in improving cancer control in LMICs.

4.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 378, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of kidney diseases is reported to be higher in lower- and middle-income countries as compared to developed countries, and countries in sub-Saharan Africa are reported to be most affected. Health systems in most sub-Sahara African countries have limited capacity in the form of trained and skilled health care providers, diagnostic support, equipment and policies to provide nephrology services. Several initiatives have been implemented to support establishment of these services. METHODS: This is a situation analysis to examine the nephrology services in Tanzania. It was conducted by interviewing key personnel in institutions providing nephrology services aiming at describing available services and international collaborators supporting nephrology services. RESULTS: Tanzania is a low-income country in Sub-Saharan Africa with a population of more than 55 million that has seen remarkable improvement in the provision of nephrology services and these include increase in the number of nephrologists to 14 in 2018 from one in 2006, increase in number of dialysis units from one unit (0.03 unit per million) before 2007 to 28 units (0.5 units per million) in 2018 and improved diagnostic services with introduction of nephropathology services. Government of Tanzania has been providing kidney transplantation services by funding referral of donor and recipients abroad and has now introduced local transplantation services in two hospitals. There have been strong international collaborators who have supported nephrology services and establishment of nephrology training in Tanzania. CONCLUSION: Tanzania has seen remarkable achievement in provision of nephrology services and provides an interesting model to be used in supporting nephrology services in low income countries.

5.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no previous study has prospectively documented the incidence of common diseases and related mortality in high-income countries (HICs), middle-income countries (MICs), and low-income countries (LICs) with standardised approaches. Such information is key to developing global and context-specific health strategies. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to evaluate differences in the incidence of common diseases, related hospital admissions, and related mortality in a large contemporary cohort of adults from 21 HICs, MICs, and LICs across five continents by use of standardised approaches. METHODS: The PURE study is a prospective, population-based cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years who have been enrolled from 21 countries across five continents. The key outcomes were the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases, cancers, injuries, respiratory diseases, and hospital admissions, and we calculated the age-standardised and sex-standardised incidence of these events per 1000 person-years. FINDINGS: This analysis assesses the incidence of events in 162 534 participants who were enrolled in the first two phases of the PURE core study, between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, and who were assessed for a median of 9·5 years (IQR 8·5-10·9). During follow-up, 11 307 (7·0%) participants died, 9329 (5·7%) participants had cardiovascular disease, 5151 (3·2%) participants had a cancer, 4386 (2·7%) participants had injuries requiring hospital admission, 2911 (1·8%) participants had pneumonia, and 1830 (1·1%) participants had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cardiovascular disease occurred more often in LICs (7·1 cases per 1000 person-years) and in MICs (6·8 cases per 1000 person-years) than in HICs (4·3 cases per 1000 person-years). However, incident cancers, injuries, COPD, and pneumonia were most common in HICs and least common in LICs. Overall mortality rates in LICs (13·3 deaths per 1000 person-years) were double those in MICs (6·9 deaths per 1000 person-years) and four times higher than in HICs (3·4 deaths per 1000 person-years). This pattern of the highest mortality in LICs and the lowest in HICs was observed for all causes of death except cancer, where mortality was similar across country income levels. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of deaths overall (40%) but accounted for only 23% of deaths in HICs (vs 41% in MICs and 43% in LICs), despite more cardiovascular disease risk factors (as judged by INTERHEART risk scores) in HICs and the fewest such risk factors in LICs. The ratio of deaths from cardiovascular disease to those from cancer was 0·4 in HICs, 1·3 in MICs, and 3·0 in LICs, and four upper-MICs (Argentina, Chile, Turkey, and Poland) showed ratios similar to the HICs. Rates of first hospital admission and cardiovascular disease medication use were lowest in LICs and highest in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Among adults aged 35-70 years, cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality globally. However, in HICs and some upper-MICs, deaths from cancer are now more common than those from cardiovascular disease, indicating a transition in the predominant causes of deaths in middle-age. As cardiovascular disease decreases in many countries, mortality from cancer will probably become the leading cause of death. The high mortality in poorer countries is not related to risk factors, but it might be related to poorer access to health care. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

6.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global estimates of the effect of common modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality are largely based on data from separate studies, using different methodologies. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study overcomes these limitations by using similar methods to prospectively measure the effect of modifiable risk factors on cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries (spanning five continents) grouped by different economic levels. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective cohort study, we examined associations for 14 potentially modifiable risk factors with mortality and cardiovascular disease in 155 722 participants without a prior history of cardiovascular disease from 21 high-income, middle-income, or low-income countries (HICs, MICs, or LICs). The primary outcomes for this paper were composites of cardiovascular disease events (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) and mortality. We describe the prevalence, hazard ratios (HRs), and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with a cluster of behavioural factors (ie, tobacco use, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and sodium intake), metabolic factors (ie, lipids, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity), socioeconomic and psychosocial factors (ie, education, symptoms of depression), grip strength, and household and ambient pollution. Associations between risk factors and the outcomes were established using multivariable Cox frailty models and using PAFs for the entire cohort, and also by countries grouped by income level. Associations are presented as HRs and PAFs with 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2016, 155 722 participants were enrolled and followed up for measurement of risk factors. 17 249 (11·1%) participants were from HICs, 102 680 (65·9%) were from MICs, and 35 793 (23·0%) from LICs. Approximately 70% of cardiovascular disease cases and deaths in the overall study population were attributed to modifiable risk factors. Metabolic factors were the predominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (41·2% of the PAF), with hypertension being the largest (22·3% of the PAF). As a cluster, behavioural risk factors contributed most to deaths (26·3% of the PAF), although the single largest risk factor was a low education level (12·5% of the PAF). Ambient air pollution was associated with 13·9% of the PAF for cardiovascular disease, although different statistical methods were used for this analysis. In MICs and LICs, household air pollution, poor diet, low education, and low grip strength had stronger effects on cardiovascular disease or mortality than in HICs. INTERPRETATION: Most cardiovascular disease cases and deaths can be attributed to a small number of common, modifiable risk factors. While some factors have extensive global effects (eg, hypertension and education), others (eg, household air pollution and poor diet) vary by a country's economic level. Health policies should focus on risk factors that have the greatest effects on averting cardiovascular disease and death globally, with additional emphasis on risk factors of greatest importance in specific groups of countries. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

7.
Clin Nephrol ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426908

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is currently an important public health problem with high morbidity and mortality especially in low- and middle-income countries. In these low-resource settings, prevention of death from severe AKI involves well-coordinated intensive care services, which are often absent or expensive. Provision of cost-effective interventions that are widely available and accessible to everyone is important. Acute peritoneal dialysis (PD), which is technically more economical than hemodialysis, could potentially become a cost-effective solution in the management of severe AKI. An acute PD project in Moshi, Tanzania, was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of PD using a comparison between subsidized and privately procured resources. The average cost per AKI course of treatment with PD when subsidized was USD 420, while if the same treatment was privately procured it was USD 788. Using a WHO guideline that categorizes interventions costing less than once the national annual GDP per capital as highly cost-effective, the Moshi PD project was found to be an appropriate example because the intervention cost (USD 788) was lower than the GDP per capita of Tanzania (USD 879 in 2012). If more countries develop similar programs in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly for children, this would allow for increased opportunity for economies of scale in the supply of consumables and could lower costs over the long term. Ministries of health in low-resource settings should consider developing programs for provision of acute PD to achieve equitable, cost-effective, and sustainable programs for treatment of AKI and subsidies to increase access to lower-income patients.
.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 953, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is increasingly recognized as an important component of effective implementation research and yet, there has been surprisingly little work to understand what constitutes best practice. Researchers use different methodologies describing causal pathways and understanding barriers and facilitators to implementation of interventions in diverse contexts and settings. We report on challenges and lessons learned from undertaking process evaluation of seven hypertension intervention trials funded through the Global Alliance of Chronic Diseases (GACD). METHODS: Preliminary data collected from the GACD hypertension teams in 2015 were used to inform a template for data collection. Case study themes included: (1) description of the intervention, (2) objectives of the process evaluation, (3) methods including theoretical basis, (4) main findings of the study and the process evaluation, (5) implications for the project, policy and research practice and (6) lessons for future process evaluations. The information was summarized and reported descriptively and narratively and key lessons were identified. RESULTS: The case studies were from low- and middle-income countries and Indigenous communities in Canada. They were implementation research projects with intervention arm. Six theoretical approaches were used but most comprised of mixed-methods approaches. Each of the process evaluations generated findings on whether interventions were implemented with fidelity, the extent of capacity building, contextual factors and the extent to which relationships between researchers and community impacted on intervention implementation. The most important learning was that although process evaluation is time consuming, it enhances understanding of factors affecting implementation of complex interventions. The research highlighted the need to initiate process evaluations early on in the project, to help guide design of the intervention; and the importance of effective communication between researchers responsible for trial implementation, process evaluation and outcome evaluation. CONCLUSION: This research demonstrates the important role of process evaluation in understanding implementation process of complex interventions. This can help to highlight a broad range of system requirements such as new policies and capacity building to support implementation. Process evaluation is crucial in understanding contextual factors that may impact intervention implementation which is important in considering whether or not the intervention can be translated to other contexts.


Assuntos
Ciência da Implementação , Avaliação de Processos (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Adulto , Canadá , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Environ. health perspect ; 127(5): 057003-1-057003-10, May. 2019. gráfico, tabela, imagem
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1023027

RESUMO

Approximately 2.5 billion individuals globally are exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels such as coal, wood, dung, or crop residues (Smith et al. 2014). Concentrations of air pollutants, especially fine particulate matter [PM≤2:5 lminaerodynamicdiameterðPM2:5)], can be several orders of magnitude higher in homes cooking with solid fuels compared with those using clean fuels such as electricity or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (Clark et al. 2013; Shupler et al. 2018). PM2:5 in outdoor air has been linked to mortality, Address correspondence to Perry Hystad, School of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Milam Hall 10, 2520 SW Campus Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA. Telephone: (541) 737-4829. Email: Perry. hystad@oregonstate.edu SupplementalMaterialisavailableonline(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3915). The authors declared hey have no actual or potential competing financial interests. Received 16 May 2018; Revised 16 April 2019; Accepted 16 April 2019; Published 8 May 2019. Note to readers with disabilities: EHP strives to ensure that all journal content is accessible to all readers. However, some figures and Supplemental Material published in EHP articles may not conform to 508 standards due to the complexity of the information being presented. If you need assistance accessing journal content, please contact ehponline@niehs.nih.gov. Our staff will work with you to assess and meet your accessibility needs within 3 working days.is chemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and respiratory diseases (Kim et al. 2015). Despite the large population exposed and the potential for adverse health effects, few prospective cohort studies have examined the health effects of HAP. Only four studies have examined HAP and mortality and reached contradictory conclusions (Alam et al. 2012; Kim et al. 2016; Mitter et al. 2016; Yu et al. 2018). Further, studies have not examined HAP and fatal as well as nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. There is growing evidence of the adverse effects of HAP on respiratory diseases and lung cancer; however, most studies are cross sectional or case control in design, with relatively small sample sizes and limited geographic coverage (Gordon et al. 2014). To date, few prospective studies have examined HAP exposures and respiratory events in adults, and the existing studies have reported contradictory findings (Chanetal.2019; Ezzati and Kammen 2001; Mitter et al. 2016). Given the absence of direct epidemiological data, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study estimated the potential impact of HAP on health using exposure response relationships that pooled data from studies on outdoor air pollution, secondhand smoke, and active smoking (Burnett et al. 2014). These predictions indicated that 1.6 million deaths were attributable to HAP exposure in 2017, of which 39% were from IHD and stroke and 55% from respiratory outcomes [>90% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI)] (GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators 2018). Given the lack of direct epidemiological evidence and this large predicted burden, there is an urgent need to directly characterize the health effects associated with HAP. Within the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we conducted an analysis of 91,350 adults from 467 urban and rural communities in 11 low to middle-income countries (LMICs) where solid fuels are commonly used for cooking. We examined associations between cooking with solid fuels as a proxy indicator of HAP exposure and cause specific mortality, incident cases of CVD [ CVD death and incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF)] and incident cases of respiratory disease [respiratory death, nonfatal COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, or lung cancer].We estimated associations between solid fuel use for cooking and these outcomes, controlling for extensive individual, household, and community covariates. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Combustíveis Fósseis
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57003, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use for cooking affects 2.5 billion individuals globally and may contribute substantially to disease burden. However, few prospective studies have assessed the impact of HAP on mortality and cardiorespiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate associations between HAP and mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and respiratory disease in the prospective urban and rural epidemiology (PURE) study. METHODS: We studied 91,350 adults 35­70 y of age from 467 urban and rural communities in 11 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). After a median follow-up period of 9.1 y, we recorded 6,595 deaths, 5,472 incident cases of CVD (CVD death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure), and 2,436 incident cases of respiratory disease (respiratory death or nonfatal chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, or lung cancer). We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for individual, household, and community-level characteristics to compare events for individuals living in households that used solid fuels for cooking to those using electricity or gas. RESULTS: We found that 41.8% of participants lived in households using solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel. Compared with electricity or gas, solid fuel use was associated with fully adjusted hazard ratios of 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.21) for all-cause mortality, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.17) for fatal or nonfatal CVD, 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.30) for fatal or nonfatal respiratory disease, and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.19) for mortality from any cause or the first incidence of a nonfatal cardiorespiratory outcome. Associations persisted in extensive sensitivity analyses, but small differences were observed across study regions and across individual and household characteristics. DISCUSSION: Use of solid fuels for cooking is a risk factor for mortality and cardiorespiratory disease. Continued efforts to replace solid fuels with cleaner alternatives are needed to reduce premature mortality and morbidity in developing countries. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3915.

11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(6): e748-e760, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease incidence and outcomes, including mortality. However, it is unclear whether the associations between cardiovascular disease and common measures of socioeconomic status-wealth and education-differ among high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries, and, if so, why these differences exist. We explored the association between education and household wealth and cardiovascular disease and mortality to assess which marker is the stronger predictor of outcomes, and examined whether any differences in cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status parallel differences in risk factor levels or differences in management. METHODS: In this large-scale prospective cohort study, we recruited adults aged between 35 years and 70 years from 367 urban and 302 rural communities in 20 countries. We collected data on families and households in two questionnaires, and data on cardiovascular risk factors in a third questionnaire, which was supplemented with physical examination. We assessed socioeconomic status using education and a household wealth index. Education was categorised as no or primary school education only, secondary school education, or higher education, defined as completion of trade school, college, or university. Household wealth, calculated at the household level and with household data, was defined by an index on the basis of ownership of assets and housing characteristics. Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (a composite of cardiovascular deaths, strokes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Information on specific events was obtained from participants or their family. FINDINGS: Recruitment to the study began on Jan 12, 2001, with most participants enrolled between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2014. 160 299 (87·9%) of 182 375 participants with baseline data had available follow-up event data and were eligible for inclusion. After exclusion of 6130 (3·8%) participants without complete baseline or follow-up data, 154 169 individuals remained for analysis, from five low-income, 11 middle-income, and four high-income countries. Participants were followed-up for a mean of 7·5 years. Major cardiovascular events were more common among those with low levels of education in all types of country studied, but much more so in low-income countries. After adjustment for wealth and other factors, the HR (low level of education vs high level of education) was 1·23 (95% CI 0·96-1·58) for high-income countries, 1·59 (1·42-1·78) in middle-income countries, and 2·23 (1·79-2·77) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). We observed similar results for all-cause mortality, with HRs of 1·50 (1·14-1·98) for high-income countries, 1·80 (1·58-2·06) in middle-income countries, and 2·76 (2·29-3·31) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). By contrast, we found no or weak associations between wealth and these two outcomes. Differences in outcomes between educational groups were not explained by differences in risk factors, which decreased as the level of education increased in high-income countries, but increased as the level of education increased in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). Medical care (eg, management of hypertension, diabetes, and secondary prevention) seemed to play an important part in adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes because such care is likely to be poorer in people with the lowest levels of education compared to those with higher levels of education in low-income countries; however, we observed less marked differences in care based on level of education in middle-income countries and no or minor differences in high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Although people with a lower level of education in low-income and middle-income countries have higher incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, they have better overall risk factor profiles. However, these individuals have markedly poorer health care. Policies to reduce health inequities globally must include strategies to overcome barriers to care, especially for those with lower levels of education. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

12.
BMJ ; 364: l772, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN: International prospective cohort study. SETTING: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. PARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
14.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517670

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the association of estimated total daily sleep duration and daytime nap duration with deaths and major cardiovascular events. Methods and results: We estimated the durations of total daily sleep and daytime naps based on the amount of time in bed and self-reported napping time and examined the associations between them and the composite outcome of deaths and major cardiovascular events in 116 632 participants from seven regions. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, we recorded 4381 deaths and 4365 major cardiovascular events. It showed both shorter (≤6 h/day) and longer (>8 h/day) estimated total sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome when adjusted for age and sex. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and health status, a J-shaped association was observed. Compared with sleeping 6-8 h/day, those who slept ≤6 h/day had a non-significant trend for increased risk of the composite outcome [hazard ratio (HR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.20]. As estimated sleep duration increased, we also noticed a significant trend for a greater risk of the composite outcome [HR of 1.05 (0.99-1.12), 1.17 (1.09-1.25), and 1.41 (1.30-1.53) for 8-9 h/day, 9-10 h/day, and >10 h/day, Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively]. The results were similar for each of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Daytime nap duration was associated with an increased risk of the composite events in those with over 6 h of nocturnal sleep duration, but not in shorter nocturnal sleepers (≤6 h). Conclusion: Estimated total sleep duration of 6-8 h per day is associated with the lowest risk of deaths and major cardiovascular events. Daytime napping is associated with increased risks of major cardiovascular events and deaths in those with >6 h of nighttime sleep but not in those sleeping ≤6 h/night.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474909

RESUMO

Hypertension, the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, affects more than 1 billion people globally. The rise in mobile health in particular the use of mobile phones and short message service (SMS) to support disease management provides an opportunity to improve hypertension awareness, treatment, and control, in remote and vulnerable patient populations. The primary objective of this randomized controlled study was to assess the effect of active (with hypertension specific management SMS) or passive (health behaviors SMS alone) on the difference in blood pressure (BP) reduction between the active and passive SMS groups in hypertensive Canadian First Nations people from six rural and remote communities. Pragmatic features of the study included shifting of BP measures to non-medical health workers. Despite an overall reduction in BP over the study, there was no difference in the BP change between groups from baseline to final for systolic 0.8 (95% CI -4.2 to 5.8 mm Hg) or diastolic -1.0 (95% CI -3.7 to 1.8 mm Hg, P = 0.5) BP. Achieved BP control was 37.5% (25.6%-49.4%, 95% CI) in the active group and 32.8% (20.6%-44.8%, 95% CI) in the passive group (difference in proportions -4.74% (-21.7% to 12.2%, 95% CI, P = 0.6). The study looked at changes in health services delivery, mobile health technologies, and patient engagement to support better management of hypertension in Canadian First Nations communities. The active hypertension specific SMS did not lead to improvements in BP control.

16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(Suppl 3): e001092, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483414

RESUMO

Task-shifting to non-physician health workers (NPHWs) has been an effective model for managing infectious diseases and improving maternal and child health. There is inadequate evidence to show the effectiveness of NPHWs to manage cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In 2012, the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases funded eight studies which focused on task-shifting to NPHWs for the management of hypertension. We report the lessons learnt from the field. From each of the studies, we obtained information on the types of tasks shifted, the professional level from which the task was shifted, the training provided and the challenges faced. Additionally, we collected more granular data on 'lessons learnt ' throughout the implementation process and 'design to implementation' changes that emerged in each project. The tasks shifted to NPHWs included screening of individuals, referral to physicians for diagnosis and management, patient education for lifestyle improvement, follow-up and reminders for medication adherence and appointments. In four studies, tasks were shifted from physicians to NPHWs and in four studies tasks were shared between two different levels of NPHWs. Training programmes ranged between 3 and 7 days with regular refresher training. Two studies used clinical decision support tools and mobile health components. Challenges faced included system level barriers such as inability to prescribe medicines, varying skill sets of NPHWs, high workload and staff turnover. With the acute shortage of the health workforce in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), achieving better health outcomes for the prevention and control of CVD is a major challenge. Task-shifting or sharing provides a practical model for the management of CVD in LMICs.

17.
Am Heart J ; 206: 72-79, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), but at increased CVD risk, a 50% to 60% reduction in CVD risk could be achieved using fixed dose combination (FDC) therapy (usually comprised of multiple blood-pressure agents and a statin [with or without aspirin]) in a single "polypill". However, the impact of a polypill in preventing clinical CV events has not been evaluated in a large randomized controlled trial. METHODS: TIPS-3 is a 2x2x2 factorial randomized controlled trial that will examine the effect of a FDC polypill on major CV outcomes in a primary prevention population. This study aims to determine whether the Polycap (comprised of atenolol, ramipril, hydrochlorothiazide, and a statin) reduces CV events in persons without a history of CVD, but who are at least at intermediate CVD risk. Additional interventions in the factorial design of the study will compare the effect of (1) aspirin versus placebo on CV events (and cancer), (2) vitamin D versus placebo on the risk of fractures, and (3) the combined effect of aspirin and the Polycap on CV events. RESULTS: The study has randomized 5713 participants across 9 countries. Mean age of the study population is 63.9 years, and 53% are female. Mean INTERHEART risk score is 16.8, which is consistent with a study population at intermediate CVD risk. CONCLUSION: Results of the TIP-3 study will be key to determining the appropriateness of FDC therapy as a strategy in the global prevention of CVD.

18.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2018(10): omy070, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302262

RESUMO

Bee sting has been identified as among causative agents of nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis which may lead to acute kidney injury. Bee envenomation has medicinal properties but when a higher dose is inoculated may cause severe anaphylaxis with very poor prognosis. We report a 12-year-old boy with acute kidney injury following multiple bee stings who recovered well after hemodialysis.

19.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 5: 2054358118799689, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245841

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease is more prevalent among First Nations people than in non-First Nations people. Emerging research suggests that First Nations people are subject to greater disease burden than non-First Nations people. Objective: We aimed to identify the severity of chronic kidney disease and quantify the geographical challenges of obtaining kidney care by Saskatchewan's First Nations people. Design: This study is a retrospective analysis of the provincial electronic medical record clinical database from January 2012 to December 2013. Setting: The setting involved patients followed by the Saskatchewan provincial chronic kidney care program, run out of two clinics, one in Regina, SK, and one in Saskatoon, SK. Patients: The patients included 2478 individuals (379 First Nations and 2099 non-First Nations) who were older than 18 years old, resident in Saskatchewan, and followed by the provincial chronic kidney care program. First Nations individuals were identified by their Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) Number. Measurements: The demographics, prevalence, cause of end-stage renal disease, severity of chronic kidney disease, use of home-based therapies, and distance traveled for care among patients are reported. Methods: Data were extracted from the clinical database used for direct patient care (the provincial electronic medical record database for the chronic kidney care program), which is prospectively managed by the health care staff. Actual distance traveled by road for each patient was estimated by a Geographic Information System Analyst in the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch of Health Canada. Results: Compared with non-First Nations, First Nations demonstrate a higher proportion of end-stage renal disease (First Nations = 33.0% vs non-First Nations = 21.4%, P < .001), earlier onset of chronic kidney disease (MFN = 56.4 years, SD = 15.1; MNFN = 70.6 years, SD = 14.7, P < .001), and higher rates of end-stage renal disease secondary to type 2 diabetes (First Nations = 66.1% vs non-First Nations = 39.0%, P < .001). First Nations people are also more likely to be on dialysis (First Nations = 69.7% vs non-First Nations = 40.2%, P < .001), use home-based therapies less frequently (First Nations = 16.2% vs non-First Nations = 25.7%; P = 003), and must travel farther for treatment (P < .001), with First Nations being more likely than non-First Nations to have to travel greater than 200 km. Limitations: Patients who are followed by their primary care provider or solely through their nephrologist's office for their chronic kidney disease would not be included in this study. Patients who self-identify as Aboriginal or Indigenous without an INAC number would not be captured in the First Nations cohort. Conclusions: In Saskatchewan, First Nations' burden of chronic kidney disease reveals higher severity, utilization of fewer home-based therapies, and longer travel distances than their non-First Nations counterparts. More research is required to identify innovative solutions within First Nations partnering communities.

20.
Lancet ; 392(10161): 2288-2297, 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary guidelines recommend minimising consumption of whole-fat dairy products, as they are a source of saturated fats and presumed to adversely affect blood lipids and increase cardiovascular disease and mortality. Evidence for this contention is sparse and few data for the effects of dairy consumption on health are available from low-income and middle-income countries. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between total dairy and specific types of dairy products with mortality and major cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large multinational cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years enrolled from 21 countries in five continents. Dietary intakes of dairy products for 136 384 individuals were recorded using country-specific validated food frequency questionnaires. Dairy products comprised milk, yoghurt, and cheese. We further grouped these foods into whole-fat and low-fat dairy. The primary outcome was the composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering of participants by centre. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2003, and July 14, 2018, we recorded 10 567 composite events (deaths [n=6796] or major cardiovascular events [n=5855]) during the 9·1 years of follow-up. Higher intake of total dairy (>2 servings per day compared with no intake) was associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·94; ptrend=0·0004), total mortality (0·83, 0·72-0·96; ptrend=0·0052), non-cardiovascular mortality (0·86, 0·72-1·02; ptrend=0·046), cardiovascular mortality (0·77, 0·58-1·01; ptrend=0·029), major cardiovascular disease (0·78, 0·67-0·90; ptrend=0·0001), and stroke (0·66, 0·53-0·82; ptrend=0·0003). No significant association with myocardial infarction was observed (HR 0·89, 95% CI 0·71-1·11; ptrend=0·163). Higher intake (>1 serving vs no intake) of milk (HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·82-0·99; ptrend=0·0529) and yogurt (0·86, 0·75-0·99; ptrend=0·0051) was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome, whereas cheese intake was not significantly associated with the composite outcome (0·88, 0·76-1·02; ptrend=0·1399). Butter intake was low and was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes (HR 1·09, 95% CI 0·90-1·33; ptrend=0·4113). INTERPRETATION: Dairy consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events in a diverse multinational cohort. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

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