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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2387: 17-28, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643898

RESUMO

Primary isolation of Mycobacterium ulcerans is the separation and growth of the bacterium from a mixed population either in clinical specimen or environmental specimen in pure cultures. It is a crucial activity as it can be used to monitor antimicrobial treatment, surveillance for antimicrobial resistance, and molecular epidemiology studies toward understanding pathogen ecology and transmission as well as pathogen biology. The process involves removal of unwanted fast-growing bacteria using 5% oxalic acid, inoculation on Lowenstein-Jensen medium supplemented with glycerol, and incubation at temperatures between 30 °C and 33 °C.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009744, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543293

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, eleven countries have been validated as having eliminated trachoma as a public health problem, including Ghana in 2018. Surveillance for recrudescence is needed both pre- and post-validation but evidence-based guidance on appropriate strategies is lacking. We explored two potential surveillance strategies in Ghana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amongst randomly-selected communities enrolled in pre-validation on-going surveillance between 2011 and 2015, eight were identified as having had trachomatous-inflammation follicular (TF) prevalence ≥5% in children aged 1-9 years between 2012 and 2014. These eight were re-visited in 2015 and 2016 and neighbouring communities were also added ("TF trigger" investigations). Resident children aged 1-9 years were then examined for trachoma and had a conjunctival swab to test for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and a dried blood spot (DBS) taken to test for anti-Pgp3 antibodies. These investigations identified at least one community with evidence of probable recent Ct ocular transmission. However, the approach likely lacks sufficient spatio-temporal power to be reliable. A post-validation surveillance strategy was also evaluated, this reviewed the ocular Ct infection and anti-Pgp3 seroprevalence data from the TF trigger investigations and from the pre-validation surveillance surveys in 2015 and 2016. Three communities identified as having ocular Ct infection >0% and anti-Pgp3 seroprevalence ≥15.0% were identified, and along with three linked communities, were followed-up as part of the surveillance strategy. An additional three communities with a seroprevalence ≥25.0% but no Ct infection were also followed up ("antibody and infection trigger" investigations). DBS were taken from all residents aged ≥1 year and ocular swabs from all children aged 1-9 years. There was evidence of transmission in the group of communities visited in one district (Zabzugu-Tatale). There was no or little evidence of continued transmission in other districts, suggesting previous infection identified was transient or potentially not true ocular Ct infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is evidence of heterogeneity in Ct transmission dynamics in northern Ghana, even 10 years after wide-scale MDA has stopped. There is added value in monitoring Ct infection and anti-Ct antibodies, using these indicators to interrogate past or present surveillance strategies. This can result in a deeper understanding of transmission dynamics and inform new post-validation surveillance strategies. Opportunities should be explored for integrating PCR and serological-based markers into surveys conducted in trachoma elimination settings.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368069

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), remains a global health problem. West Africa has a unique epidemiology of TB that is characterized by medium- to high-prevalence. Moreover, the geographical restriction of M. africanum to the sub-region makes West Africa have an extra burden to deal with a two-in-one pathogen. The region is also burdened with low case detection, late reporting, poor treatment adherence leading to development of drug resistance and relapse. Sporadic studies conducted within the subregion report higher burden of drug resistant TB (DRTB) than previously thought. The need for more sensitive and robust tools for routine surveillance as well as to understand the mechanisms of DRTB and transmission dynamics for the design of effective control tools, cannot be overemphasized. The advancement in molecular biology tools including traditional fingerprinting and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offer reliable tools for genomic epidemiology. Genomic epidemiology provides in-depth insight of the nature of pathogens, circulating strains and their spread as well as prompt detection of the emergence of new strains. It also offers the opportunity to monitor treatment and evaluate interventions. Furthermore, genomic epidemiology can be used to understand potential emergence and spread of drug resistant strains and resistance mechanisms allowing the design of simple but rapid tools. In this review, we will describe the local epidemiology of MTBC, highlight past and current investigations toward understanding their biology and spread as well as discuss the relevance of genomic epidemiology studies to TB control in West Africa.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437584

RESUMO

Findings from previous comparative genomics studies of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) suggest genomic variation among the genotypes may have phenotypic implications. We investigated the diversity in the phenotypic profiles of the main prevalent MTBC genotypes in West Africa. Thirty-six whole genome sequenced drug susceptible MTBC isolates belonging to lineages 4, 5 and 6 were included in this study. The isolates were phenotypically characterized for urease activity, tween hydrolysis, Thiophen-2-Carboxylic Acid Hydrazide (TCH) susceptibility, nitric oxide production, and growth rate in both liquid (7H9) and solid media (7H11 and Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J)). Lineage 4 isolates showed the highest growth rate in both liquid (p = 0.0003) and on solid (L-J) media supplemented with glycerol (p<0.001) or pyruvate (p = 0.005). L6 isolates optimally utilized pyruvate compared to glycerol (p<0.001), whereas L5 isolates grew similarly on both media (p = 0.05). Lineage 4 isolates showed the lowest average time to positivity (TTP) (p = 0.01; Average TTP: L4 = 15days, L5 = 16.7days, L6 = 29.7days) and the highest logCFU/mL (p = 0.04; average logCFU/mL L4 = 5.9, L5 = 5.0, L6 = 4.4) on 7H11 supplemented with glycerol, but there was no significant difference in growth on 7H11 supplemented with pyruvate (p = 0.23). The highest release of nitrite was recorded for L5 isolates, followed by L4 and L6 isolates. However, the reverse was observed in the urease activity for the lineages. All isolates tested were resistant to TCH except for one L6 isolate. Comparative genomic analyses revealed several mutations that might explain the diverse phenotypic profiles of these isolates. Our findings showed significant phenotypic diversity among the MTBC lineages used for this study.

5.
Microb Genom ; 7(7)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241588

RESUMO

Pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are considered to be monomorphic, with little gene content variation between strains. Nevertheless, several genotypic and phenotypic factors separate strains of the different MTBC lineages (L), especially L5 and L6 (traditionally termed Mycobacterium africanum) strains, from each other. However, this genome variability and gene content, especially of L5 strains, has not been fully explored and may be important for pathobiology and current approaches for genomic analysis of MTBC strains, including transmission studies. By comparing the genomes of 355 L5 clinical strains (including 3 complete genomes and 352 Illumina whole-genome sequenced isolates) to each other and to H37Rv, we identified multiple genes that were differentially present or absent between H37Rv and L5 strains. Additionally, considerable gene content variability was found across L5 strains, including a split in the L5.3 sub-lineage into L5.3.1 and L5.3.2. These gene content differences had a small knock-on effect on transmission cluster estimation, with clustering rates influenced by the selected reference genome, and with potential overestimation of recent transmission when using H37Rv as the reference genome. We conclude that full capture of the gene diversity, especially high-resolution outbreak analysis, requires a variation of the single H37Rv-centric reference genome mapping approach currently used in most whole-genome sequencing data analysis pipelines. Moreover, the high within-lineage gene content variability suggests that the pan-genome of M. tuberculosis is at least several kilobases larger than previously thought, implying that a concatenated or reference-free genome assembly (de novo) approach may be needed for particular questions.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 294-303, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the five administrative regions of Northern Ghana to determine the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) sub/lineages and their susceptibility to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). METHODS: Sputum specimens were collected and cultured from 566 pulmonary tuberculosis patients reporting to 17 health facilities from 2015 to 2019. Mycobacterial isolates obtained from solid cultures were confirmed as members of the MTBC by PCR amplification of IS6110 and rpoß and assigned lineages and sub-lineages using spoligotyping. RESULTS: Of 294 mycobacterial isolates recovered, MTBC species identified were: M. tuberculosis sensu stricto (Mtbss) 241 (82.0%), M. africanum 41 (13.9%) and M. bovis four (1.4%) with eight (2.7%) unidentified. The human-adapted lineages (L) identified (N=279) were L1 (8/279, 2.9%), L2 (15/279, 5.4%), L3 (7/279, 2.5%), L4 (208/279, 74.5%), L5 (13/279, 4.7%) and L6 (28/279, 10.0%) with three unidentified lineages. Among the 208 L4, the dominant sub-lineages in the region were the Cameroon 120/208 (57.7%) and Ghana 50/208 (24.0%). We found 4.4% (13/294) and 0.7% (2/294) of the patients infected with MTBC isolates resistant to INH only and RIF only, respectively, with 2.4% (7/294) being infected with MDR strains. Whereas L6 was associated with the elderly, we identified that the Ghana sub-lineage of L4 was associated with both INH and MDR (p<0.05), making them important TB pathogens in Northern Ghana and a growing public health concern.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Idoso , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 658824, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967998

RESUMO

Both Streptococcus agalactiae [group B streptococcus (GBS)] and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remain significant pathogens as they cause life threatening infections mostly in children and the elderly. The control of diseases caused by these pathogens is dependent on antibiotics use and appropriate vaccination. The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against some serotypes has led to reduction in pneumococcal infections, however, the subsequent serotype switching, and replacement has been a serious challenge. On the other hand, no vaccine is yet licensed for use in the control of GBS diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the history and global disease burden, disease pathophysiology and management, vaccines update, and the biology of both pathogens. Furthermore, we address recent findings regarding structural similarities that could be explored for vaccine targets across both mucosal pathogens. Finally, we conclude by proposing future genomic sequence comparison using the wealth of available sequences from both species and the possibility of identifying more related structural components that could be exploited for pan-pathogen vaccine development.

9.
F1000Res ; 10: 60, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732436

RESUMO

Background: Lineage 1 (L1) and 3 (L3) are two lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causing tuberculosis (TB) in humans. L1 and L3 are prevalent around the rim of the Indian Ocean, the region that accounts for most of the world's new TB cases. Despite their relevance for this region, L1 and L3 remain understudied. Methods: We analyzed 2,938 L1 and 2,030 L3 whole genome sequences originating from 69 countries. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of these two lineages and identified genes under positive selection. Results: We found a strongly asymmetric pattern of migration from South Asia toward neighboring regions, highlighting the historical role of South Asia in the dispersion of L1 and L3. Moreover, we found that several genes were under positive selection, including genes involved in virulence and resistance to antibiotics . For L1 we identified signatures of local adaptation at the esxH locus, a gene coding for a secreted effector that targets the human endosomal sorting complex, and is included in several vaccine candidates. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of genetic diversity in the MTBC, and sheds new light on two of the most important MTBC lineages affecting humans.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Genótipo , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética
10.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(1): 60-65, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707373

RESUMO

Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU is an endemic disease in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa where population have long history of using medicinal plants for treatment. Indeed, several medicinal plants have been documented against BU and related conditions. The present study was undertaken to prove the efficacy of seven medicinal plants documented for the treatment of mycobacterial infections and related symptoms in Ghana. Method: Antimycobacterial activity of the stem bark extracts and reference control drugs were conducted using the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) assay method in clear round bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The extracts that showed anti-mycobacterium ulcerans activity were assessed for cytotoxicity using the Alamar blue assay. Results: Overall, The Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root aqueous extract exhibited the highest antimycobacterial activity (MIC=64 µg/mL) followed by Cleistopholis patens (MIC=256 µg/mL). Based on the marked activity of the Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extracts, pure cryptolepine, its major metabolite recorded a MIC value of 32 µg/mL. These extracts with considerable antimycobacterial activity showed 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) ranging from 94 to 384 µg/mL. Conclusions: Thus, Cleistopholis patens and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta are primed for further studies and could afford novel drugs for the mitigation of buruli ulcer disease.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Úlcera de Buruli , Mycobacterium ulcerans , Plantas Medicinais , Úlcera de Buruli/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 13-22, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the cause of recurring tuberculosis (rcTB) among participants with pulmonary TB recruited from a prospective population-based study conducted between July 2012 and December 2015. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates obtained from rcTB cases were characterized by standard mycobacterial genotyping tools, whole-genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis carried out to assess strain relatedness. RESULTS: The majority (58.3%, 21/36) of study participants with rcTB episodes had TB recurrence within 12 months post treatment. TB strains with isoniazid (INH) resistance were found in 19.4% (7/36) of participants at the primary episode, of which 29% (2/7) were also rifampicin-resistant. On TB recurrence, an INH-resistant strain was found in a larger proportion of participants, 27.8% (10/36), of which 40% (4/10) were MDR-TB strains. rcTB was attributed to relapse (same strain) in 75.0% (27/36) of participants and 25.0% (9/36) to re-infection. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that previous unresolved infectiondue to inadequate treatment, may be the major cause of rcTB.


Assuntos
Genômica , Habitação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Filogenia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713812

RESUMO

Despite slow reductions in the annual burden of active human tuberculosis (TB) cases, zoonotic TB (zTB) remains a poorly monitored and an important unaddressed global problem. There is a higher incidence in some regions and countries, especially where close association exists between growing numbers of cattle (the major source of Mycobacterium bovis) and people, many suffering from poverty, and where dairy products are consumed unpasteurised. More attention needs to be focused on possible increased zTB incidence resulting from growth in dairy production globally and increased demand in low income countries in particular. Evidence of new zoonotic mycobacterial strains in South Asia and Africa (e.g. M. orygis), warrants urgent assessment of prevalence, potential drivers and risk in order to develop appropriate interventions. Control of M. bovis infection in cattle through detect and cull policies remain the mainstay of reducing zTB risk, whilst in certain circumstances animal vaccination is proving beneficial. New point of care diagnostics will help to detect animal infections and human cases. Given the high burden of human tuberculosis (caused by M. tuberculosis) in endemic areas, animals are affected by reverse zoonosis, including multi-drug resistant strains. This, may create drug resistant reservoirs of infection in animals. Like COVID-19, zTB is evolving in an ever-changing global landscape.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0238898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730036

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Available molecular epidemiological data from recent studies suggest significant genetic variation between the different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the MTBC lineages might have adapted to different human populations. AIM: This study sought to determine the population structure of clinical MTBC isolates from the Volta Region of Ghana. METHODS: The MTBC isolates obtained from collected sputum samples were identified by PCR detecting of IS6110 and genotyped using spoligotyping. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial isolates were characterized by amplification of the heat shock protein 65 (hsp65) gene and sequencing. The drug susceptibility profiles of the MTBCs determined using GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen (117, 93.6%) out of 125 mycobacterial positive isolates were characterized as members of the MTBC of which M. tuberculosis sensu stricto (MTBss) and M. africanum (MAF) were respectively 94 (80.3%) and 23 (19.7%). In all, 39 distinct spoligotype patterns were obtained; 26 for MTBss and 13 for MAF lineages. Spoligotyping identified 89 (76%) Lineage 4, 16 (13.6%) Lineage 5, 7 (6.0%) Lineage 6, 3 (2.6%) Lineage 2, 1(0.9%) Lineage 3 and 1 (0.9%) Lineage 1. Among the Lineage 4 isolates, 62/89 (69.7%) belonged to Cameroon sub-lineage, 13 (14.7%) Ghana, 8 (9.0%) Haarlem, 2 (2.2%) LAM, 1 (1.1%) Uganda I, 1 (1.1%) X and the remaining two (2.2%) were orphan. Significant localization of MAF was found within the Ho municipality (n = 13, 29.5%) compared to the more cosmopolitan Ketu-South/Aflao (n = 3, 8.3%) (p-value = 0.017). Eight (8) non-tuberculous mycobacteria were characterized as M. abscessus (7) and M. fortuitum (1). CONCLUSION: We confirmed the importance of M. africanum lineages as a cause of TB in the Volta region of Ghana.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium/genética , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757874

RESUMO

In this perspective, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis (TB)/HIV health services and approaches to mitigating the growing burden of these three colliding epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA countries bear significantly high proportions of TB and HIV cases reported worldwide, compared to countries in the West. Whilst COVID-19 epidemiology appears to vary across Africa, most countries in this region have reported relatively lower-case counts compared to the West. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden to already overstretched health systems in SSA, which, among other things, have been focused on the longstanding dual epidemics of TB and HIV. As with these dual epidemics, inadequate resources and poor case identification and reporting may be contributing to underestimations of the COVID-19 case burden in SSA. Modelling studies predict that the pandemic-related disruptions in TB and HIV services will result in significant increases in associated morbidity and mortality over the next five years. Furthermore, limited empirical evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with TB and HIV are associated with increased mortality risk in SSA. However, predictive models require a better evidence-base to accurately define the impact of COVID-19, not only on communicable diseases such as TB and HIV, but on non-communicable disease comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess morbidity and mortality data among both adults and children across the African continent, paying attention to geographic disparities, as well as the clinical and socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 in the setting of TB and/or HIV.

15.
Microb Genom ; 7(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555243

RESUMO

Human tuberculosis (TB) is caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The MTBC comprises several human-adapted lineages known as M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, as well as two lineages (L5 and L6) traditionally referred to as Mycobacterium africanum. Strains of L5 and L6 are largely limited to West Africa for reasons unknown, and little is known of their genomic diversity, phylogeography and evolution. Here, we analysed the genomes of 350 L5 and 320 L6 strains, isolated from patients from 21 African countries, plus 5 related genomes that had not been classified into any of the known MTBC lineages. Our population genomic and phylogeographical analyses showed that the unclassified genomes belonged to a new group that we propose to name MTBC lineage 9 (L9). While the most likely ancestral distribution of L9 was predicted to be East Africa, the most likely ancestral distribution for both L5 and L6 was the Eastern part of West Africa. Moreover, we found important differences between L5 and L6 strains with respect to their phylogeographical substructure and genetic diversity. Finally, we could not confirm the previous association of drug-resistance markers with lineage and sublineages. Instead, our results indicate that the association of drug resistance with lineage is most likely driven by sample bias or geography. In conclusion, our study sheds new light onto the genomic diversity and evolutionary history of M. africanum, and highlights the need to consider the particularities of each MTBC lineage for understanding the ecology and epidemiology of TB in Africa and globally.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , África Oriental , África Ocidental , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia
16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 596944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324602

RESUMO

The World Health Organization defines a zoonosis as any infection naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. The pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been classified as a zoonotic disease, however, no animal reservoir has yet been found, so this classification is premature. We propose that COVID-19 should instead be classified an "emerging infectious disease (EID) of probable animal origin." To explore if COVID-19 infection fits our proposed re-categorization vs. the contemporary definitions of zoonoses, we reviewed current evidence of infection origin and transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 virus and described this in the context of known zoonoses, EIDs and "spill-over" events. Although the initial one hundred COVID-19 patients were presumably exposed to the virus at a seafood Market in China, and despite the fact that 33 of 585 swab samples collected from surfaces and cages in the market tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, no virus was isolated directly from animals and no animal reservoir was detected. Elsewhere, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in animals including domesticated cats, dogs, and ferrets, as well as captive-managed mink, lions, tigers, deer, and mice confirming zooanthroponosis. Other than circumstantial evidence of zoonotic cases in mink farms in the Netherlands, no cases of natural transmission from wild or domesticated animals have been confirmed. More than 40 million human COVID-19 infections reported appear to be exclusively through human-human transmission. SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 do not meet the WHO definition of zoonoses. We suggest SARS-CoV-2 should be re-classified as an EID of probable animal origin.


Assuntos
COVID-19/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , Zoonoses , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/classificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zoonoses/classificação , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028699

RESUMO

Lockdown measures have been introduced worldwide to contain the transmission of COVID-19. However, the term 'lockdown' is not well-defined. Indeed, WHO's reference to 'so-called lockdown measures' indicates the absence of a clear and universally accepted definition of the term 'lockdown'. We propose a definition of 'lockdown' based on a two-by-two matrix that categorises different communicable disease measures based on whether they are compulsory or voluntary; and whether they are targeted at identifiable individuals or facilities, or whether they are applied indiscriminately to a general population or area. Using this definition, we describe the design, timing and implementation of lockdown measures in nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. While there were some commonalities in the implementation of lockdown across these countries, a more notable finding was the variation in the design, timing and implementation of lockdown measures. We also found that the number of reported cases is heavily dependent on the number of tests carried out, and that testing rates ranged from 2031 to 63 928 per million population up until 7 September 2020. The reported number of COVID-19 deaths per million population also varies (0.4 to 250 up until 7 September 2020), but is generally low when compared with countries in Europe and North America. While lockdown measures may have helped inhibit community transmission, the pattern and nature of the epidemic remains unclear. However, there are signs of lockdown harming health by affecting the functioning of the health system and causing social and economic disruption.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África ao Sul do Saara , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649692

RESUMO

Cholera remains a major global public health threat and continuous emergence of new Vibrio cholerae strains is of major concern. We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to detect virulence markers and antimicrobial resistance patterns of V. cholerae isolates obtained from the 2012-2015 cholera outbreaks in Ghana. Archived clinical isolates obtained from the 2012, 2014 and 2015 cholera outbreaks in Ghana were revived by culture and subjected to microscopy, biochemical identification, serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing, molecular detection of distinct virulence factors and Multi-Locus Variable-Number of Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA). Of 277 isolates analysed, 168 (60.6%) were confirmed to be V. cholerae and 109 (39.4%) isolates constituted other bacteria (Escherichia coli, Aeromonas sobria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococci faecalis). Serotyping the V. cholerae isolates identified 151 (89.9%) as Ogawa, 3 (1.8%) as Inaba and 14 (8.3%) as non-O1/O139 serogroup. The O1 serogroup isolates (154/168, 91.7%) carried the cholera toxin ctxB gene as detected by PCR. Additional virulence genes detected include zot, tcpA, ace, rtxC, toxR, rtxA, tcpP, hlyA and tagA. The most common and rare virulence factors detected among the isolates were rtxC (165 isolates) and tcpP (50 isolates) respectively. All isolates from 2014 and 2015 were multidrug resistant against the selected antibiotics. MLVA differentiated the isolates into 2 large unique clones A and B, with each predominating in a particular year. Spatial analysis showed clustering of most isolates at Ablekuma sub-district. Identification of several virulence genes among the two different genotypes of V. cholerae isolates and resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics, calls for scaleup of preventive strategies to reduce transmission, and strengthening of public health laboratories for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide accurate treatment. Our findings support the current WHO licensed cholera vaccines which include both O1 Inaba and Ogawa serotypes.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/microbiologia , Toxina da Cólera/genética , Toxina da Cólera/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Vibrio cholerae/classificação , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509791

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is progressively being used to investigate the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We used WGS analysis to resolve traditional genotype clusters and explored the spatial distribution of confirmed recent transmission clusters. Bacterial genomes from a total of 452 MTBC isolates belonging to large traditional clusters from a population-based study spanning July 2012 and December 2015 were obtained through short read next-generation sequencing using the illumina HiSeq2500 platform. We performed clustering and spatial analysis using specified R packages and ArcGIS. Of the 452 traditional genotype clustered genomes, 314 (69.5%) were confirmed clusters with a median cluster size of 7.5 genomes and an interquartile range of 4-12. Recent tuberculosis (TB) transmission was estimated as 24.7%. We confirmed the wide spread of a Cameroon sub-lineage clone with a cluster size of 78 genomes predominantly from the Ablekuma sub-district of Accra metropolis. More importantly, we identified a recent transmission cluster associated with isoniazid resistance belonging to the Ghana sub-lineage of lineage 4. WGS was useful in detecting unsuspected outbreaks; hence, we recommend its use not only as a research tool but as a surveillance tool to aid in providing the necessary guided steps to track, monitor, and control TB.

20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92S: S46-S50, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114200

RESUMO

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous dwellers of environmental niches and are an established cause of natural and nosocomial infections. The incidence of NTM infections is rising owing to a growing population of immunocompromised and vulnerable individuals, complex medical and surgical procedures, as well as increased awareness and diagnostic capabilities. The prevalence of different NTM varies between continents, regions, and countries. The true global burden of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease is unknown and estimates are subject to under and/or over-estimation. Diagnosis requires confirmation by isolation of NTM along with clinical and radiological criteria, which may be suboptimal at all levels. Susceptibility testing is complex and clinical breakpoints are not available for many of the drugs. Frequently, NTM infections are not considered until late in the course of disease. Improved and rapid detection of tuberculosis cases in high-burden countries has, however, also brought NTM infections into the limelight, and has identified a need for research efforts towards rapid diagnostic tests and the identification of biomarkers to monitor the treatment response in patients with NTM infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
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