Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precision medicine approaches for managing patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are lacking. Non-invasive approaches for molecular monitoring of disease are urgently needed, especially for patients suffering from bone metastases for whom tissue biopsy is challenging. Here we utilized baseline blood samples to identify mCRPC patients most likely to benefit from abiraterone plus prednisone (AAP) or enzalutamide. METHODS: Baseline blood samples were collected for circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration and qPCR-based gene expression analysis from 51 men with mCRPC beginning treatment with abiraterone or enzalutamide. RESULTS: Of 51 patients (median age 68 years [51-82]), 22 received AAP (abiraterone 1000 mg/day plus prednisone 10 mg/day) and 29 received enzalutamide (160 mg/day). The cohort was randomly divided into training (n = 37) and test (n = 14) sets. Baseline clinical variables (Gleason score, PSA, testosterone, and hemoglobin), CTC count, and qPCR-based gene expression data for 141 genes/isoforms in CTC-enriched blood were analyzed with respect to overall survival (OS). Genes with expression most associated with OS included MSLN, ARG2, FGF8, KLK3, ESRP2, NPR3, CCND1, and WNT5A. Using a Cox-elastic net model for our test set, the 8-gene expression signature had a c-index of 0.87 (95% CI [0.80, 0.94]) and was more strongly associated with OS than clinical variables or CTC count alone, or a combination of the three variables. For patients with a low-risk vs. high-risk gene expression signature, median OS was not reached vs. 18 months, respectively (HR 5.32 [1.91-14.80], p = 0.001). For the subset of 41 patients for whom progression-free survival (PFS) data was available, the median PFS for patients with a low-risk vs high-risk gene expression signature was 20 vs. 5 months, respectively (HR 2.95 [1.46-5.98], p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: If validated in a larger prospective study, this test may predict patients most likely to benefit from second-generation antiandrogen therapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067248

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often diagnosed too late for effective therapy. The classic strategy for early detection biomarker advancement consists of initial retrospective phases of discovery and validation with tissue samples taken from individuals diagnosed with disease, compared with controls. Using this approach, we previously reported the discovery of a blood biomarker panel consisting of thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) and CA19-9 that together could discriminate resectable stage I and IIa PDAC as well as stages III and IV PDAC, with c-statistic values in the range of 0.96 to 0.97 in two phase II studies. We now report that in two studies of blood samples prospectively collected from 1 to 15 years prior to a PDAC diagnosis (Mayo Clinic and PLCO cohorts), THBS2 and/or CA19-9 failed to discriminate cases from healthy controls at the AUC = 0.8 needed. We conclude that PDAC progression may be heterogeneous and for some individuals can be more rapid than generally appreciated. It is important that PDAC early-detection studies incorporate high-risk, prospective prediagnostic cohorts into discovery and validation studies. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: A blood biomarker panel of THBS2 and CA19-9 detects early stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma at diagnosis, but not when tested across a population up to 1 year earlier. Our findings suggest serial sampling over time, using prospectively collected samples for biomarker discovery, and more frequent screening of high-risk individuals.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(13): 3248-3258, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether a multianalyte liquid biopsy can improve the detection and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed plasma from 204 subjects (71 healthy, 44 non-PDAC pancreatic disease, and 89 PDAC) for the following biomarkers: tumor-associated extracellular vesicle miRNA and mRNA isolated on a nanomagnetic platform that we developed and measured by next-generation sequencing or qPCR, circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) concentration measured by qPCR, ccfDNA KRAS G12D/V/R mutations detected by droplet digital PCR, and CA19-9 measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. We applied machine learning to training sets and subsequently evaluated model performance in independent, user-blinded test sets. RESULTS: To identify patients with PDAC versus those without, we generated a classification model using a training set of 47 subjects (20 PDAC and 27 noncancer). When applied to a blinded test set (N = 136), the model achieved an AUC of 0.95 and accuracy of 92%, superior to the best individual biomarker, CA19-9 (89%). We next used a cohort of 20 patients with PDAC to train our model for disease staging and applied it to a blinded test set of 25 patients clinically staged by imaging as metastasis-free, including 9 subsequently determined to have had occult metastasis. Our workflow achieved significantly higher accuracy for disease staging (84%) than imaging alone (accuracy = 64%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Algorithmically combining blood-based biomarkers may improve PDAC diagnostic accuracy and preoperative identification of nonmetastatic patients best suited for surgery, although larger validation studies are necessary.

4.
Neurooncol Adv ; 2(1): vdaa016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140683

RESUMO

Background: Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentration is lower in glioblastoma (GBM) compared to other solid tumors, which can lead to low circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection. In this study, we investigated the relationship between multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic features with plasma cfDNA concentration and ctDNA detection in patients with treatment-naive GBM. Methods: We analyzed plasma cfDNA concentration, MRI scans, and tumor histopathology from 42 adult patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of plasma cfDNA concentration before surgery to imaging and histopathologic characteristics. In a subset of patients, imaging and histopathologic metrics were also compared between patients with and without a detected tumor somatic mutation. Results: Tumor volume with elevated (>1.5 times contralateral white matter) rate transfer constant (K ep, a surrogate of blood-brain barrier [BBB] permeability) was independently associated with plasma cfDNA concentration (P = .001). Histopathologic characteristics independently associated with plasma cfDNA concentration included CD68+ macrophage density (P = .01) and size of tumor vessels (P = .01). Patients with higher (grade ≥3) perivascular CD68+ macrophage density had lower volume transfer constant (K trans, P = .01) compared to those with lower perivascular CD68+ macrophage density. Detection of at least 1 somatic mutation in plasma cfDNA was associated with significantly lower perivascular CD68+ macrophages (P = .01). Conclusions: Metrics of BBB disruption and quantity and distribution of tumor-associated macrophages are associated with plasma cfDNA concentration and ctDNA detection in GBM patients. These findings represent an important step in understanding the factors that determine plasma cfDNA concentration and ctDNA detection.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(10): 2354-2361, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102950

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of plasma-based tumor mutation burden (pTMB) in predicting response to pembrolizumab-based first-line standard-of-care therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) has not been explored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 500-gene next-generation sequencing panel was used to assess pTMB. Sixty-six patients with newly diagnosed mNSCLC starting first-line pembrolizumab-based therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, were enrolled (Clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT03047616). Response was assessed using RECIST 1.1. Associations were made for patient characteristics, 6-month durable clinical benefit (DCB), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 66 patients, 52 (78.8%) were pTMB-evaluable. Median pTMB was 16.8 mutations per megabase (mut/Mb; range, 1.9-52.5) and was significantly higher for patients achieving DCB compared with no durable benefit (21.3 mut/Mb vs. 12.4 mut/Mb, P = 0.003). For patients with pTMB ≥ 16 mut/Mb, median PFS was 14.1 versus 4.7 months for patients with pTMB < 16 mut/Mb [HR, 0.30 (0.16-0.60); P < 0.001]. Median OS for patients with pTMB ≥ 16 was not reached versus 8.8 months for patients with pTMB < 16 mut/Mb [HR, 0.48 (0.22-1.03); P = 0.061]. Mutations in ERBB2 exon 20, STK11, KEAP1, or PTEN were more common in patients with no DCB. A combination of pTMB ≥ 16 and absence of negative predictor mutations was associated with PFS [HR, 0.24 (0.11-0.49); P < 0.001] and OS [HR, 0.31 (0.13-0.74); P = 0.009]. CONCLUSIONS: pTMB ≥ 16 mut/Mb is associated with improved PFS after first-line standard-of-care pembrolizumab-based therapy in mNSCLC. STK11/KEAP1/PTEN and ERBB2 mutations may help identify pTMB-high patients unlikely to respond. These results should be validated in larger prospective studies.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 397-407, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666247

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The clinical utility of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has not been assessed prospectively in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We aimed to determine the prognostic impact of plasma cfDNA in GBM, as well as its role as a surrogate of tumor burden and substrate for next-generation sequencing (NGS). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 42 patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Plasma cfDNA was quantified at baseline prior to initial tumor resection and longitudinally during chemoradiotherapy. Plasma cfDNA was assessed for its association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), correlated with radiographic tumor burden, and subjected to a targeted NGS panel. RESULTS: Prior to initial surgery, GBM patients had higher plasma cfDNA concentration than age-matched healthy controls (mean 13.4 vs. 6.7 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma cfDNA concentration was correlated with radiographic tumor burden on patients' first post-radiation magnetic resonance imaging scan (ρ = 0.77, P = 0.003) and tended to rise prior to or concurrently with radiographic tumor progression. Preoperative plasma cfDNA concentration above the mean (>13.4 ng/mL) was associated with inferior PFS (median 4.9 vs. 9.5 months, P = 0.038). Detection of ≥1 somatic mutation in plasma cfDNA occurred in 55% of patients and was associated with nonstatistically significant decreases in PFS (median 6.0 vs. 8.7 months, P = 0.093) and OS (median 5.5 vs. 9.2 months, P = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cfDNA may be an effective prognostic tool and surrogate of tumor burden in newly diagnosed GBM. Detection of somatic alterations in plasma is feasible when samples are obtained prior to initial surgical resection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Glioblastoma/sangue , Glioblastoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
8.
Oncotarget ; 10(38): 3592-3604, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217895

RESUMO

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is metaplasia of the squamous epithelium to a specialized columnar epithelium. BE progresses through low- and high-grade dysplasia before developing into esophageal adenocarcinoma. The BE microenvironment is not well defined. We compare 12 human clinical BE and adjacent normal squamous epithelium biopsies using single cell immunophenotyping by flow cytometry. A cassette of 19 epithelial and immune cell markers was used to detect differences between cellular compartments in normal and BE tissues. We found that the BE microenvironment has an immunological landscape distinct from adjacent normal epithelium. BE has an increased percentage of epithelial cells with a concomitant decrease in the percentage of immune cells, accompanied by a shift in the immune landscape from a predominantly T cell rich microenvironment in normal tissue to a B cell rich landscape in BE tissue. Hierarchical clustering separates BE and normal samples into two discrete groups based upon our 19-marker panel, but also reveals unexpected, shared phenotypes for three patients. Our results suggest that flow based single cell analysis may have the potential for revealing clinically relevant differences between BE and normal adjacent tissue, and that surface immunophenotypes could identify specific subpopulations from dysplastic tissue for further investigation.

9.
Nature ; 567(7747): 249-252, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842658

RESUMO

The liver is the most common site of metastatic disease1. Although this metastatic tropism may reflect the mechanical trapping of circulating tumour cells, liver metastasis is also dependent, at least in part, on the formation of a 'pro-metastatic' niche that supports the spread of tumour cells to the liver2,3. The mechanisms that direct the formation of this niche are poorly understood. Here we show that hepatocytes coordinate myeloid cell accumulation and fibrosis within the liver and, in doing so, increase the susceptibility of the liver to metastatic seeding and outgrowth. During early pancreatic tumorigenesis in mice, hepatocytes show activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling and increased production of serum amyloid A1 and A2 (referred to collectively as SAA). Overexpression of SAA by hepatocytes also occurs in patients with pancreatic and colorectal cancers that have metastasized to the liver, and many patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease show increases in circulating SAA. Activation of STAT3 in hepatocytes and the subsequent production of SAA depend on the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) into the circulation by non-malignant cells. Genetic ablation or blockade of components of IL-6-STAT3-SAA signalling prevents the establishment of a pro-metastatic niche and inhibits liver metastasis. Our data identify an intercellular network underpinned by hepatocytes that forms the basis of a pro-metastatic niche in the liver, and identify new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Fígado/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Feminino , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo
10.
Lung Cancer ; 127: 25-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common complication in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with important staging and prognostic information. Patients with MPEs are often candidates for advanced therapies, however, the current gold standard, cytological analysis of pleural fluid samples, has limited sensitivity. We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of non-invasive enumeration and immunophenotyping of EpCAM-positive cells in pleural fluid samples for the diagnosis of a MPE in NSCLC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pleural fluid specimens were prospectively collected from patients with NSCLC and the CellSearch® technology was utilized for the enumeration of pleural EpCAM-positive cells (PECs) and determination of PD-L1 expression on PECs from pleural fluid samples. The diagnostic performance of the enumeration of single PECs and PEC clusters was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the impact of PECs and PEC clusters on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: 101 NSCLC patients were enrolled. The median number of PECs was significantly greater in the malignant (n = 84) versus non-malignant group (n = 17) (730 PECs/mL vs 1.0 PEC/mL, p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.91. A cutoff value of 105 PECs/mL had a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 100% for the diagnosis of a MPE, respectively. Among 69 patients with a pathology-confirmed MPE and tissue immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, 15 (22%) had greater than 50% PD-L1+ PECs. Overall concordance between tissue and PEC PD-L1 expression was 76%. Higher numbers of pleural effusion single PECs were associated with inferior overall survival (Cox adjusted HR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.02-3.05 p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Non-invasive measurement of PECs in NSCLC patients, using an automated, clinically available approach, may improve the diagnostic accuracy of a MPE, allow for immunophenotyping of PECs, and provide prognostic information.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Cavidade Pleural/parasitologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(2): 173-180, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325992

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical implications of adding plasma-based circulating tumor DNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) to tissue NGS for targetable mutation detection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been formally assessed. Objective: To determine whether plasma NGS testing was associated with improved mutation detection and enhanced delivery of personalized therapy in a real-world clinical setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 323 patients with metastatic NSCLC who had plasma testing ordered as part of routine clinical management. Plasma NGS was performed using a 73-gene commercial platform. Patients were enrolled at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from April 1, 2016, through January 2, 2018. The database was locked for follow-up and analyses on January 2, 2018, with a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 1-21 months). Main Outcomes and Measures: The number of patients with targetable alterations detected with plasma and tissue NGS; the association between the allele fractions (AFs) of mutations detected in tissue and plasma; and the association of response rate with the plasma AF of the targeted mutations. Results: Among the 323 patients with NSCLC (60.1% female; median age, 65 years [range, 33-93 years]), therapeutically targetable mutations were detected in EGFR, ALK, MET, BRCA1, ROS1, RET, ERBB2, or BRAF for 113 (35.0%) overall. Ninety-four patients (29.1%) had plasma testing only at the discretion of the treating physician or patient preference. Among the 94 patients with plasma testing alone, 31 (33.0%) had a therapeutically targetable mutation detected, thus obviating the need for an invasive biopsy. Among the remaining 229 patients who had concurrent plasma and tissue NGS or were unable to have tissue NGS, a therapeutically targetable mutation was detected in tissue alone for 47 patients (20.5%), whereas the addition of plasma testing increased this number to 82 (35.8%). Thirty-six of 42 patients (85.7%) who received a targeted therapy based on the plasma result achieved a complete or a partial response or stable disease. The plasma-based targeted mutation AF had no correlation with depth of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response (r = -0.121; P = .45). Conclusions and Relevance: Integration of plasma NGS testing into the routine management of stage IV NSCLC demonstrates a marked increase of the detection of therapeutically targetable mutations and improved delivery of molecularly guided therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Cytometry A ; 93(12): 1226-1233, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549400

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) carry valuable biological information. While enumeration of CTCs in peripheral blood is an FDA-approved prognostic indicator of survival in metastatic prostate and other cancers, analysis of CTC phenotypic and genomic markers is needed to identify cancer origin and elucidate pathways that can guide therapeutic selection for personalized medicine. Given the emergence of single-cell mRNA sequencing technologies, a method is needed to isolate CTCs with high sensitivity and specificity as well as compatibility with downstream genomic analysis. Flow cytometry is a powerful tool to analyze and sort single cells, but pre-enrichment is required prior to flow sorting for efficient isolation of CTCs due to the extreme low frequency of CTCs in blood (one in billions of blood cells). While current enrichment technologies often require many steps and result in poor recovery, we demonstrate a magnetic separator and acoustic microfluidic focusing chip integrated system that enriches rare cells in-line with FACS™ (fluorescent activated cell sorting) and single-cell sequencing. This system analyzes, isolates, and index sorts single cells directly into 96-well plates containing reagents for Molecular Indexing (MI) and transcriptional profiling of single cells. With an optimized workflow using the integrated enrichment-FACS system, we performed a proof-of-concept experiment with spiked prostate cancer cells in peripheral blood and achieved: (i) a rapid one-step process to isolate rare cancer cells from lysed whole blood; (ii) an average of 92% post-enrichment cancer cell recovery (R2 = 0.9998) as compared with 55% recovery for a traditional benchtop workflow; and (iii) detection of differentially expressed genes at a single cell level that are consistent with reported cell-type dependent expression signatures for prostate cancer cells. These model system results lay the groundwork for applying our approach to human blood samples from prostate and other cancer patients, and support the enrichment-FACS system as a flexible solution for isolation and characterization of CTCs for cancer diagnosis. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Contagem de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular/métodos , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos
13.
Cancer Res ; 78(13): 3688-3697, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735554

RESUMO

Improved diagnostics for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to detect the disease at earlier, curative stages and to guide treatments is crucial to progress against this disease. The development of a liquid biopsy for PDAC has proven challenging due to the sparsity and variable phenotypic expression of circulating biomarkers. Here we report methods we developed for isolating specific subsets of extracellular vesicles (EV) from plasma using a novel magnetic nanopore capture technique. In addition, we present a workflow for identifying EV miRNA biomarkers using RNA sequencing and machine-learning algorithms, which we used in combination to classify distinct cancer states. Applying this approach to a mouse model of PDAC, we identified a biomarker panel of 11 EV miRNAs that could distinguish mice with PDAC from either healthy mice or those with precancerous lesions in a training set of n = 27 mice and a user-blinded validation set of n = 57 mice (88% accuracy in a three-way classification). These results provide strong proof-of-concept support for the feasibility of using EV miRNA profiling and machine learning for liquid biopsy.Significance: These findings present a panel of extracellular vesicle miRNA blood-based biomarkers that can detect pancreatic cancer at a precancerous stage in a transgenic mouse model. Cancer Res; 78(13); 3688-97. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Exossomos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , MicroRNA Circulante/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Nanoporos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5035, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568081

RESUMO

Comprehensive molecular analysis of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell clusters is often hampered by low throughput and purity, as well as cell loss. To address this, we developed a fully integrated platform for flow cytometry-based isolation of CTCs and clusters from blood that can be combined with whole transcriptome analysis or targeted RNA transcript quantification. Downstream molecular signature can be linked to cell phenotype through index sorting. This newly developed platform utilizes in-line magnetic particle-based leukocyte depletion, and acoustic cell focusing and washing to achieve >98% reduction of blood cells and non-cellular debris, along with >1.5 log-fold enrichment of spiked tumor cells. We could also detect 1 spiked-in tumor cell in 1 million WBCs in 4/7 replicates. Importantly, the use of a large 200µm nozzle and low sheath pressure (3.5 psi) minimized shear forces, thereby maintaining cell viability and integrity while allowing for simultaneous recovery of single cells and clusters from blood. As proof of principle, we isolated and transcriptionally characterized 63 single CTCs from a genetically engineered pancreatic cancer mouse model (n = 12 mice) and, using index sorting, were able to identify distinct epithelial and mesenchymal sub-populations based on linked single cell protein and gene expression.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Separação Celular/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos/instrumentação , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos/métodos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Imãs , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética
15.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 31(1): 73-81, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786531

RESUMO

To determine the feasibility of liquid biopsy for monitoring of patients with advanced melanoma, cell-free DNA was extracted from plasma for 25 Stage III/IV patients, most (84.0%) having received previous therapy. DNA concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 390.0 ng/ml (median = 7.8 ng/ml) and were positively correlated with tumor burden as measured by imaging (Spearman rho = 0.5435, p = .0363). Using ultra-deep sequencing for a 61-gene panel, one or more mutations were detected in 12 of 25 samples (48.0%), and this proportion did not vary significantly for patients on or off therapy at the time of blood draw (52.9% and 37.5% respectively; p = .673). Sixteen mutations were detected in eight different genes, with the most frequent mutations detected in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT. Allele fractions ranged from 1.1% to 63.2% (median = 29.1%). Among patients with tissue next-generation sequencing, nine of 11 plasma mutations were also detected in matched tissue, for a concordance of 81.8%.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
16.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11182-11193, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019651

RESUMO

Circulating exosomes contain a wealth of proteomic and genetic information, presenting an enormous opportunity in cancer diagnostics. While microfluidic approaches have been used to successfully isolate cells from complex samples, scaling these approaches for exosome isolation has been limited by the low throughput and susceptibility to clogging of nanofluidics. Moreover, the analysis of exosomal biomarkers is confounded by substantial heterogeneity between patients and within a tumor itself. To address these challenges, we developed a multichannel nanofluidic system to analyze crude clinical samples. Using this platform, we isolated exosomes from healthy and diseased murine and clinical cohorts, profiled the RNA cargo inside of these exosomes, and applied a machine learning algorithm to generate predictive panels that could identify samples derived from heterogeneous cancer-bearing individuals. Using this approach, we classified cancer and precancer mice from healthy controls, as well as pancreatic cancer patients from healthy controls, in blinded studies.


Assuntos
Exossomos/genética , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Proteômica , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Exossomos/patologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética
17.
Lab Chip ; 17(18): 3086-3096, 2017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809985

RESUMO

The use of microtechnology for the highly selective isolation and sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells has shown enormous promise. One challenge for this technology is that the small feature sizes - which are the key to this technology's performance - can result in low sample throughput and susceptibility to clogging. Additionally, conventional molecular analysis of CTCs often requires cells to be taken off-chip for sample preparation and purification before analysis, leading to the loss of rare cells. To address these challenges, we have developed a microchip platform that combines fast, magnetic micropore based negative immunomagnetic selection (>10 mL h-1) with rapid on-chip in situ RNA profiling (>100× faster than conventional RNA labeling). This integrated chip can isolate both rare circulating cells and cell clusters directly from whole blood and allow individual cells to be profiled for multiple RNA cancer biomarkers, achieving sample-to-answer in less than 1 hour for 10 mL of whole blood. To demonstrate the power of this approach, we applied our device to the circulating tumor cell based diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We used a genetically engineered lineage-labeled mouse model of pancreatic cancer (KPCY) to validate the performance of our chip. We show that in a cohort of patient samples (N = 25) that this device can detect and perform in situ RNA analysis on circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer, even in those with extremely sparse CTCs (<1 CTC mL-1 of whole blood).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/química , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1634: 193-202, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819852

RESUMO

The identification of therapeutically targetable mutations in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood is increasingly used to personalize patient care. Here, we describe a novel approach for the enumeration, capture, and molecular analysis of CTCs from blood using an FDA-approved CTC enrichment and enumeration platform followed by dielectrophoretic capture and next-generation sequencing.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Eletroforese/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular/instrumentação , Eletroforese/instrumentação , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/imunologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Desenho de Equipamento , Biblioteca Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/imunologia , Queratinas/metabolismo , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/imunologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Medicina de Precisão , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(23): 5772-5782, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The expanding number of targeted therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) necessitates real-time tumor genotyping, yet tissue biopsies are difficult to perform serially and often yield inadequate DNA for next-generation sequencing (NGS). We evaluated the feasibility of using cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) NGS as a complement or alternative to tissue NGS. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 112 plasma samples obtained from a consecutive study of 102 prospectively enrolled patients with advanced NSCLC were subjected to ultra-deep sequencing of up to 70 genes and matched with tissue samples, when possible. RESULTS: We detected 275 alterations in 45 genes, and at least one alteration in the ctDNA for 86 of 102 patients (84%), with EGFR variants being most common. ctDNA NGS detected 50 driver and 12 resistance mutations, and mutations in 22 additional genes for which experimental therapies, including clinical trials, are available. Although ctDNA NGS was completed for 102 consecutive patients, tissue sequencing was only successful for 50 patients (49%). Actionable EGFR mutations were detected in 24 tissue and 19 ctDNA samples, yielding concordance of 79%, with a shorter time interval between tissue and blood collection associated with increased concordance (P = 0.038). ctDNA sequencing identified eight patients harboring a resistance mutation who developed progressive disease while on targeted therapy, and for whom tissue sequencing was not possible. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutically targetable driver and resistance mutations can be detected by ctDNA NGS, even when tissue is unavailable, thus allowing more accurate diagnosis, improved patient management, and serial sampling to monitor disease progression and clonal evolution. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5772-82. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(4): 395-406, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of surgically resected solid tumor samples has become integral to personalized medicine approaches for cancer treatment and monitoring. Liquid biopsies, or the enrichment and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood, can provide noninvasive detection of evolving tumor mutations to improve cancer patient care. However, the application of solid tumor NGS approaches to circulating tumor samples has been hampered by the low-input DNA available from rare CTCs. Moreover, whole genome amplification (WGA) approaches used to generate sufficient input DNA are often incompatible with blood collection tube preservatives used to facilitate clinical sample batching. METHODS: To address this, we have developed a novel approach combining tumor cell isolation from preserved blood with Repli-G WGA and Illumina TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel-based NGS. We purified cell pools ranging from 10 to 1000 cells from three different cell lines, and quantitatively demonstrate comparable quality of DNA extracted from preserved versus unpreserved samples. RESULTS: Preservation and WGA were compatible with the generation of high-quality libraries. Known point mutations and gene amplification were detected for libraries that had been prepared from amplified DNA from preserved blood. CONCLUSION: These spiking experiments provide proof of concept of a clinically applicable workflow for real-time monitoring of patient tumor using noninvasive liquid biopsies.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...