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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the preferred initial treatment of appendicitis. We sought to compare the two treatments for initial management of simple appendicitis. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of the MUSTANG database, subjects were divided into appendectomy or NOM (non-operative management; antibiotics only or percutaneous drainage) cohorts. A novel topic-specific hierarchical ordinal scale was created with 8 mutually exclusive categories: mortality, re-operation, other secondary interventions, readmission, ED visit, wound complication, surgical site infection, no complication. Pairwise comparisons of AAST Imaging Severity Grade 1 (simple appendicitis) patients were compared using win-lose-tie scoring and the sums of appendectomy/NOM groups were compared. RESULTS: A total 3591 subjects were included: 3262 appendectomy and 329 NOM, with significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups. Across 28 sites, the rate of NOM ranged from 0-48% and the loss to follow-up rate was significantly higher for NOM compared to appendectomy (16.5% vs. 8.7%, p = .024). In the simple appendicitis hierarchical ordinal scale analysis, 2319 subjects resulted in 8,714,304 pairwise comparisons; 75% of comparisons resulted in ties. The median [IQR] sums for the two groups are: surgical 400 [400, 400] and NOM 400 [-2427, 400], p < .001. A larger proportion of appendectomy subjects (88.1%) had an outcome that was equivalent (or better) than at least half of the subjects compared to NOM subjects NOM (70.5%), OR (95% CI) 0.3 (0.2-0.4). CONCLUSION: In contemporary American practice, appendectomy (compared to NOM) for simple appendicitis is associated with lower odds of developing clinically important unfavorable outcomes in the first year after illness. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

2.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 7(1): e000821, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Damage control laparotomy (DCL) remains an important tool in the trauma surgeon's armamentarium. Inconsistency in reporting standards have hindered careful scrutiny of DCL outcomes. We sought to develop a core outcome set (COS) for DCL clinical studies to facilitate future pooling of data via meta-analysis and Bayesian statistics while minimizing reporting bias. METHODS: A modified Delphi study was performed using DCL content experts identified through Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) 'landmark' DCL papers and EAST ad hoc COS task force consensus. RESULTS: Of 28 content experts identified, 20 (71%) participated in round 1, 20/20 (100%) in round 2, and 19/20 (95%) in round 3. Round 1 identified 36 potential COS. Round 2 achieved consensus on 10 core outcomes: mortality, 30-day mortality, fascial closure, days to fascial closure, abdominal complications, major complications requiring reoperation or unplanned re-exploration following closure, gastrointestinal anastomotic leak, secondary intra-abdominal sepsis (including anastomotic leak), enterocutaneous fistula, and 12-month functional outcome. Despite feedback provided between rounds, round 3 achieved no further consensus. CONCLUSIONS: Through an electronic survey-based consensus method, content experts agreed on a core outcome set for damage control laparotomy, which is recommended for future trials in DCL clinical research. Further work is necessary to delineate specific tools and methods for measuring specific outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V, criteria.

3.
Am Surg ; : 31348211054521, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023785

RESUMO

Small bowel perforation is an uncommon but severe event in the natural history of Crohn's disease with fewer than 100 cases reported. We review Crohn's disease cases with necrotizing enteritis and share a case of a 26-year-old female who presented with a recurrent episode of small intestinal perforation. A PubMed literature review of case reports and series was conducted using keywords and combinations of "Crohn's disease," "small intestine perforation," "small bowel perforation," "free perforation," "regional enteritis," and "necrotizing enteritis." Data extracted included demographic data, pre- or postoperative steroid administration, medical or surgical management, and case fatality. Nineteen reports from 1935 to 2021 qualified for inclusion. There were 43 patients: 20 males and 23 females with a mean age of 36 ± 15 years old. 75 total perforations were described: 56 ileal (74.6%), 15 jejunal (20.0%), 2 cecal (2.7%), and 1 small intestine non-specified (2.7%). 38 of 43 patients were managed surgically by primary repair (11), ostomy creation (21), or an anastomosis (11). Of 11 case fatalities, medical management alone was associated with higher mortality (5/5; 100% mortality) compared to those treated surgically (6/38; 15.8% mortality; P < .001). Patient sex, disease history, acute abdomen, and pre- or postoperative steroid use did not significantly correlate with mortality. Jejunal perforation was significantly (P = .028) associated with event mortality while ileal was not (P = .45). Although uncommon, necrotizing enteritis should be considered in Crohn's patients who present with small intestinal perforation. These cases often require urgent surgical intervention and may progress to fulminant sepsis and fatality if not adequately treated.

4.
J Surg Res ; 269: 69-75, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are significant practice variations in antibiotic treatment for appendicitis, ranging from short-course narrow spectrum to long-course broad-spectrum. We sought to describe the modern microbial epidemiology of acute and perforated appendicitis in adults to help inform appropriate empiric coverage and support antibiotic stewardship initiatives. METHODS: This is a post-hoc secondary analysis of the Multicenter Study of the Treatment of Appendicitis in America: Acute, Perforated, and Gangrenous (MUSTANG) which prospectively enrolled adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) diagnosed with appendicitis between January 2017 and June 2018 across 28 centers in the United States. We included all subjects with positive microbiologic cultures during primary or secondary (rescue after medical failure) appendectomy or percutaneous drainage. Culture yield was compared between low- and high-grade appendicitis as per the AAST classification. RESULTS: A total of 3,471 patients were included: 230 (7%) had cultures performed, and 179/230 (78%) had positive results. Cultures were less likely to be positive in grade 1 compared to grades 3, 4, or 5 appendicitis with 2/18 (11%) vs 61/70 (87%) (p < .001). Only 1 subject had grade 2 appendicitis and culture results were negative. E. coli was the most common pathogen and cultured in 29 (46%) of primary appendectomy samples, 16 (50%) of secondary, and 44 (52%) of percutaneous drainage samples. CONCLUSION: Culturing low-grade appendicitis is low yield. E. coli is the most commonly cultured microbe in acute and perforated appendicitis. This data helps inform empiric coverage for both antibiotics alone and as an adjunct to operative or percutaneous intervention.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Apendicite , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/complicações , Apendicite/epidemiologia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Drenagem/métodos , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 144-151, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The utilization of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in trauma has grown exponentially in recent years. However, inconsistency in reporting of outcome metrics related to this intervention has inhibited the development of evidence-based guidelines for REBOA application. This study sought to attain consensus on a core outcome set (COS) for REBOA. METHODS: A review of "landmark" REBOA articles was performed, and panelists (first and senior authors) were contacted for participation in a modified Delphi study. In round 1, panelists provided a list of potential core outcomes. In round 2, using a Likert scale (1 [not important] to 9 [very important]), panelists scored the importance of each potential outcome. Consensus for core outcomes was defined a priori as greater than 70% of scores receiving 7 to 9 and less than 15% of scores receiving 1 to 3. Feedback was provided after round 2, and a third round was performed to reevaluate variables not achieving consensus and allow a final "write-in" round by the experts. RESULTS: From 17 identified panelists, 12 participated. All panelists (12 of 12, 100%) participated in each subsequent round. Panelists initially identified 34 unique outcomes, with two outcomes later added upon write-in request after round 2. From 36 total potential outcomes, 20 achieved consensus as core outcomes, and this was endorsed by 100% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Panelists successfully achieved consensus on a COS for REBOA-related research. This REBOA-COS is recommended for all clinical trials related to REBOA and should help enable higher-quality study designs, valid aggregation of published data, and development of evidence-based practice management guidelines. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test or criteria, level V. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Core Outcomes in Trauma Surgery: Development of a Core Outcome Set for Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) http://www.comet-initiative.org/Studies/Details/1709.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Oclusão com Balão/estatística & dados numéricos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(3): 481-488, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) uses anatomical and physiologic variables to predict mortality. Elderly (65 years or older) trauma patients have increased mortality and morbidity for a given TRISS, in part because of functional status and comorbidities. These factors are incorporated into the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA-PS) and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator (NSQIP-SRC). We hypothesized scoring tools using comorbidities and functional status to be superior at predicting mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and complications in elderly trauma patients undergoing operation. METHODS: Four level I trauma centers prospectively collected data on elderly trauma patients undergoing surgery within 24 hours of admission. Using logistic regression, five scoring models were compared: ASA-PS, NSQIP-SRC, TRISS, TRISS-ASA-PS, and TRISS-NSQIP-SRC.Brier scores and area under the receiver operator characteristics curve were calculated to compare mortality prediction. Adjusted R2 and root mean squared error were used to compare LOS and predictive ability for number of complications. RESULTS: From 122 subjects, 9 (7.4%) died, and the average LOS was 12.9 days (range, 1-110 days). National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator was superior to ASA-PS and TRISS at predicting mortality (area under the receiver operator characteristics curve, 0.978 vs. 0.768 vs. 0.903; p = 0.007). Furthermore, NSQIP-SRC was more accurate predicting LOS (R2, 25.9% vs. 13.3% vs. 20.5%) and complications (R2, 34.0% vs. 22.6% vs. 29.4%) compared with TRISS and ASA-PS. Adding TRISS to NSQIP-SRC improved predictive ability compared with NSQIP-SRC alone for complications (R2, 35.5% vs. 34.0%; p = 0.046). However, adding ASA-PS or TRISS to NSQIP-SRC did not improve the predictive ability for mortality or LOS. CONCLUSION: The NSQIP-SRC, which includes comorbidities and functional status, had superior ability to predict mortality, LOS, and complications compared with TRISS alone in elderly trauma patients undergoing surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic; Level III.


Assuntos
Melhoria de Qualidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(4): 551-556, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is often thought to influence outcomes in critically ill patients. However, the relationship between macronutrient delivery and functional status is not well characterized. Our goal was to investigate whether caloric or protein deficit over the course of critical illness is associated with functional status at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of surgical ICU patients at a teaching hospital in Boston, MA. To investigate the association of caloric or protein deficit with Functional Status Score for the ICU (FSS-ICU), we constructed linear regression models, controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, Nutritional Risk in the Critically Ill score, and ICU length of stay. We then dichotomized caloric as well as protein deficit, and performed logistic regressions to investigate their association with functional status, controlling for the same variables. RESULTS: Linear regression models (n = 976) demonstrated a caloric deficit of 238 kcal (237.88; 95%CI 75.13-400.63) or a protein deficit of 14 g (14.23; 95%CI 4.46-24.00) was associated with each unit decrement in FSS-ICU. Logistic regression models demonstrated a 6% likelihood (1.06; 95%CI 1.01-1.14) of caloric deficit ≥6000 vs. <6000 kcal and an 8% likelihood (1.08; 95%CI 1.01-1.15) of protein deficit ≥300 vs. <300 g with each unit decrement in FSS-ICU. CONCLUSION: In our cohort of patients, macronutrient deficit over the course of critical illness was associated with worse functional status at discharge. Future studies are needed to determine whether optimized macronutrient delivery can improve outcomes in ICU survivors.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Alta do Paciente , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Nutrientes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(2): 442-450, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data on the prevalence of essential trace element (ETE) deficiencies in home parenteral nutrition (HPN) patients are scarce. We investigated whether ETE deficiencies are still an important issue for HPN patients and whether the prevalence of such deficiencies may be influenced by nationwide drug shortages. METHODS: We conducted a single-institution, retrospective analysis from 2006 to 2015 of hospitalized HPN patients who continued PN during and in between hospitalizations. In subgroup analysis, patients were dichotomized as those with HPN duration <1 vs ≥1 year. Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) levels were abstracted for patients over the study period. Prevalence of ETE deficiency was compared using chi-squared test for patients hospitalized during nonshortage vs shortage (2011-2014) periods. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients were included in the analysis. Prevalence of ETE deficiency during nonshortage vs shortage periods was 48% vs 54% (Zn), 15% vs 21% (Cu), and 24% vs 48% (Se; P = .01), respectively. When comparing patients who received HPN <1 year vs ≥1 year, the prevalence of Se deficiency doubled during shortage in both subgroups (24% to 42% vs 26% to 49%); and Cu deficiency tripled during shortage period in the group receiving HPN ≥1 year (5% to 16%). CONCLUSION: ETE deficiency is prevalent in hospitalized HPN patients and was exacerbated during nationwide shortages of parenteral supplements. Statistical significance may be limited by small sample size. Future studies are needed to determine optimal ETE supplementation strategies for minimizing the impacts of nationwide drug shortages on HPN patients.


Assuntos
Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio , Selênio , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Hospitalização , Humanos , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(6): 589, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270358
10.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(6): 604-610, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270359

RESUMO

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally regarded as the gold standard for demonstrating causality because they effectively mitigate bias from both known and unknown confounders. However, conducting an RCT is not always feasible because of logistical and ethical considerations. This is especially true when evaluating surgical interventions, and non-randomized study designs must be utilized instead. Methods: Statistical methods that adjust for baseline differences in non-randomized studies were reviewed. Results: The three methods used most commonly to adjust for confounding factors are multiple logistic regression, Cox proportional hazard, and propensity scoring. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) is implemented to analyze the influence of categorical and/or continuous variables on a single dichotomous outcome. The model controls for multiple covariates while also quantifying the magnitude of each covariate's influence on the outcome. Selecting which variables to include in a model should be the most important consideration, and authors must report how and why variables were chosen. Cox proportional hazards modeling is conceptually similar to logistic regression and is used when analyzing survival data. When applied to survival curves, Cox proportional hazards can adjust for baseline group differences and provide a hazard ratio to quantify the effect that any single factor contributes to the survival curve. Propensity scores (PS) range from zero to one and are defined as the probability of receiving an intervention based on observed baseline characteristics. Propensity score matching (PSM) is especially useful when the outcome of interest is a rare event. Treated and untreated subjects with similar propensity scores are paired, forming balanced samples for further analysis. Conclusions: The method by which to address confounding should be selected according to the data format and sample size. Reporting of methods should provide justification for selected covariates, confirmation that data did not violate model assumptions, and measures of model performance.


Assuntos
Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estatística como Assunto , Viés , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
11.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(6): 640-645, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270360

RESUMO

Background: The quality of scientific literature is judged by study design, validity, and applicability to unique patient populations. Methods: We searched the available literature to explore the hierarchy of evidence, explain research fundamentals such as sample size calculation, and discuss common study designs employed in surgical research and the interpretation of trial designs. Results: Each unique study design has restraints created by some degree of systematic errors and bias. This article provides definitions for the scientific boundaries of case control, retrospective, before-and-after, prospective observational, randomized controlled designs, and meta-analyses. Conclusion: Critical thinking and appraisal of the literature is a skill that requires lifelong training and practice. Clinical research education and design need to garner more attention in the medical community.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Pensamento
12.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(6): 611-619, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270365

RESUMO

Background: Medical practitioners have had to learn more and more statistics not only to perform studies but more importantly, to interpret the medical literature and apply new findings to practice. We believe that because of a lack of formal training in statistics, the prevalence of some common errors is simply because of a lack of knowledge and awareness about these errors, which frequently leads to the misinterpretation of study results. Discussion: This article reviews some of the common pitfalls and tricks that are prevalent in the reporting of results in the medical literature. Common errors include the use of the wrong average, misinterpretation of statistical significance as practical significance, reaching false conclusions because of errors in statistical power interpretation, and false assumptions about causation caused by correlation. Additionally, we review some design and reporting practices that are misguided, the use of post hoc analysis in study design, and the pervasiveness of "spin" in scientific writing. Last, we review and demonstrate common pitfalls with the presentation of data in graphs, which adds another potential opportunity to introduce bias. Conclusions: The tests used in the medical literature continue to change and evolve, usually for the better. With these changes, there will certainly be opportunities to introduce unintentional bias. The more aware we are of this, the more likely we are to find it and correct it.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estatística como Assunto , Viés , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(5): 891-897, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no national studies of nonelective readmissions after emergency general surgery (EGS) diagnoses that track nonindex hospital readmission. We sought to determine the rate of overall and nonindex hospital readmissions at 30 and 90 days after discharge for EGS diagnoses, hypothesizing a significant portion would be to nonindex hospitals. METHODS: The 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for all patients 16 years or older admitted with an EGS primary diagnosis and survived index hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression identified risk factors for nonelective 30- and 90-day readmission to index and nonindex hospitals. RESULTS: Of 4,171,983 patients, 13% experienced unplanned readmission at 30 days. Of these, 21% were admitted to a nonindex hospital. By 90 days, 22% experienced an unplanned readmission, of which 23% were to a nonindex hospital. The most common reason for readmission was infection. Publicly insured or uninsured patients accounted for 67% of admissions and 77% of readmissions. Readmission predictors at 30 days included leaving against medical advice (odds ratio [OR], 2.51 [2.47-2.56]), increased length of stay (4-7 days: OR, 1.42 [1.41-1.43]; >7 days: OR, 2.04 [2.02-2.06]), Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 (OR, 1.72 [1.71-1.73]), public insurance (Medicare: OR, 1.45 [1.44-1.46]; Medicaid: OR, 1.38 [1.37-1.40]), EGS patients who fell into the "Other" surgical category (OR, 1.42 [1.38-1.48]), and nonroutine discharge. Risk factors for readmission remained consistent at 90 days. CONCLUSION: Given that nonindex hospital EGS readmission accounts for nearly a quarter of readmissions and often related to important benchmarks such as infection, current EGS quality metrics are inaccurate. This has implications for policy, benchmarking, and readmission reduction programs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 234-240, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial guidance for common bile duct (CBD) stones is limited. We sought to examine the effect of antibiotic duration on infectious complications in patients with choledocholithiasis and/or gallstone pancreatitis. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients undergoing same admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis between 2016 and 2019. We excluded patients with cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. Patients were divided into groups based on duration of antibiotics: prophylactic (<24 hours) or prolonged (≥24 hours). We analyzed these two groups in the preoperative and postoperative periods. Outcomes included infectious complications, acute kidney injury (AKI), and hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: There were 755 patients in the cohort. Increasing age, CBD diameter, and a preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.73; p < 0.001) significantly predicted prolonged preoperative antibiotic use. Increasing age, operative duration, and a postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.85-13.65; p < 0.001) significantly predicted prolonged postoperative antibiotic use. Rates of infectious complications were similar between groups, but LOS was 2 days longer for patients receiving overall prolonged antibiotics (p < 0.0001). Patients with AKI received two more days of overall antibiotic therapy (p = 0.02) compared with those without AKI. CONCLUSION: Rates of postoperative infectious complications were similar among patients treated with a prolonged or prophylactic course of antibiotics. Prolonged antibiotic use was associated with a longer LOS and AKI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Pancreatite/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(3): 586-597, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021636

RESUMO

Implementation science (IS) is a young field that seeks to minimize the gap between what we know and what we practice, otherwise known as the "know-do gap." Recently, IS has focused on research that expedites the dissemination of evidence-based knowledge, accelerates the translation of interventions to improve knowledge gaps, shrinks healthcare disparities, enhances care of complex medical conditions, and narrows variation in clinical practice and policy. This article seeks to review theoretical frameworks of IS and demonstrate how IS can be utilized to improve nutrition care. Specific examples in this article include implementation of initiatives to improve documentation of malnutrition, increase provision of oral nutrition supplements, increase use of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols, and increase energy and protein delivery. Clinical nutrition is a growing field with more and more research findings pointing to new therapies. In implementing these new therapies, practitioners should recognize the complex system present in healthcare and lean on IS findings to speed implementation and more rapidly improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Terapia Nutricional , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Estado Nutricional
16.
J Surg Res ; 265: 259-264, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) appendicitis severity grading criteria use independent subscales for radiologists (Rad), surgeons (Surg), and pathologists (Path). We reviewed the EAST Multicenter Study of the Treatment of Appendicitis in America: Acute, Perforated, and Gangrenous (MUSTANG) database to determine rates of discordance and clinical consequences of inaccuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A confusion matrix was constructed for pairs among Rad, Surg, and Path. Accuracy was reported using chronologically latest diagnosis as gold standard. "Concordance" (C) was achieved when both agreed on the severity grade and "Discordance"(D) when they disagreed. A composite endpoint("COMP"= 30-d incidence of surgical site infection, abscess, wound complication, Clavien-Dindo complication, secondary intervention, ED[Emergency Department] visit, hospital readmission, and mortality) was compared between C versus D groups via χ2 test with Bonferroni correction to define statistical significance(P = 0.05/9 = 0.005). RESULTS: For each pair and diagnosis, subjects were categorized as C or D and compared for the incidence of COMP. Incidence of COMP for Surg and/or Path in C versus D: 16% versus. 26% (p = 0.006, NS by Bonferroni) for acute (A), 39% versus 33% (p = 0.39) for gangrenous (G), and 48% versus 37% (p = 0.035, NS by Bonferroni) for perforated (P). For Rad and/or Path in C versus. D: 17% versus 42% (p < 0.001) for A, 27% versus 31% (p = 0.95) for G, and 56% versus 48% (p = 0.48) for P. For C versus D: 17% versus 40% (p < 0.001) for A, 36% versus 26% (p = 0.43) for G, and 51% versus 39% (p = 0.29) for P. CONCLUSIONS: In appendicitis treated by appendectomy, surgeons are most accurate at diagnosing acute appendicitis and least accurate at diagnosing gangrenous. Radiologists are less accurate for all categories. When the surgeon is wrong, clinical outcomes are not significantly worse. However, when the radiologist is wrong about acute appendicitis, patients have worse clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(8): 780-786, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877912

RESUMO

Background: We sought to assess the efficacy of prophylactic abdominal drainage to prevent complications after appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. Methods: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective multi-center study of appendicitis in adults (≥ 18 years), we included patients with perforated appendicitis diagnosed intra-operatively. The 634 subjects were divided into groups on the basis of receipt of prophylactic drains. The demographics and outcomes analyzed were surgical site infection (SSI), intra-abdominal abscess (IAA), Clavien-Dindo complications, secondary interventions, and hospital length of stay (LOS). Multivariable logistic regression for the cumulative 30-day incidence of IAA was performed controlling for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), antibiotic duration, presence of drains, and Operative American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade. Results: In comparing the Drain (n = 159) versus No-Drain (n = 475) groups, there was no difference in the frequency of male gender (61% versus 55%; p = 0.168), weight (87.9 ± 27.9 versus 83.8 ± 23.4 kg; p = 0.071), Alvarado score (7 [6-8] versus 7 [6-8]; p = 0.591), white blood cell (WBC) count (14.8 ± 4.8 versus 14.9 ± 4.5; p = 0.867), or CCI (1 [0-3] versus 1 [0-2]; p = 0.113). The Drain group was significantly older (51 ± 16 versus 48 ± 17 years; p = 0.017). Drain use increased as AAST EGS Appendicitis Operative Severity Grade increased: Grade 3 (62/311; 20%), Grade 4 (46/168; 27%), and Grade 5 (51/155; 33%); p = 0.007. For index hospitalization, the Drain group had a higher complication rate (43% versus 28%; p = 0.001) and longer LOS (4 [3-7] versus 3 [1-5] days; p < 0.001). We could not detect a difference between the groups in the incidence of SSI, IAA, or secondary interventions. There was no difference in 30-day emergency department visits, re-admissions, or secondary interventions. Multi-variable logistic regression showed that only AAST Grade (odds ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval7 1.5-4.7; p = 0.001) was predictive of the cumulative 30-day incidence of IAA. Conclusions: Prophylactic drainage after appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in adults is not associated with fewer intra-abdominal abscesses but is associated with longer hospital LOS. Increasing AAST EGS Appendicitis Operative Grade is a strong predictor of intra-abdominal abscess.


Assuntos
Abscesso Abdominal , Apendicite , Abscesso Abdominal/epidemiologia , Abscesso Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Drenagem , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 673-679, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal timing for cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for common bile duct (CBD) stones is unknown. We hypothesized that a delay between procedures would correlate with more biliary complications and longer hospitalizations. METHODS: We prospectively identified patients who underwent same admission cholecystectomy after ERCP for CBD stones from 2016 to 2019 at 12 US medical centers. The cohort was stratified by time between ERCP and cholecystectomy: ≤24 hours (immediate), >24 to ≤72 hours (early), and >72 hours (late). Primary outcomes included operative duration, postoperative length of stay, (LOS), and hospital LOS. Secondary outcomes included rates of open conversion, CBD explorations, biliary complications, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS: For the 349 patients comprising the study cohort, 33.8% (n = 118) were categorized as immediate, 50.4% (n = 176) as early, and 15.8% (n = 55) as late. Rates of CBD explorations were lower in the immediate group compared with the late group (0.9% vs. 9.1%, p = 0.01). Rates of open conversion were lower in the immediate group compared with the early group (0.9% vs. 10.8%, p < 0.01) and in the immediate group compared with the late group (0.9% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001). On a mixed-model regression analysis, an immediate cholecystectomy was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative LOS (ß = 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.96; p = 0.02) and hospital LOS (ß = 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.75; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: An immediate cholecystectomy following ERCP correlates with a shorter postoperative LOS and hospital LOS. Rates of CBD explorations and conversion to open appear more common after 24 hours. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level III.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colecistectomia , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Admissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
20.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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