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1.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 7(1): e000931, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148315

RESUMO

Objectives: After appendectomy for simple or complicated appendicitis, the optimal duration of postoperative antibiotics (postop abx) is unclear and great practice variability exists. We propose to compare restrictive versus liberal postop abx using a hierarchical composite endpoint which includes patient-centered outcomes and accounts for duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods/Design: Participants with simple or complicated appendicitis undergoing appendectomy are randomly assigned to either restricted or liberal strategy. Eligible subjects declining randomization will be recruited to enroll in an observation only cohort. The primary endpoint is an ordinal scale of mutually exclusive clinical outcomes with within-category rankings determined by duration of antibiotic exposure. Subjects in both randomized and observation only cohorts will be analyzed as intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and as-treated. Exploratory Bayesian analyses will be performed. Conclusion: The complex and simple appendicitis: restrictive or liberal postoperative antibiotic exposure multicenter randomized controlled trial will enroll surgical appendectomy patients and seeks to analyze if a strategy of restricted (compared with liberal) postoperative antibiotics results in similar clinical outcomes with the benefit of reduced antibiotic exposure. Trial registration number: NCT05002829.

2.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
3.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(5): 1142-1151, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite parenteral nutrition (PN) being life sustaining, one of the risk factors associated with its long-term use is intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), which increases the risk for morbidity and mortality. This review examines some of the risk factors associated with IFALD. METHODS: A literature review using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL between 2010 and 2020 was performed using search terms, including long-term total PN and liver failure, serum plant sterols and liver failure, and complications and PN. Articles in English using both human and animal participants were included. RESULTS: The pathophysiology associated with PN and liver disease is multifactorial and influenced by the remaining small-bowel length, presence of the ileal cecal valve, lack of enteral stimulation, type of lipid injectable emulsion (ILE), plant sterol content, and excessive calories. The type of ILE plays a major role because of the phytosterol (PS) content, affecting the microbiome composition and inhibiting key gut signals. The PS content is highest in soy oil (SO)-based ILE, which increases inflammation and impairs biliary flow. CONCLUSION: Serum PS correlates with liver biomarker abnormalities and is highest in SO-based ILE use compared with mixed-oil emulsions. Selection of a low-PS content ILE is recommended to reduce the risk of biliary cholestasis. Stimulation of the gut, if possible, is recommended to maintain gut integrity and reduce bacterial overgrowth. Fish oil (FO) shows promise in IFALD reversal however, large randomized controlled trials are needed to further establish support for the use of FO in adults.


Assuntos
Enteropatias , Insuficiência Intestinal , Hepatopatias , Falência Hepática , Animais , Criança , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe , Humanos , Enteropatias/complicações , Enteropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Óleo de Soja
4.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(2): 174-177, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021885

RESUMO

Background: It is unclear if the addition of antifungal therapy for perforated peptic ulcers (PPU) leads to improved outcomes. We hypothesized that empiric antifungal therapy is associated with better clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with PPU. Patients and Methods: The 2001-2012 Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) database was searched for patients with PPU and the included subjects were divided into two groups depending on receipt of antifungal therapy. Propensity score matching by surgical intervention, mechanical ventilation (MV), and vasopressor administration was then performed and clinically important outcomes were compared. Multiple logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds of a composite end point (defined as "alive, hospital-free, and infection-free at 30 days"). Results: A total of 89 patients with PPU were included, of whom 52 (58%) received empiric antifungal therapy. Propensity score matching resulted in 37 pairs. On logistic regression controlling for surgery, vasopressors, and MV, receipt of antifungal therapy was not associated with higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-4.7; p = 0.4798) of the composite end point. Conclusions: In critically ill patients with perforated peptic ulcer, receipt of antifungal therapy, regardless of surgical intervention, was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Selection bias is possible and therefore randomized controlled trials are required to confirm/refute causality.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada/complicações , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada/cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão
5.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 34(2): e1605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocutaneous fistulas represent a connection between the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent tissues. Among them, there is a subdivision - the enteroatmospheric fistulas, in which the origin is the gastrointestinal tract in connection with the external environment through an open wound in the abdomen. Due to the high output in enterocutaneous fistulas, the loss of fluids, electrolytes, minerals and proteins leads to complications such as sepsis, malnutrition and electrolyte derangements. The parenteral nutrition has its secondary risks, and the fistuloclysis, that consist in the infusion of enteral feeding and also the chyme through the distal fistula, represents an alternative to the management of these patients until the definitive surgical approach. AIM: To evaluate the current evidence on the fistuloclysis technique, its applicability, advantages and disadvantages for patients with high output fistulas. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in May 2020 with the headings "fistuloclysis", "chyme reinfusion" and "succus entericus reinfusion", in the PubMed, Medline and SciELO databases. Results: There were 29 articles selected for the development of this narrative synthesis, from 2003 to 2020, including reviews and case reports. CONCLUSION: Fistuloclysis is a safe method which optimizes the clinical, nutritional, and immunological conditions of patients with enteroatmospheric fistulas, increasing the chances of success of the reconstructive procedure. In cases where the definitive repair is not possible, chances of reducing or even stopping the use of nutrition through the parental route are increased, thus representing a promising modality for the management of most challenging cases.


Assuntos
Fístula Intestinal , Sepse , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Nutrição Parenteral , Sepse/terapia
6.
J Am Coll Surg ; 233(4): 545-553, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professionalism is a core competency that is difficult to assess. We examined the incidence of publication inaccuracies in Electronic Residency Application Service applications to our training program as potential indicators of unprofessional behavior. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed all 2019-2020 National Resident Matching Program applicants being considered for interview. Applicant demographic characteristics recorded included standardized examination scores, gender, medical school, and medical school ranking (2019 US News & World Report). Publication verification by a medical librarian was performed for peer-reviewed journal articles/abstracts, peer-reviewed book chapters, and peer-reviewed online publications. Inaccuracies were classified as "nonserious" (eg incorrect author order without author rank promotion) or "serious" (eg miscategorization, non-peer-reviewed journal, incorrect author order with author rank promotion, nonauthorship of cited existing publication, and unverifiable publication). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for demographic characteristics to identify predictors of overall inaccuracy and serious inaccuracy. RESULTS: Of 319 applicants, 48 (15%) had a total of 98 inaccuracies; after removing nonserious inaccuracies, 37 (12%) with serious inaccuracies remained. Seven publications were reported in predatory open access journals. In the regression model, none of the variables (US vs non-US medical school, gender, or medical school ranking) were significantly associated with overall inaccuracy or serious inaccuracy. CONCLUSIONS: One in 8 applicants (12%) interviewing at a general surgery residency program were found to have a serious inaccuracy in publication reporting on their Electronic Residency Application Service application. These inaccuracies might represent inattention to detail or professionalism transgressions.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Candidatura a Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Profissionalismo , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 42: 15-19, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis can be difficult to diagnose in the emergency department (ED); no single finding can rule in or rule out the disease. A prediction score for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis for use at the bedside would be of great value to expedite the management of patients presenting with possible acute cholecystitis. The 2013 Tokyo Guidelines is a validated method for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis but its prognostic capability is limited. The purpose of this study was to prospectively validate the Bedside Sonographic Acute Cholecystitis (SAC) Score utilizing a combination of only historical symptoms, physical exam signs, and point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) findings for the prediction of the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in ED patients. METHOD: This was a prospective observational validation study of the Bedside SAC Score. The study was conducted at two tertiary referral academic centers in Boston, Massachusetts. From April 2016 to March 2019, adult patients (≥18 years old) with suspected acute cholecystitis were enrolled via convenience sampling and underwent a physical exam and a focused biliary POCUS in the ED. Three symptoms and signs (post-prandial symptoms, RUQ tenderness, and Murphy's sign) and two sonographic findings (gallbladder wall thickening and the presence of gallstones) were combined to calculate the Bedside Sonographic Acute Cholecystitis (SAC) Score. The final diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was determined from chart review or patient follow-up up to 30 days after the initial assessment. In patients who underwent operative intervention, surgical pathology was used to confirm the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the Bedside SAC Score were calculated for various cut off points. RESULTS: 153 patients were included in the analysis. Using a previously defined cutoff of ≥ 4, the Bedside SAC Score had a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI 73.9%-96.9%), and a specificity of 67.5% (95% CI 58.2%-75.9%). A Bedside SAC Score of < 2 had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 90.3%-100%) and specificity of 35% (95% CI 26.5%-44.4%). A Bedside SAC Score of ≥ 7 had a sensitivity of 44.4% (95% CI 27.9%-61.9%) and specificity of 95.7% (95% CI 90.3%-98.6%). CONCLUSION: A bedside prediction score for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis would have great utility in the ED. The Bedside SAC Score would be most helpful as a rule out for patients with a low Bedside SAC Score < 2 (sensitivity of 100%) or as a rule in for patients with a high Bedside SAC Score ≥ 7 (specificity of 95.7%). Prospective validation with a larger study is required.


Assuntos
Colecistite Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Testes Imediatos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Exame Físico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Ultrassonografia
8.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 22(5): 504-508, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897168

RESUMO

Background: The post-operative management of simple (acute) appendicitis differs throughout the United States. Guidelines regarding post-operative antibiotic usage remain unclear, and treatment generally is dictated by surgeon preference. We hypothesize that post-operative antibiotic use for simple appendicitis is not associated with lower post-operative complication rates. Methods: In a post-hoc analysis in a large multi-center observational study, only patients with an intra-operative diagnosis of AAST EGS Grade I were included. Subjects were classified into those receiving post-operative antibiotics (POST) and those given pre-operative antibiotics only (NONE). Clinical outcomes examined were length of stay (LOS), 30-day emergency department (ED) visits and hospital re-admissions, secondary interventions, surgical site infection (SSI), and intra-abdominal abscess (IAA). Results: A total of 2,191 subjects were included, of whom 612 (28%) received post-operative antibiotics. Compared with the NONE group, POST patients were older (age 37 [range 26-50] versus 33 [26-46] years; p < 0.001), weighed more (82 [70-96] versus 79 [68-93] kg (p = 0.038), and had higher white blood cell counts (13.5 ± 4.2 versus 13.1 ± 4.4/103/mcL (p = 0.046), Alvarado Scores (6 [5-7] versus 6 [5-7]; p < 0.001), and Charlson Comorbidity Indices (median score 0 in both cohorts; p < 0.001). The POST patients had a longer LOS (1 [1-2] versus 1 [1-1] days; p < 0.001). There were no differences in the number who had ED visits within 30 days (9% versus 8%; p = 0.435), hospital re-admission (4% versus 2%; p = 0.165), an index hospitalization SSI (0.2% for both cohorts; p = 0.69), an SSI within 30 days (4% versus 2%; p = 0.165), index hospitalization IAA rate (0.3% versus 0.1%; p = 0.190), 30-day IAA (2% versus 1%; p = 0.71), index hospitalization interventions (0.5% versus 0.1%; p = 0.137) or 30-day secondary interventions (2% versus 1%; p = 0.155). Conclusions: Post-operative antibiotic use after appendectomy for simple appendicitis is not associated with better post-operative clinical outcomes at index hospitalization or at 30 days after discharge.


Assuntos
Abscesso Abdominal , Apendicite , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ann Surg ; 273(3): 548-556, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe contemporary presentation, treatment, and outcomes of patients presenting with acute (A), perforated (P), and gangrenous (G) appendicitis in the United States. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent European trials have reported that medical (antibiotics only) treatment of acute appendicitis is an acceptable alternative to surgical appendectomy. However, the type of operation (open appendectomy) and average duration of stay are not consistent with current American practice and therefore their conclusions do not apply to modern American surgeons. METHODS: This multicenter prospective observational study enrolled adults with appendicitis from January 2017 to June 2018. Descriptive statistics were performed. P and G were combined into a "complicated" outcome variable and risk factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total 3597 subjects were enrolled across 28 sites: median age was 37 (27-52) years, 1918 (53%) were male, 90% underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging, 91% were initially treated by appendectomy (98% laparoscopic), and median hospital stay was 1 (1-2) day. The 30-day rates of Emergency Department (ED) visit and readmission were 10% and 6%. Of 219 initially treated with antibiotics, 35 (16%) required appendectomy during index hospitalization and 12 (5%) underwent appendectomy within 30 days, for a cumulative failure rate of 21%. Overall, 2403 (77%) patients had A, whereas 487 (16%) and 218 (7%) patients had P and G, respectively. On regression analysis, age, symptoms >48 hours, temperature, WBC, Alvarado score, and appendicolith were predictive of "complicated" appendicitis, whereas co-morbidities, smoking, and ED triage to appendectomy >6 hours or >12 hours were not. CONCLUSION: In the United States, the majority of patients presenting with appendicitis receive CT imaging, undergo laparoscopic appendectomy, and stay in the hospital for 1 day. One in five patients selected for initial non-operative management required appendectomy within 30 days. In-hospital delay to appendectomy is not a risk factor for "complicated" appendicitis.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Gangrena/cirurgia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
10.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(3): 649-651, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524638

RESUMO

This report describes the application of a routine lab test to confirm a diagnosis of hypernatremia suspected to be secondary to an error in parenteral nutrition compounding. The novel aspect of this case is the use of the "urine electrolytes" laboratory test to verify that the electrolyte concentration of the mixture is consistent with what was printed on the bag label.


Assuntos
Hipernatremia , Transtornos Mentais , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio , Eletrólitos , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio/efeitos adversos
11.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1605, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345006

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Enterocutaneous fistulas represent a connection between the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent tissues. Among them, there is a subdivision - the enteroatmospheric fistulas, in which the origin is the gastrointestinal tract in connection with the external environment through an open wound in the abdomen. Due to the high output in enterocutaneous fistulas, the loss of fluids, electrolytes, minerals and proteins leads to complications such as sepsis, malnutrition and electrolyte derangements. The parenteral nutrition has its secondary risks, and the fistuloclysis, that consist in the infusion of enteral feeding and also the chyme through the distal fistula, represents an alternative to the management of these patients until the definitive surgical approach. Aim: To evaluate the current evidence on the fistuloclysis technique, its applicability, advantages and disadvantages for patients with high output fistulas. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in May 2020 with the headings "fistuloclysis", "chyme reinfusion" and "succus entericus reinfusion", in the PubMed, Medline and SciELO databases. Results: There were 29 articles selected for the development of this narrative synthesis, from 2003 to 2020, including reviews and case reports. Conclusion: Fistuloclysis is a safe method which optimizes the clinical, nutritional, and immunological conditions of patients with enteroatmospheric fistulas, increasing the chances of success of the reconstructive procedure. In cases where the definitive repair is not possible, chances of reducing or even stopping the use of nutrition through the parental route are increased, thus representing a promising modality for the management of most challenging cases.


RESUMO Racional: As fístulas enterocutâneas representam uma conexão entre o trato gastrointestinal e os tecidos adjacentes. Dentre elas, há uma subdivisão - as fístulas enteroatmosféricas, em que a origem é o trato gastrointestinal em conexão com o meio externo por meio de uma ferida aberta no abdômen. Devido ao alto débito nas fístulas enterocutâneas, a perda de fluidos, eletrólitos, minerais e proteínas levam a complicações como sepse, desnutrição e desequilíbrios eletrolíticos. A nutrição parenteral tem seus riscos secundários, e a fistuloclise, que consiste na infusão de nutrição enteral e também do quimo pela fístula distal, representa uma alternativa no manejo desses pacientes até a abordagem cirúrgica definitiva. Objetivo: Avaliar as evidências atuais sobre a técnica de fistuloclise, sua aplicabilidade, vantagens e desvantagens para pacientes com fístulas de alto débito. Método: Foi realizada uma busca sistemática da literatura em maio de 2020 com os títulos "fistuloclysis", "chyme reinfusion" e "succus entericus reinfusion", nas bases de dados PubMed, Medline e SciELO. Resultados: Foram selecionados 29 artigos para o desenvolvimento desta síntese narrativa, no período de 2003 a 2020, incluindo revisões e relatos de caso. Conclusão: A fistuloclise é um método seguro que otimiza as condições clínicas, nutricionais e imunológicas dos pacientes com fístulas enteroatmosféricas, aumentando as chances de sucesso do procedimento de reconstrução. Nos casos em que o reparo definitivo não é possível, aumentam as chances de reduzir ou mesmo interromper o uso da nutrição pela via parental, representando uma modalidade promissora para o manejo dos casos mais desafiadores.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fístula Intestinal/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Nutrição Enteral , Nutrição Parenteral
12.
J Surg Res ; 256: 70-75, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine defined a roadmap to achieve zero preventable trauma deaths. In the United States, there are over 5000 motorcycle fatalities annually. Florida leads the nation in annual motorcycle crash (MCC) deaths and injuries. It is unknown how many are potentially preventable. We hypothesize that certain patterns of injuries in on-scene fatalities that are potentially survivable and aim to make recommendations to achieve the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine objective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Miami-Dade County medical examiner reports of MCC deaths pronounced on scene, and emergency medical service or law enforcement reports from 2010 to 2012 were reviewed by board-certified trauma surgeons. Causes of death were categorized into exsanguination, traumatic brain injury or decapitation, crushed chest, or airway complications. Determination of potentially survivable versus nonsurvivable injuries was based upon whether the riders had potentially survivable injuries and had they been transported immediately to a trauma center. Traumatic brain injury cases were reviewed by a board-certified neurosurgeon. RESULTS: Sixty MCC scene deaths were analyzed. Ninety-five percent were men, 55% were helmeted, and 42% had positive toxicology. The median Injury Severity Score was 41 (Range 14-75, IQR 31-75). Nineteen (32%) deaths were potentially survivable, with death due to airway in 14 (23%) and exsanguination in 4 (7%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of on-scene urban motorcycle deaths are potentially survivable in a young patient population. ISS score comparison demonstrates the lower injury burden in those deemed potentially survivable. Automatic alert systems in motorcycles and first responder training to police are recommended to improve trauma system efficacy in reducing preventable deaths from MCCs.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Motocicletas , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Socorristas/educação , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/educação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Transporte de Pacientes/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Surgery ; 168(1): 62-66, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to prospectively identify risk factors for biliary complications and 30-day readmission after cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis across multiple US hospitals. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of patients who underwent same admission cholecystectomy for choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis between 2016 and 2019 at 12 US centers. Patients with prior history of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or diagnosis of cholangitis were excluded. We used logistic regression to determine associations between preoperative demographics, labs, and imaging on primary outcomes: postoperative biliary complications and 30-day readmission. RESULTS: There were 989 patients in the cohort. There were 16 (1.6%) patients with postoperative biliary complications, including intra-abdominal abscesses, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-induced pancreatitis, and biliary leaks. Increasing operative time (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.01, P = .02), worsening leukocytosis (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.25, P = .0002), and jaundice (odds ratio 3.25, 95% confidence interval 1.01-10.42, P = .04) were associated with postoperative biliary complications. There were 36 (3.6%) patients readmitted within 30 days owing to a surgical complication. A prior postoperative biliary complication (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 1.63-37.27, P = .01), male sex (odds ratio 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.87, P = .01), and index operative duration (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.01, P = .03) were associated with 30-day readmission. CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing cholecystectomy for common bile duct stones, jaundice, worsening leukocytosis, and longer operations are associated with postoperative biliary complications. A prior biliary complication is also predictive of a 30-day readmission. Surgeons should recognize these factors and avoid prematurely discharging at-risk patients given their propensity to develop complications and require readmission.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 44(5): 889-894, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have used using Indirect Calorimetry (IC) with solitary or sparse measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE). This "snapshot" may not capture the dynamic nature of metabolic requirements. Using continuous IC, we describe the variation of REE during the first days in the intensive care unit. METHODS: Injured adults (≥18 years) requiring mechanical ventilation from March 2018 to September 2018 were enrolled. IC was initiated within 4 days of admission and continuous REE recorded until 14 days, extubation, or death. Multiple 10-minute periods collected during steady state were used to calculate daily REE maximum, minimum, average, and variability [(REEmax - REEmin/2)/average REE]. RESULTS: We included 55 patients. Median age was 38 [27-58] years, 38 (69%) were male, body mass index was 28 [25-33] kg/m2 , and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II was 17 [14-24]. Mechanism of injury was: blunt (n = 38, 69%), penetrating (n = 9, 16%), and burn (n = 8, 15%). Average REE increased gradually from 1,663 kcal [1,435-2,143] to a maximum of 2,080 [1,701-2,336] on day 7, a relative 25% increase, which was sustained through day 14. REE variability ranged 8%-13% and was not reliably predicted by fever, tachycardia, elevated intracranial pressures, hypertension, or hypotension. CONCLUSION: In critically injured patients, steady-state REE measurements display fluctuations over a 24-hour period and demonstrate a gradual rise over the first few days after injury. Continuous REE, if available, is recommended for more precise matching of energy delivery to metabolic requirements.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Metabolismo Energético , APACHE , Adulto , Metabolismo Basal , Calorimetria Indireta , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 134-139, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has proposed a grading system for anatomic severity of 16 Emergency General Surgery conditions, including appendicitis. This is the first prospective, multicenter clinical study evaluating the AAST Appendicitis grading scale. METHODS: The EAST Appendicitis study utilized data collected prospectively from 27 centers, between January 2017 to June 2018. An overall grade was assigned as the highest grade of the subscales: clinical, radiographic, operative, and pathologic. Grade 1-3 of the clinical subscale was assigned as Grade 1. Patients with a final diagnosis other than appendicitis were excluded. The cohort was divided into two groups: simple appendicitis (Grades 1 and 2), and complicated appendicitis (Grades 3, 4, and 5).Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine association between the overall AAST grade and the following outcomes: infectious complications, Clavien-Dindo complications, hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day emergency department visits, readmissions, and secondary interventions. RESULTS: A total of 2,909 cases were analyzed: 1,656 (57%) were Grade 1; 181 (6%), Grade 2; 399 (14%) Grade 4; and 549 (19%) Grade 5; 94% of patients underwent appendectomy. Index hospitalization LOS increased significantly with increasing grade: 1, [1,1], 1 [1,2], 1 [1,2], 2 [1,3], and 32,5 (p < 0.001). Infectious complications, Clavien-Dindo complications, hospital LOS, and secondary interventions were significantly associated with increasing AAST severity grade during index hospitalization. For 30-day outcomes, similar trends were noted for readmission, 30-day infections complications, 30-day cumulative infectious complications, 30-day Clavien-Dindo complications, 30-day cumulative Clavien-Dindo complications, 30-day secondary interventions, and 30-day cumulative secondary interventions. CONCLUSION: The AAST emergency general surgery grade for appendicitis is a valid predictor of clinical outcomes such as infectious complications, overall complications, and the need for secondary intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Apendicite/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Apendicite/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Surg Res ; 233: 408-412, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrografin (GG)-based nonoperative approach is both diagnostic and therapeutic for partial small bowel obstruction (SBO). Absence of X-ray evidence of GG in the colon after 8 h is predictive of the need for operation, and a recent trial used 48 h to prompt operation. We hypothesize that a significant number of patients receiving the GG challenge require >48 h before an effect is seen. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional SBO database was performed including only those receiving GG challenge. Successful nonoperative management (NOM) was defined as passage of flatus or nasogastric tube (NGT) removal. NOM was considered a failure if operative intervention was required. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of delayed (>48 h) GG challenge effect and expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of 286 patients receiving GG, 208 patients (73%) were successfully managed nonoperatively. A total of 60 (29%) NOM patients had NGT decompression for >48 h (n = 54) or required >48 h to pass flatus (n = 34), with some requiring both (n = 28). Prior abdominal operations and SBO admission were protective of delayed GG effect (0.411 [0.169-1.00], P < 0.05; 0.478 [0.240-0.952], P < 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of patients at 48 h (29%) "failed" the GG challenge as they had yet to pass flatus or still required NGT but were nonetheless successfully managed nonoperatively. Extending the GG challenge beyond 48 h may help avoid unnecessary operations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Diatrizoato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Aderências Teciduais/diagnóstico por imagem , Aderências Teciduais/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Intensive Care Med ; 34(8): 646-651, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ketamine at subanesthetic doses has been shown to provide analgesic effects without causing respiratory depression and may be a viable option in mechanically ventilated patients to assist with extubation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose ketamine on opioid consumption in mechanically ventilated adult surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving low-dose ketamine continuous infusion (1-5 µcg/kg/min) for adjunctive pain control admitted to surgical ICUs was conducted. Patients were included if they met an ICU safety screen for a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) implying extubation readiness pending SBT results. The primary end point was the slope of change in morphine equivalents (MEs) 12 hours pre- and postketamine infusion. We hypothesized that low-dose ketamine would increase the slope of opioid dose reduction. RESULTS: Forty patients were analyzed. The median dose of ketamine was 5 µg/kg/min (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.5-5) and the treatment duration was 1.89 days (IQR: 0.96-3.06). Prior to ketamine, the majority of patients received volume-controlled or pressure-supported ventilation with a median duration of 2.05 days (IQR: 1.38-3.61). The median time from the initiation of ketamine to extubation was 1.44 days (IQR: 0.58-2.66). For the primary outcome, there was a significant difference in the slope of ME changes from 1 to -0.265 mg/h 12 hours pre- and postketamine initiation (P < .001). For the secondary outcomes, ketamine was associated with a decrease in vasopressor requirements (phenylephrine equivalent 70 vs 40 mg/h; P = .019). CONCLUSION: Low-dose continuous infusion ketamine in mechanically ventilated adult patients was associated with a significant increase in the rate of opioid dose reduction without adverse effects on hemodynamic stability.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 34(1): 148-155, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a measure of host inflammatory response; a higher NLR is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Enteral nutrition (EN) may mitigate inflammation through interaction with gut-associated lymphoid tissue. We hypothesized that early EN adequacy in critically ill surgical patients is associated with lower NLR and better clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed data from adult surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving EN. NLR at baseline ICU admission (NLR-B), NLR after 3-5 days of EN (F-NLR), nutrition adequacy, caloric deficit (CD), protein deficit (PD), hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, 28-day ventilator-free days (28-VFD), and in-hospital mortality were collected. Tertiles groups were created for NLR, F-NLR, CD, and PD; the highest (H) and lowest (L) tertiles were compared. Regression analyses were performed to control for effect of age, gender, APACHE II, and NLR. RESULTS: Subjects in the L-CD group had lower median F-NLR (7 [range, 5-11] vs 10 [7-22], P = 0.005) and shorter ICU LOS (9 [6-16]) vs 16 [9-32] days; P = 0.006). The L-NLR group had shorter hospital LOS (18 [10-31] vs 22 [15-38] days, P = 0.023), greater 28-VFD (23 [18-25] vs 19 [11-22] days, P = 0.005), and lower in-hospital mortality (13% vs 41%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In critically ill surgical patients, early enteral caloric adequacy is associated with less inflammation and improved clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Leucócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Linfócitos/citologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/citologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Crit Care ; 45: 7-13, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore whether psoas cross sectional area (CSA) and density (Hounsfield Units, HU) are associated with nutritional adequacy and clinical outcomes in surgical intensive care unit patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with at least one CT scan within 72h of ICU admission were included. Demographic, nutritional, radiographic, and outcomes data were collected. Psoas muscle CSA and HU were assessed at the L4-L5 intervertebral disk level. Change (Δ) in CSA and HU overall and per day were calculated. RESULTS: 140 patients were included. There was no significant correlation between baseline CSA and HU and clinical outcomes. Patients with at least two CT scans (n=65), had a median decrease in CSA of -15% [IQR: -20%, -8%] and decrease in HU of -2% [IQR: -30%, +24%]. Patients with the greatest daily %HU decline received significantly fewer calories/kg and proteins/kg and accumulated greater protein deficits at day 7 and overall. Patients with daily %HU increase had the shortest ICU and hospital LOS and more ventilator-free days in univariate and multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, early nutritional deficits were correlated with muscle quality deterioration. Inpatient gain in psoas density, compared to maintenance or loss, is associated with shorter hospital stay.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Desnutrição/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Tamanho do Órgão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Músculos Psoas/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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