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2.
Liver Cancer ; 10(5): 451-460, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721507

RESUMO

Background: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as defined by Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B, is heterogeneous in terms of liver function and tumor burden. REACH and REACH-2 investigated ramucirumab in patients with HCC after prior sorafenib, with REACH-2 enrolling only patients with baseline α-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥400 ng/mL. An exploratory analysis of outcomes by BCLC stage was performed. Methods: A pooled meta-analysis of independent patient data (stratified by study) from REACH (AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL) and REACH-2 was performed. All patients had Child-Pugh A, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, prior sorafenib treatment, and either HCC BCLC stage B (refractory/not amenable to locoregional therapy) or BCLC stage C. Patients were randomized to ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo every 2 weeks. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Treatment effects in BCLC stage B and C were evaluated by Cox proportional-hazards model; prognosis of BCLC staging for OS was evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model. Tumor responses were evaluated according to Response Evaluation in Solid Tumors v1.1. Liver function was assessed with albumin-bilirubin score. Results: Baseline characteristics were generally balanced between treatment arms in each BCLC stage. BCLC staging trended as an independent prognostic factor for OS (B vs. C; hazard ratio [HR] 0.756 [95% CI 0.546-1.046]). Consistent treatment benefit was observed for ramucirumab versus placebo across BCLC stages. Median OS for ramucirumab versus placebo was 13.7 versus 8.2 months; HR (95%): 0.43 (0.23-0.83) and 7.7 versus 4.8 months; HR (95%): 0.72 (0.59-0.89) for BCLC stage B and C, respectively. Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with observations from both studies; hypertension was the most frequent grade ≥3 AE. Liver function was preserved throughout the study and similar between treatment arms in both BCLC stages. Conclusions: Ramucirumab provided a better survival benefit irrespective of BCLC stage and was well tolerated without compromising liver function during treatment.

3.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211058255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819998

RESUMO

Background: Liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) is currently the standard second-line treatment for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after previous failed gemcitabine-based therapy. This population-based study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nal-IRI + 5-FU/LV and the association of pre-emptive nal-IRI dosing with treatment outcomes in patients with PDAC. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 667 consecutive patients with PDAC who received nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV treatment between August 2018 and November 2020 at 9 medical centers in Taiwan. Patients were allocated into groups according to pre-emptive nal-IRI dosing (⩾75%, 50-74%, <50%) for comparison of treatment efficacy and safety. Results: The median overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) were 5.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.3-6.5] and 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.6-3.0), respectively. The median OS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.7-6.7), 5.0 months (95% CI, 3.4-6.5), and 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.7-5.6), respectively, among the ⩾75%, 50-74%, and <50% pre-emptive nal-IRI dosing groups, whereas the median TTF of the three groups was 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.6-3.4), 2.6 months (95% CI, 2.3-2.9), and 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.6-2.2), respectively. Pre-emptive nal-IRI dosing <50% was an independent negative prognostic factor for OS and TTF in multivariate analyses. The most common severe adverse events were neutropenia (22.9%), anemia (21.1%), and hypokalemia (15.4%). Patients in the <50% pre-emptive nal-IRI dosing group had a significantly lower incidence of neutropenia and non-neutropenic infection than those in the other groups. Conclusion: Our results support the use of nal-IRI + 5-FU/LV as standard clinical practice for treating patients with PDAC based on this large population-based study. Our findings encourage physicians to provide adequate doses of nal-IRI in order to achieve better outcomes without compromising safety profiles.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is thought to be associated with early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection. To recognize HCC patients with higher risk of early recurrence, we used a second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) microscopy to create a fully quantitative fibrosis score which is able to predict early recurrence. METHODS: The study included 81 HCC patients receiving curative intent hepatectomy. Detailed fibrotic features of resected hepatic tissues were obtained by SHG/TPEF microscopy, and we used multi-dimensional artificial intelligence analysis to create a recurrence prediction model "combined index" according to the morphological collagen features of each patient's non-tumor hepatic tissues. RESULTS: Our results showed that the "combined index" can better predict early recurrence (area under the curve = 0.917, sensitivity = 81.8%, specificity = 90.5%), compared to alpha fetoprotein level (area under the curve = 0.595, sensitivity = 68.2%, specificity = 47.6%). Using a Cox proportional hazards analysis, a higher "combined index" is also a poor prognostic factor of disease-free survival and overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating multi-dimensional artificial intelligence and SHG/TPEF microscopy, we may locate patients with a higher risk of recurrence, follow these patients more carefully, and conduct further management if needed.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 983, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686650

RESUMO

Chronic and persistent inflammation is a well-known carcinogenesis promoter. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common inflammation-associated cancers; most HCCs arise in the setting of chronic inflammation and hepatic injury. Both NF-κB and STAT3 are important regulators of inflammation. Centrosomal P4.1-associated protein (CPAP), a centrosomal protein that participates primarily in centrosome functions, is overexpressed in HCC and can increase TNF-α-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-6-induced STAT3 activation. A transgenic (Tg) mouse model with hepatocyte-specific CPAP expression was established to investigate the physiological role of CPAP in hepatocarcinogenesis. Obvious inflammatory cell accumulation and fatty change were observed in the livers of CPAP Tg mice. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and the expression levels of inflammatory genes, such as IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α, were higher in CPAP Tg mice than in wild type (WT) mice. High-dose/short-term treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) increased the ALT level, proinflammatory gene expression levels, and STAT3 and NF-κB activation in CPAP Tg mice; low-dose/long-term DEN treatment induced more severe liver tumor formation in CPAP Tg mice than in WT mice. CPAP can increase the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 16 (CCL-16), an important chemotactic cytokine, in human hepatocytes. CCL-16 expression is positively correlated with CPAP and TNF-α mRNA expression in the peritumoral part of HCC. In summary, these results suggest that CPAP may promote hepatocarcinogenesis through enhancing the inflammation pathway via increasing the expression of CCL-16.

6.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668832

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-induced deaths worldwide, and limited therapeutic options are available for patients with advanced disease. Ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2, is the first biomarker-selected systemic agent with therapeutic efficacy, tolerability, and favorable patient-reported outcomes in patients with advanced HCC and elevated serum α-fetoprotein levels ≥400 ng/mL, who are resistant or intolerant to sorafenib therapy. However, treatment-induced adverse events (AEs), such as hypertension, proteinuria, bleeding, thromboembolism, and gastrointestinal perforation remain challenging and potentially fatal concerns. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the published or ongoing studies and subgroup analyses on ramucirumab therapy in patients with advanced HCC. We present information on the risks of ramucirumab-induced common or rare AEs and their management. EXPERT OPINION: Ramucirumab toxicity secondary to VEGF inhibition is similar to the AEs that are known to be associated with other VEGF-blocking antibodies. Common AEs can be safely treated using conventional measures; however, rare and potentially fatal AEs necessitate close monitoring. With regard to the safety profile, more promising ramucirumab-containing combination therapies are likely to pave the future path for effective HCC treatment.

7.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1536-1543, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341578

RESUMO

Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy is the standard first-line systemic treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC). In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03581786), 289 patients with RM-NPC and no previous chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease were randomized (1/1) to receive either toripalimab, a monoclonal antibody against human programmed death-1 (PD-1), or placebo in combination with GP every 3 weeks for up to six cycles, followed by monotherapy with toripalimab or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by a blinded independent review committee according to RECIST v.1.1. At the prespecified interim PFS analysis, a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm: median PFS of 11.7 versus 8.0 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.74), P = 0.0003. An improvement in PFS was observed across key subgroups, including PD-L1 expression. As of 18 February 2021, a 40% reduction in risk of death was observed in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm (HR = 0.603 (95% CI: 0.364-0.997)). The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (89.0 versus 89.5%), AEs leading to discontinuation of toripalimab/placebo (7.5 versus 4.9%) and fatal AEs (2.7 versus 2.8%) was similar between the two arms; however, immune-related AEs (39.7 versus 18.9%) and grade ≥3 infusion reactions (7.5 versus 0.7%) were more frequent in the toripalimab arm. In conclusion, the addition of toripalimab to GP chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with RM-NPC provided superior PFS compared to GP alone, and with a manageable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
8.
Cancer ; 127(24): 4585-4593, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arginine starvation depletes the micronutrients required for DNA synthesis and interferes with both thymidylate synthetase activity and DNA repair pathways in preclinical models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20), an arginine degrader, potentiates the cytotoxic activity of platinum and pyrimidine antimetabolites in HCC cellular and murine models. METHODS: This was a global, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial of ADI-PEG 20 and modified 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) in patients who had HCC with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and disease progression on ≥2 prior lines of treatment. The primary objective was the objective response rate assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary objectives were to estimate progression-free survival, overall survival, safety, and tolerability. Eligible patients were treated with mFOLFOX6 intravenously biweekly at standard doses and ADI-PEG-20 intramuscularly weekly at 36 mg/m2 . RESULTS: In total, 140 patients with advanced HCC were enrolled. The median patient age was 62 years (range, 30-85 years), 83% of patients were male, 76% were of Asian race, 56% had hepatitis B viremia, 10% had hepatitis C viremia, 100% had received ≥2 prior lines of systemic therapy, and 39% had received ≥3 prior lines of systemic therapy. The objective response rate was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0%-15.4%), with a median response duration of 10.2 months (95% CI, 5.8 months to not reached). The median progression-free survival was 3.8 months (95% CI, 1.8-6.3 months), and the median overall survival was 14.5 months (95% CI, 13.6-20.9 months). The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related events were neutropenia (32.9%), white blood cell count decrease (20%), platelet count decrease (19.3%), and anemia (9.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent mFOLFOX6 plus ADI-PEG 20 exhibited limited antitumor activity in patients with treatment-refractory HCC. The study was terminated early, and no further evaluation of the combination will be pursued. LAY SUMMARY: Arginine is an important nutrient for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The depletion of arginine with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20), an arginine degrader, appeared to make chemotherapy (FOLFOX) work better in animal models of HCC and in patients with HCC on an early phase clinical trial. To formally test this hypothesis in the clinical setting, a large, global, phase 2 clinical trial was conducted of ADI-PEG 20 and FOLFOX in the treatment of patients with refractory HCC. The study showed limited activity of ADI-PEG 20 and FOLFOX in advanced HCC and was stopped early.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(23): 6413-6423, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: No standard treatment exists for platinum-refractory, recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). This phase II study (NCT02605967) evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) of spartalizumab, an antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, versus chemotherapy, in NPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with nonkeratinizing recurrent/metastatic NPC who progressed on/after platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Spartalizumab was dosed 400 mg once every 4 weeks, and chemotherapy was received per investigator's choice. RESULTS: Patients were randomized to receive either spartalizumab (82 patients) or chemotherapy (40 patients). The most common spartalizumab treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (10.3%) and pruritus (9.3%). Median PFS in the spartalizumab arm was 1.9 months versus 6.6 months in the chemotherapy arm (P = 0.915). The overall response rate in the spartalizumab arm was 17.1% versus 35.0% in the chemotherapy arm. Median duration of response was 10.2 versus 5.7 months in the spartalizumab versus chemotherapy arms, respectively. Median overall survival was 25.2 and 15.5 months in the spartalizumab and chemotherapy arms, respectively. Tumor RNA sequencing showed a correlation between response to spartalizumab and IFNγ, LAG-3, and TIM-3 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Spartalizumab demonstrated a safety profile consistent with other anti-PD-1 antibodies. The primary endpoint of median PFS was not met; however, median overall survival and median duration of response were longer with spartalizumab compared with chemotherapy.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439331

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is an adverse side effect of cancer treatment with increasing awareness. Hippocampal damage and related neurocognitive impairment may mediate the development of CICI, in which altered neurogenesis may play a role. In addition, increased inflammation may be related to chemotherapy-induced hippocampal damage. Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that may enhance neurogenesis and modulate inflammation, may be useful for treating CICI. To test this hypothesis, paclitaxel was administered to eight-week-old male B6 mice to demonstrate the relationship between CICI and impaired neurogenesis, and then, we evaluated the impact of different memantine regimens on neurogenesis and inflammation in this CICI model. The results demonstrated that both the pretreatment and cotreatment regimens with memantine successfully reversed impaired neurogenesis and spatial memory impairment in behavior tests. The pretreatment regimen unsuccessfully inhibited the expression of peripheral and central TNF-α and IL-1ß and did not improve the mood alterations following paclitaxel treatment. However, the cotreatment regimen led to a better modulatory effect on inflammation and restoration of mood disturbance. In conclusion, this study illustrated that impaired neurogenesis is one of the mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced CICI. Memantine may serve as a potential treatment for paclitaxel-induced CICI, but different treatment strategies may lead to variations in the treatment efficacy.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14567, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267279

RESUMO

Inconsistent results have been reported for the association between alcohol use and pancreatic cancer, particularly at low levels of alcohol consumption. Individuals genetically susceptible to the carcinogenic effect of alcohol might have higher pancreatic cancer risk after drinking alcohol. The current study investigated the association between alcohol use and pancreatic cancer with 419 pancreatic cancer cases and 963 controls recruited by a hospital-based case-control study in Taiwan. Gene-environment interaction between alcohol use and polymorphisms of two ethanol-metabolizing genes, ADH1B and ALDH2, on pancreatic risk was evaluated. Our results showed no significant association between alcohol drinking and an increased pancreatic cancer risk, even at high levels of alcohol consumption. Even among those genetically susceptible to the carcinogenic effect of alcohol (carriers of ADH1B*2/*2(fast activity) combined with ALDH2*1/*2(slow activity) or ALDH2*2/*2(almost non-functional)), no significant association between alcohol use and pancreatic cancer was observed. Overall, our results suggested that alcohol drinking is not a significant contributor to the occurrence of pancreatic cancer in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Taiwan
12.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 796, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy has changed the paradigm in resectable gastric cancer. S-1 is an oral chemotherapeutic with promising efficacy in Asia. However, comparisons with close observation or platinum-based doublets post D2 gastrectomy have been less reported, notably on real-world experiences. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients with D2-dissected stage IB-III gastric cancer who received S-1 (S-1, n = 67), platinum-based doublets (P, n = 145) and surgery with close observation (OBS, n = 221) from Jan 2008 to Oct 2018. A propensity score matching was used to compare for recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survivals (OS) in patients who had a locally-advanced disease (T3-4 or lymph node-positive). Adverse reactions, dosage, and associated factors for S-1 are also discussed. RESULTS: In a median follow-up time of 51.9 months, adjuvant S-1 monotherapy was associated with an intermediate survival as compared with P and OBS (median RFS/OS: S-1 vs. P, 20.9/35.8 vs. 31.2/50.5 months, HR = 1.76/2.14, p = 0.021/0.008; S-1 vs. OBS, 24.4/40.2 vs. 20.7/27.0 months, HR = 0.62/0.55, p = 0.041/0.024). The survival differences were more prominent in patients with N2-3 diseases. S-1 was well-tolerated with a relative dose intensity of 73.6%, a median duration of 8.3 months and associated with less adverse reactions as compared with P. S-1 monotherapy was selected by physicians based on age, lymph node stage, serum carcinoembryonic antigen and disease stage. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant S-1 correlated with intermediate survival outcomes between OBS and P but conferred fewer adverse reactions as compared with P. Patients with a moderate risk of recurrence had comparable survivals when treated with S-1 while platinum-based doublets were favored in advanced cases. The study provides additional information about adjuvant S-1 in patients with selected risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Oxônico/farmacologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Piridinas/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tegafur/farmacologia
13.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1943253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290906

RESUMO

Background: Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) is a metabolism-based strategy that depletes arginine, resulting in tumoral stress and cytotoxicity. Preclinically, ADI-PEG 20 modulates T-cell activity and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibition. Methods: A phase 1b study, including a dose-escalation cohort and an expansion cohort, was undertaken to explore the effects of ADI-PEG 20 in combination with pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, for safety, pharmacodynamics, and response. CD3 levels and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression were assessed in paired biopsies collected prior to and after ADI-PEG 20 treatment but before pembrolizumab. Results: Twenty-five patients, nine in the dose-escalation cohort and sixteen in the expansion cohort, were recruited. Treatment was feasible with adverse events consistent with those known for each agent, except for Grade 3/4 neutropenia which was higher than expected, occurring in 10/25 (40%) patients. Mean arginine levels were suppressed for 1-3 weeks, but increased gradually. CD3+ T cells increased in 10/12 (83.3%) subjects following ADI-PEG 20 treatment, including in three partial responders (p = .02). PD-L1 expression was low and increased in 3/10 (30%) of subjects. Partial responses occurred in 6/25 (24%) heavily pretreated patients, in both argininosuccinate synthetase 1 proficient and deficient subjects. Conclusions: The immunometabolic combination was safe with the caveat that the incidence of neutropenia might be increased compared with either agent alone. ADI-PEG 20 treatment increased T cell infiltration in the low PD-L1 tumor microenvironment. The recommended phase 2 doses are 36 mg/m2 weekly for ADI-PEG 20 and 200 mg every 3 weeks for pembrolizumab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrolases , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Br J Cancer ; 125(2): 200-208, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This open-label, Phase 1b/2 study evaluated the highly selective MET inhibitor tepotinib in systemic anticancer treatment (SACT)-naive Asian patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) with MET overexpression. METHODS: In Phase 2b, tepotinib was orally administered once daily (300, 500 or 1,000 mg) to Asian adults with aHCC. The primary endpoints were dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and adverse events (AEs). Phase 2 randomised SACT-naive Asian adults with aHCC with MET overexpression to tepotinib (recommended Phase 2 dose [RP2D]) or sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was independently assessed time to progression (TTP). RESULTS: In Phase 1b (n = 27), no DLTs occurred; the RP2D was 500 mg. In Phase 2 (n = 90, 45 patients per arm), the primary endpoint was met: independently assessed TTP was significantly longer with tepotinib versus sorafenib (median 2.9 versus 1.4 months, HR = 0.42, 90% confidence interval: 0.26-0.70, P = 0.0043). Progression-free survival and objective response also favoured tepotinib. Treatment-related Grade ≥3 AE rates were 28.9% with tepotinib and 45.5% with sorafenib. CONCLUSIONS: Tepotinib improved TTP versus sorafenib and was generally well tolerated in SACT-naive Asian patients with aHCC with MET overexpression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01988493.

15.
Cancer Med ; 10(12): 4075-4086, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949155

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Western countries. Less is known regarding its contribution to the OPC occurring in Asia. The current study aimed to investigate the association between antibody responses to HPV16 E7 and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Taiwan with 693 HNC cases and 1,035 controls. A positive association was observed between seropositivity to HPV16 E7 and OPC risk, whereas no significant association was found in the non-OPC cases. The increased OPC risk associated with seropositivity to HPV16 E7 was more significant among nonbetel quid or noncigarette users. Seropositivity to HPV16 E7 showed moderate agreement with P16 expression in OPC. OPC patients that were seropositive to HPV16 E7 or p16 positive were more highly educated and less likely to use alcohol, betel quids, and cigarettes compared to HPV16 E7 seronegative or p16 negative OPC patients. Furthermore, patients with p16 positive OPC were more likely to be women compared to patients with p16 negative OPC, likely owing to the low prevalence of alcohol, betel quid, and cigarette users among women. Overall, this study suggested that similar to Western countries, HPV may also be an important risk factor of OPC in Taiwan. With the declining consumption of betel quids and cigarettes in Taiwan, a higher percentage of OPC cases in Taiwan will be attributed to HPV in the future. Public health measures, including HPV vaccination, need to be implemented to prevent the occurrence of HPV-positive OPC.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 895-902, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792646

RESUMO

Importance: Immunotherapy has been associated with improved outcomes among patients who have received previous treatment for microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) tumors. Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity of pembrolizumab therapy vs chemotherapy among patients with MSI-H advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) cancer regardless of the line of therapy in which it was received. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the phase 2 KEYNOTE-059 (third-line treatment or higher) single-arm trial and the phase 3 KEYNOTE-061 (second-line treatment) and KEYNOTE-062 (first-line treatment) randomized trials included patients with advanced G/GEJ cancer from 52 sites in 16 countries enrolled in KEYNOTE-059, 148 sites in 30 countries enrolled in KEYNOTE-061, and 200 sites in 29 countries enrolled in KEYNOTE-062. Patients were enrolled from March 2, 2015, to March 26, 2016, in KEYNOTE-059; from June 4, 2015, to July 26, 2016, in KEYNOTE-061; and from September 18, 2015, to May 26, 2017, in KEYNOTE-062, with data cutoff dates of August 8, 2018; October 26, 2017; and March 26, 2019; respectively. Interventions: Pembrolizumab monotherapy in KEYNOTE-059, pembrolizumab monotherapy or chemotherapy (paclitaxel) in KEYNOTE-061, and pembrolizumab monotherapy, pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine), or chemotherapy alone in KEYNOTE-062. Main Outcomes and Measures: Response was assessed centrally using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), version 1.1; MSI-H status was determined centrally by polymerase chain reaction testing. Results: At data cutoff, 7 of 174 patients (4.0%) in KEYNOTE-059, 27 of 514 patients (5.3%) in KEYNOTE-061, and 50 of 682 patients (7.3%) in KEYNOTE-062 had MSI-H tumors. Among those with MSI-H tumors, the median overall survival was not reached (NR) for pembrolizumab in KEYNOTE-059, KEYNOTE-061, and KEYNOTE-062 or for pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy in KEYNOTE-062. The median progression-free survival (PFS) for pembrolizumab was NR (95% CI, 1.1 months to NR) in KEYNOTE-059 and 17.8 months (95% CI, 2.7 months to NR) in KEYNOTE-061 (vs 3.5 months [95% CI, 2.0-9.8 months] for chemotherapy). In KEYNOTE-062, the median PFS was 11.2 months (95% CI, 1.5 months to NR) for pembrolizumab, NR (95% CI, 3.6 months to NR) for pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, and 6.6 months (95% CI, 4.4-8.3 months) for chemotherapy. The objective response rate (ORR) for pembrolizumab was 57.1% in KEYNOTE-059 and 46.7% (vs 16.7% for chemotherapy) in KEYNOTE-061. In KEYNOTE-062, the ORR was 57.1% for pembrolizumab , 64.7% for pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, and 36.8% for chemotherapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Findings from this study indicate that MSI-H status may be a biomarker for pembrolizumab therapy among patients with advanced G/GEJ cancer regardless of the line of therapy in which it was received. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02335411, NCT02370498, and NCT02494583.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(13): 3649-3660, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: HER2/neu is overexpressed in up to 30% of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEA) and linked to poor prognosis. Recombinant mAbs to treat HER2/neu-overexpressing cancers are effective with limitations, including resistance and toxicity. Therefore, we developed a therapeutic B-cell epitope vaccine (IMU-131/HER-Vaxx) consisting of three fused B-cell epitopes from the HER2/neu extracellular domain coupled to CRM197 and adjuvanted with Montanide. This phase Ib study aimed to evaluate the optimal/safe dose leading to immunogenicity and clinical responses (https//clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02795988). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with HER2/neu-overexpressing GEA were enrolled, and dose escalation (10, 30, 50 µg) was performed in three cohorts (C). Immunogenicity was evaluated by HER2-specific Abs and cellular responses, clinical responses by CT scans according to RECIST version 1.1. RESULTS: IMU-131 was safe without vaccine-related significant local/systemic reactions or serious adverse events. A total of 11 of 14 patients were evaluable for changes in tumor size and vaccine-specific immune responses. One patient showed complete, 5 partial responses, and 4 stable diseases as their best response. HER2-specific IgG levels were dose dependent. In contrast to patients in C1 and C2, all patients in C3 mounted substantial HER2-specific Ab levels. In addition, cellular vaccine responses, such as Th1-biased cytokine ratios and reduced regulatory T cell numbers, were generated. Progression-free survival was prolonged in C3, correlating with the vaccine-specific humoral and cellular responses. CONCLUSIONS: IMU-131 was well tolerated and safe. The induced HER2-specific Abs and cellular responses were dose dependent and correlated with clinical responses. The highest dose (50 µg) was recommended for further evaluation in a phase II trial, with chemotherapy + IMU-131 or chemotherapy alone, which is currently ongoing.

18.
Histopathology ; 79(4): 556-572, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837585

RESUMO

AIMS: Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) is an uncommon hepatic malignancy with a poor outcome. The 2019 World Health Organization (WHO) classification modified the definition and discarded the subtypes with stem cell features. However, the differences among cHCC-CCA, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC with stem cell/progenitor features (HCCscf) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) remain undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of cHCC-CCA in comparison with those of other primary liver cancers by utilising the updated WHO classification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed 64 cHCC-CCA patients and 55 HCCscf patients from December 2007 to May 2018. Propensity score matching was conducted to compare these with HCC and iCCA patients. Clinicopathological characteristics, event-free survival and overall survival were evaluated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 55.9 months, cHCC-CCA patients had significantly poorer survival than HCCscf patients, and survival intermediate between that of HCC patients and that of iCCA patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and high levels of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were associated with favourable survival in cHCC-CCA patients. In the multivariate analysis, poor hepatic reserve, absence of HBV infection, stage IV disease and low levels of TILs were significant negative prognostic factors in cHCC-CCA patients. After being pooled with other primary liver cancers, cHCC-CCA and iCCA resulted in the worse survival. CONCLUSIONS: cHCC-CCA patients have survival intermediate between that of HCC patients and iCCA patients, and HBV infection and high levels of TILs predict favourable survival. Our study provides clinical correlations for the new 2019 WHO classification.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1388-1397, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post hoc analyses assessed the prognostic and predictive value of baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as well as clinical outcomes by AFP response or progression, during treatment in two placebo-controlled trials (REACH, REACH-2). METHODS: Serum AFP was measured at baseline and every three cycles. The prognostic and predictive value of baseline AFP was assessed by Cox regression models and Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot method. Associations between AFP (≥ 20% increase) and radiographic progression and efficacy were assessed. RESULTS: Baseline AFP was confirmed as a continuous (REACH, REACH-2; p < 0.0001) and dichotomous (≥400 vs. <400 ng/ml; REACH, p < 0.01) prognostic factor, and was predictive for ramucirumab survival benefit in REACH (p = 0.0042 continuous; p < 0.0001 dichotomous). Time to AFP (hazard ratio [HR] 0.513; p < 0.0001) and radiographic (HR 0.549; p < 0.0001) progression favoured ramucirumab. Association between AFP and radiographic progression was shown for up to 6 (odds ratio [OR] 5.1; p < 0.0001) and 6-12 weeks (OR 1.8; p = 0.0065). AFP response was higher with ramucirumab vs. placebo (p < 0.0001). Survival was longer in patients with an AFP response than patients without (13.6 vs. 5.6 months, HR 0.451; 95% confidence interval, 0.354-0.574; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: AFP is an important prognostic factor and a predictive biomarker for ramucirumab survival benefit. AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml is an appropriate selection criterion for ramucirumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, REACH (NCT01140347) and REACH-2 (NCT02435433).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
20.
Oral Oncol ; 115: 105192, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether palbociclib and cetuximab prolonged overall survival (OS) versus placebo and cetuximab. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, phase 2 trial (PALATINUS), patients with platinum-resistant, cetuximab-naïve, human papillomavirus-unrelated recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma received cetuximab and either palbociclib (arm A) or placebo (arm B). The primary endpoint was OS; 120 patients were required to have ≥80% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.6 (median OS of 10 months in arm A and 6 months in arm B) using a one-sided, log-rank test (P = 0.10). RESULTS: 125 patients were randomized (arm A: 65, arm B: 60). Median follow-up was 15.9 months (IQR, 11.3-22.7). Median OS was 9.7 months in arm A and 7.8 months in arm B (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54-1.25; P = 0.18). Median progression-free survival was 3.9 months in arm A and 4.6 months in arm B (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.67-1.5; P = 0.50). The most common treatment-related adverse events in arm A were rash (39 patients, 60.9%) and neutropenia (26, 40.6%; three febrile) and in arm B was rash (32, 53.3%). CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in median OS with palbociclib and cetuximab versus placebo and cetuximab. FUNDING: Pfizer Inc (NCT02499120).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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