Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116689, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592448

RESUMO

Understanding wetland water quality dynamics and associated influencing factors is important to assess the numerous ecosystem services they provide. We present a combined self-organizing map (SOM) and linear mixed-effects model (LMEM) to relate water quality variation of multipond systems (MPSs, a common type of non-floodplain wetlands in agricultural regions of southern China) to their extrinsic and intrinsic influences for the first time. Across the 6 test MPSs with environmental gradients, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphate (TP) almost always exceeded the surface water quality standard (2.0, 2.0, and 0.4 mg/L, respectively) in the up- and midstream ponds, while chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) exhibited hypertrophic state (≥28 µg/L) in the midstream ponds during the wet season. Synergistic influences explained 69±12% and 73±10% of the water quality variations in the wet and dry season, respectively. The adverse, extrinsic influences were generally 1.4, 6.9, 3.2, and 4.3 times of the beneficial, intrinsic influences for NH4+-N, nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), TP, and potassium permanganate index (CODMn), respectively, although the influencing direction and degree of forest and water area proportion were spatiotemporally unstable. While CODMn was primarily linked with rural residential areas in the midstream, higher TN and TP concentrations in the up- and midstream were associated with agricultural land, and NH4+-N reflected a small but non-negligible source of free-range poultry feeding. Pond surface sediments exhibited consistent, adverse effects with amplifications during rainfall, while macrophyte biomass can reflect the biological uptake of CODMn and Chl-a, especially in the mid- and downstream during the wet season. Our study advances nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) research for small water bodies, explores nutrient "source-sink" dynamics, and provides a timely guide for rural planning and pond management. The modelling procedures and analytical results can inform refined assessment of similar NFWs elsewhere, where restoration efforts are required.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141112, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791405

RESUMO

How anticipated climate change might affect long-term outcomes of present-day agricultural conservation practices remains a key uncertainty that could benefit water quality and biodiversity conservation planning. To explore this issue, we forecasted how the stream fish communities in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) would respond to increasing amounts of agricultural conservation practice (ACP) implementation under two IPCC future greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP4.5: moderate reductions; RCP8.5: business-as-usual conditions) during 2020-2065. We used output from 19 General Circulation Models to drive linked agricultural land use (APEX), watershed hydrology (SWAT), and stream fish distribution (boosted regression tree) models, subsequently analyzing how projected changes in habitat would influence fish community composition and functional trait diversity. Our models predicted both positive and negative effects of climate change and ACP implementation on WLEB stream fishes. For most species, climate and ACPs influenced species in the same direction, with climate effects outweighing those of ACP implementation. Functional trait analysis helped clarify the varied responses among species, indicating that more extreme climate change would reduce available habitat for large-bodied, cool-water species with equilibrium life-histories, many of which also are of importance to recreational fishing (e.g., northern pike, smallmouth bass). By contrast, available habitat for warm-water, benthic species with more periodic or opportunistic life-histories (e.g., northern hogsucker, greater redhorse, greenside darter) was predicted to increase. Further, ACP implementation was projected to hasten these shifts, suggesting that efforts to improve water quality could come with costs to other ecosystem services (e.g., recreational fishing opportunities). Collectively, our findings demonstrate the need to consider biological outcomes when developing strategies to mitigate water quality impairment and highlight the value of physical-biological modeling approaches to agricultural and biological conservation planning in a changing climate.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Agricultura , Animais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Hidrologia
3.
Water Res ; 184: 115987, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688156

RESUMO

Assessing the hydrologic processes over scales ranging from single wetland to regional is critical to understand the hydrologically-driven ecosystem services especially nutrient buffering of wetlands. Here, we present a novel approach to quantify the multiscale hydrologic regulation of multipond systems (MPSs), a common type of small, scattered wetland in humid agricultural regions, because previous studies have stopped in commending the catchment scale flood and drought resilience of these waters, and contemporary models do not adequately represent the corresponding intra-catchment fill-spill relationships. A new version of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was developed to incorporate improved representation of: (1) perennial or intermittent spillage connections of pond-to-pond and pond-to-stream, and (2) bidirectional exchange between pond surface water and shallow groundwater. We present SWAT-MPS, which adopts rule-based artificial intelligence to model the possibilities of different spillage directions and GA-based parameter optimization over the two simulation years (June 2017 to May 2019), with successfully replicated streamflow and pond water-level variations in a 4.8 km2 test catchment, southern China. Water balance analysis and scenario simulations were then executed to assess the hydrologic regulation at single pond, single MPS, and entire catchment scales. Results revealed (1) the presence of 9 series- or series-parallel connected MPSs, in which pond overflow accounted for as much as 59% of the catchment water yield; (2) seasonally- and MPS-independent baseflow support and quickflow attenuation, with ranked level of pond water storage for baseflow support across different landuse types: forest > farm > village, and inversed correlation of pond spillage to baseflow and quickflow variations in the farmland; and (3) MPS-aggregated catchment flood peak reduction (>20%) and baseflow increment (26%) in the following dry days. Meteorological data analysis and simulated average daily values indicated these hydrologic patterns are credible even if extending to a 5-year period. As a first modelling attempt to explore the intra-catchment details of MPSs, our study underscores the water storage and connectivity in their hydrologic regulation, and suggests inventories, long-term field monitoring, and several research directions of the new model for integrated pond management in watersheds and river basins. These findings can inform refined assessment of similar small, scattered wetlands elsewhere, where restoration efforts are required.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Ecossistema , Agricultura , China , Hidrologia , Rios
4.
Water Res ; 177: 115767, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283435

RESUMO

The curve number (CN) method developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1954 is the most common adopted method to estimate surface runoff. For years, applicability of the CN method is a conundrum when implementing to other countries. Specifically, countries with more complex natural environment may require more dedicated adjustments. Therefore, the current CN look-up table provided by USDA might not be appropriate and could be questionable to be applied directly to regions elsewhere. Some studies have been conducted to modify CN values according to specified natural characteristics in scattered regions of mainland China. However, an integral and representative work is still not available to address potential concerns in general matters. In this study, a large set of rainfall-runoff monitoring data were collected to adjust CN values in 55 study sites across China. The results showed that the revised CN values are largely different from CN look-up table provided by USDA, which would lead to huge errors in runoff estimation. In this study, the revised CN (dubbed CN-China) provides better reference guidelines that are suitable for most natural conditions in China. In addition, scientists and engineers from other parts of the world can take advantage of the proposed work to enhance the quality of future programs related to surface runoff estimation.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137737, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208241

RESUMO

Temporal scale is an important keyword in environmental hydrology but little information is available in the relationship between correlation and time variability degree of hydro-environmental variables at a watershed scale, which makes it difficult to design effective real-time management strategies. Here we take the Yanhe River Watershed as a study case to simulate and inventory the fractal characteristics of correlation and time variability degree of runoff, rainfall, and NH4+-N at different time scales, focusing on the long-term series of 1984-2012. (i) The coupled modeling framework based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), statistics and fractal theory is a time series analysis method that is particularly suitable for the evaluation of long-range correlation of non-linear time series. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE), R2 and PBIAS during the calibration and verification period proved the reliability and acceptability of the established SWAT model in modeling multi-time scale runoff and NH4+-N load in the upstream catchment of Ganguyi hydrological station. (ii) Runoffs at all time scales showed positive correlations with rainfall although the significant level had a certain time scale differences. More interestingly, the correlation between NH4+-N loss and runoff at different time scales was significantly higher than that of rainfall. (iii) Each hydro-environmental variable has different fractal and time variation characteristics at different time scales, and the correlation levels between different hydrological variables are not completely consistent with their own time variability degrees at different time scales. These findings point to a fundamental challenge in managing regions with leading infiltration-excess runoff and uneven nutrient loading because the meteorological and hydrological variables in these regions exhibit the strongest temporal variability, which will affect the effective allocation and implementation in management practices.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 393: 122363, 2020 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120210

RESUMO

Antibiotics are ubiquitous in agro-ecosystems worldwide, which can pose remarkable risks to ecological security and human health. However, comprehensive evaluation on the multimedia fate and transport potential of antibiotics in soil-plant systems is still lacking. A mass balance approach was performed to gain insights into the transport and fate of antibiotics in soil-plant systems following manure application. Our results showed that more than 99 % of antibiotics were released from applied manure fertilizer into the soil-plant system. Antibiotic concentrations in soil and plant compartments increased over 120 days. Most of the antibiotics persisted in soil (about 65 %), while less than 0.1 % accumulated in the plants. Rainfall-induced runoff, subsurface interflow and soil water infiltration were alternative transport pathways for antibiotics in soil-plant systems although their contributions were limited. Dissipation was the main removal pathway for antibiotics accounting for about 33 % of total input mass. Tetracyclines had higher mass proportion in soil following by quinolones, whereas most of sulfonamides and macrolides were dissipated. Mass balance approach based on tracking environmental fates of antibiotics can facilitate the understandings in the source comparisons and mitigation strategies, and therefore provide insights to inform modeling and limiting the transport of manure-borne antibiotics to neighboring environmental compartments.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136851, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018984

RESUMO

The net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) model has been used extensively to assess changes in phosphorus (P) inputs and cycling in the environment. However, temporary populations have generally been unconsidered in these assessments. In this study, the NAPI model was used to estimate P loads from the 16 towns and villages in the Erhai Lake Basin (ELB), Southwest China and to evaluate the potential impact from temporary residents (tourism). The results showed that the average value P inputs in the basin (estimated at 2384 kg P km-2 year-1) were 5 times the national average level, and that temporary residents contributed 1%. Agriculture accounted for most of the net P, with chemical fertilizers (55% of the inputs) as the main source, followed by food and animal feed. Only 9.54% of the P inputs to the basin were exported. River water quality and NAPI were significantly correlated (P < 0.01). Tourism industry contributes significantly to regional economic growth and prosperity, but its beneficial effects on the economy does not equate with the adverse impact on environment. This study illustrates what is happening in Southwest China and provides scientific evidence that shows we need to find novel ways to reduce nutrients.

8.
Environ Int ; 134: 105327, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760259

RESUMO

Due to the intensive use and continuous release, high and persistent concentrations of antibiotics are found in soils worldwide. This severe contamination elevates the risks associated with antibiotic exposure and resistance for soil ecosystems and human health. Estimating antibiotic concentrations in soils is a complex and important challenge because the limited information is available on antibiotic use and emission and the high exposure risk to human health occurred in peri-urban areas. In this study, soil antibiotic contamination was linked with land use patterns in a data-scarce peri-urban area in four different seasons, and we established a modeling framework based on land use to estimate spatially explicit distribution of antibiotics in soils. The soil antibiotic concentration was found to be substantially affected by surrounding land use patterns in buffer zones with a radius of 350 m. Agricultural land was the main source of antibiotics entering the soil. Notably, road networks also had considerable impacts on antibiotic residues in soils. Then, a statistical model was developed in describing the linkage between land use patterns and soil antibiotic concentration. Model evaluation suggested that the proposed model successfully simulated the variation of antibiotics in soil with good statistical performance (R2 > 0.7). Finally, the model was extrapolated to investigate detailed distribution of antibiotics in soils. Clear spatial and seasonal dynamics can be found in soil antibiotic concentration. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to adopt a model focusing on land use pattern to estimate the spatially explicit distribution of antibiotics in soils. Despite of some uncertainties, the research provides a land-use-based modeling approach as a reference for preventing and controlling soil antibiotic contamination in the future.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Modelos Estatísticos , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial
9.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109477, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479934

RESUMO

Although the real-time monitoring technique has been widely applied due to the improvement of sensors, development of traditional sampling methods is still worth of being discussed due to the economically feasibility. Currently, extreme events (e.g. extreme rainfall caused by climate change) play a relatively important role in nutrient export. However, impacts of extreme events on the optimization of sampling strategy is still not well addressed despite the uncertainty of different frequency sampling programs has been sufficiently discussed in previous studies. Therefore, the corresponding impact of extreme events impact on the optimization of sampling strategy was investigated by examining temporal (i.e., inter-annual and seasonal) variations of available data. Uncertainty of nutrient flux estimates under different sampling frequencies was explored by subsampling daily monitoring data. Results showed that uncertainty in flux estimates differed between nitrogen and phosphorus. The relative error (RE) in annual TN flux estimates ranged from -4.2% to 2.4% (once per three-day) to -21.4-31.1% (monthly sampling), while the RE in annual TP flux estimates varied from -14.1% to 8.2% (once per three-day) to -65.9%-163.4% (monthly sampling). Biweekly and weekly sampling routines are considered the optimal sampling program for total nitrogen (TN) and for total phosphorus (TP) when the extreme events impact were not been considered. The uncertainty of flux estimates with different sampling frequencies increased with the increasing extreme events. High level of uncertainty occurred in years with the most extreme events in 2012 (RE: 21.4-69.0% for TN, 33.3-96.6% for TP), while the lowest can be found in 2011 (RE: 0-20.7% for TN, 0-48.3% for TP) (with the fewest extreme events). In addition, uncertainty in TN and TP flux estimates was generally greater during summer season than during other seasons. These results highlighted the important role of extreme events in nutrient export. Approximately half of the annual TN and TP flux occurred in some extreme days that only accounted for less than 20% in the same year. The onset of these extremes of nutrient export was likely due to the stormflow with addition of external fertilizer and the direct discharge of surface ponding water from paddy fields during special periods of time. These results would be helpful for the optimization of sampling strategy.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 669: 512-526, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884273

RESUMO

The application of pesticides in agriculture is a widely-used way to alleviate pest stresses. However, it also introduces various environmental concerns due to the offsite movement of pesticide residues towards receiving water bodies. While the application of process-based modeling approaches can provide quantitative information on pesticide exposure, there are nonetheless growing requirements for model development and improvement to better represent various hydrological and physico-chemical conditions at watershed scale, and for better model integration to address environmental, ecological and economic concerns. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an ecohydrological model used in over 3000 published studies, including about 50 for simulating pesticide fate and transport at the watershed scale. To better understand its strengths and limitations, we conducted a rigorous review of published studies that have used SWAT for pesticide modeling. This review provides recommendations for improving the interior algorithms (fate simulation, pathway representation, transport/pollution control, and other hydrological related improvement) to better represent natural conditions, and for further extension of pesticide exposure modeling using SWAT by linking it with other models or management tools to effectively address the various concerns of environmental researchers and local decision makers. Going beyond past studies, we also recommend future improvement to fill research gaps in developing modularized field level simulation, improved BMPs, new in-pond and in-stream modules, and the incorporation of soft data. Our review pointed out a new insight of pesticide fate and transport modeling at watershed level, which should be seen as steps leading to the direction for model development, as well as better addressing management concerns of local stakeholders for model implementation.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 164-175, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114587

RESUMO

Terrestrial fate and transport processes of E. coli can be complicated by human activities like urbanization or livestock grazing. There is a critical need to address contributing sources of bacterial contamination, properly assess the management of critical sources, and ultimately reduce E. coli concentrations in impaired water bodies. In particular, characterization of wildlife animal contributions and other "background" input sources of microbial pollution are highly uncertain and data are scarce. This study attempts to identify critical sources of E. coli and the efficacy of conservation practices for mitigating E. coli concentrations in the Arroyo Colorado watershed, Texas, using a process-based hydrologic and water quality model. We propose to incorporate a bacterial source tracking assessment into the modeling framework to fill the gap in data on wildlife and human contribution. In addition, other sources identified through a GIS survey, national census, and local expert knowledge were incorporated into the model as E. coli sources. Results suggest that simulated distribution of E. coli sources significantly improved after incorporating this enhanced data on E. coli sources into the model (R2 = 0.90) compared to the SWAT result without BST (R2 = 0.59). Scenario assessments indicate that wildlife contributions may remain significant despite land use change and urbanization, expected to mostly occur in agricultural and range lands. A combination of nonpoint source management measures, voluntary implementation of advanced treatment by wastewater plants where possible, and installation of aerators in the zone of impairment were demonstrated to be effective measures for restoring the recreation and aquatic life uses of the Arroyo Colorado.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Modelos Teóricos , Texas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 569-570: 1265-1281, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387796

RESUMO

Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.

13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 232(1): 285-94, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24985892

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The mesolimbic dopamine system is an important component of the neural circuitry controlling reward-related behavior. We have recently shown that the melanocortin peptides decrease normal homeostatic feeding through actions in the ventral tegmental area. It is unknown, however, whether melanocortin peptides can also act on dopamine pathways to regulate hedonic, reward-related aspects of feeding. OBJECTIVES: In these studies, we tested whether injection of melanocortin receptor agonists directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) affected the intake of appetizing and rewarding sugar solutions in two-bottle choice tests. METHODS: Varying doses of the melanocortin receptor agonist, MTII, were injected into the VTA, and the intake of different sugar solutions was measured in two-bottle choice tests to distinguish between potential effects on homeostatic versus hedonic aspects of feeding. In addition, 24-h food intake was measured throughout the experiments. RESULTS: Injection of MTII into the VTA dose dependently decreased the intake of 1 and 2 % sucrose solutions and 0.2 % saccharin solutions and decreased 24-h food intake in each study. Although MTII also decreased the intake of a 10 % sucrose solution, MTII appeared to be less potent in rats exposed to 10 % sucrose, as only the highest dose of MTII tested was effective at reducing 10 % sucrose intake and food intake in these rats. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that melanocortins can act directly in the VTA to control reward-related feeding. Thus, these studies add to the growing body of evidence showing that melanocortins can interact with the mesolimbic dopamine system to regulate multiple reward-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanocortinas/administração & dosagem , Recompensa , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Injeções Intraventriculares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia
14.
J Environ Qual ; 43(3): 869-80, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602816

RESUMO

In recent years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has experienced upgrades with enhanced functionalities and modeling capacities as it gets to the current version, SWAT2012. Changes in the SWAT code on a specific process may result in propagating influences in the output of other related processes. In this study, the characteristic significance of the enhancements in SWAT code was investigated using the two recent versions, SWAT2009 and SWAT2012. Using a global optimization technique, each model was calibrated for flow, sediment, and nutrient and then tested for transferability of parameters between the models. Results indicate that flow and water quality output were well calibrated with both models. However, the calibrated parameters determined by SWAT2009 and SWAT2012 were noticeably different, due mostly to the enhancements made in SWAT2012. Our results indicate that only the stream flow result was reliable when the models were upgraded or downgraded between the two versions after calibration. Sediment prediction was marginally reliable. SWAT parameters were nontransferrable if nutrient was the main output. The differences are due to various reasons, such as disparities in algorithms at the process level and propagation of the resulting uncertainty into higher-order processes.

15.
J Environ Qual ; 43(5): 1601-13, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25603246

RESUMO

Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the large number of parameters at the disposal of these models, circumstances may arise in which excellent global results are achieved using inaccurate magnitudes of these "intra-watershed" responses. When used for scenario analysis, a given model hence may inaccurately predict the global, in-stream effect of implementing land-use practices at the interior of the watershed. In this study, data regarding internal watershed behavior are used to constrain parameter estimation to maintain realistic intra-watershed responses while also matching available in-stream monitoring data. The methodology is demonstrated for the Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana. Streamflow and nitrate (NO) loading are used as global in-stream comparisons, with two process responses, the annual mass of denitrification and the ratio of NO losses from subsurface and surface flow, used to constrain parameter estimation. Results show that imposing these constraints not only yields realistic internal watershed behavior but also provides good in-stream comparisons. Results further demonstrate that in the absence of incorporating intra-watershed constraints, evaluation of nutrient abatement strategies could be misleading, even though typical performance criteria are satisfied. Incorporating intra-watershed responses yields a watershed model that more accurately represents the observed behavior of the system and hence a tool that can be used with confidence in scenario evaluation.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...