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1.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(11): 23259671211052530, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778483

RESUMO

Background: Bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament repair (BEAR) has noninferior patient-reported outcomes when compared with autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) at 2 years. However, the comparison of BEAR and autograft ACLR at earlier time points-including important outcomes such as resolution of knee pain and symptoms, recovery of strength, and return to sport-has not yet been reported. Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the BEAR group would have higher outcomes on the International Knee Documentation Committee and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as well as improved muscle strength, in the early postoperative period. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: A total of 100 patients aged 13 to 35 years with complete midsubstance anterior cruciate ligament injuries were randomized to receive a suture repair augmented with an extracellular matrix implant (n = 65) or an autograft ACLR (n = 35). Outcomes were assessed at time points up to 2 years postoperatively. Mixed-model repeated-measures analyses were used to compare BEAR and ACLR outcomes. Patients were unblinded after their 2-year visit. Results: Repeated-measures testing revealed a significant effect of group on the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Score (P = .015), most pronounced at 6 months after surgery (BEAR = 86 points vs ACLR = 78 points; P = .001). There was a significant effect of group on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Symptoms subscale scores (P = .010), largely attributed to the higher BEAR scores at the 1-year postoperative time point (88 vs 82; P = .009). The effect of group on hamstring strength was significant in the repeated-measures analysis (P < .001), as well as at all postoperative time points (P < .001 for all comparisons). At 1 year after surgery, approximately 88% of the patients in the BEAR group and 76% of the ACLR group had been cleared for return to sport (P = .261). Conclusion: Patients undergoing the BEAR procedure had earlier resolution of symptoms and increased satisfaction about their knee function, as well as improved resolution of hamstring muscle strength throughout the 2-year follow-up period. Registration: NCT02664545 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

2.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211046928, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported disparities in orthopaedic care resulting from demographic factors, including insurance status. However, the effect of insurance on pediatric tibial spine fractures (TSFs), an uncommon but significant injury, is unknown. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of insurance status on the evaluation and treatment of TSFs in children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of TSFs treated at 10 institutions between 2000 and 2019. Demographic data were collected, as was information regarding pre-, intra-, and postoperative treatment, with attention to delays in management and differences in care. Surgical and nonsurgical fractures were included, but a separate analysis of surgical patients was performed. Univariate analysis was followed by purposeful entry multivariate regression to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: Data were collected on 434 patients (mean ± SD age, 11.7 ± 3.0 years) of which 61.1% had private (commercial) insurance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained at similar rates for children with public and private insurance (41.4% vs 41.9%, respectively; P≥ .999). However, multivariate analysis revealed that those with MRI performed ≥21 days after injury were 5.3 times more likely to have public insurance (95% CI, 1.3-21.7; P = .02). Of the 434 patients included, 365 required surgery. Similar to the overall cohort, those in the surgical subgroup with MRI ≥21 days from injury were 4.8 times more likely to have public insurance (95% CI, 1.2-19.6; P = .03). Children who underwent surgery ≥21 days after injury were 2.5 times more likely to have public insurance (95% CI, 1.1-6.1; P = .04). However, there were no differences in the nature of the surgery or findings at surgery. Those who were publicly insured were 4.1 times more likely to be immobilized in a cast rather than a brace postoperatively (95% CI, 2.3-7.4; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Children with public insurance and a TSF were more likely to experience delays with MRI and surgical treatment than those with private insurance. However, there were no differences in the nature of the surgery or findings at surgery. Additionally, patients with public insurance were more likely to undergo postoperative casting rather than bracing.

3.
Am J Sports Med ; : 3635465211047554, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-based measurements of signal intensity have been used to track healing of surgically treated anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs). However, it is unknown how the signal intensity values in different regions of the ligament or graft change during healing. HYPOTHESES: (1) Normalized signal intensity of the healing graft or repaired ACL is heterogeneous; (2) temporal changes in normalized signal intensity values differ among the tibial, middle, and femoral regions; and (3) there are no differences in regional normalized signal intensity values 2 years postoperatively among grafts, repaired ACLs, and contralateral native ACLs. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed from patients in a trial comparing ACL reconstruction (n = 35) with bridge-enhanced ACL repair (n = 65). The ACLs were segmented from images acquired at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively and were partitioned into 3 sections along the longitudinal axis (femoral, middle, and tibial). Linear mixed modeling was used to compare location-specific differences in normalized ligament signal intensity among time points (6, 12, and 24 months) and groups (ACL reconstruction, repair, and contralateral native ACL). RESULTS: For grafts, the middle region had a higher mean normalized signal intensity when compared with the femoral region at all time points (P < .01) but compared with the tibial region only at 6 months (P < .01). For repaired ACLs, the middle region had a higher mean normalized signal intensity versus the femoral region at all time points (P < .01) but versus the tibial region only at 6 and 12 months (P < .04). From 6 to 24 months, the grafts showed the greatest reduction in normalized signal intensity in the femoral and middle regions (vs tibial regions; P < .01), while there were no regional differences in repaired ACLs. At 2 years after surgery, repaired ACLs had a lower normalized signal intensity in the tibial region as compared with reconstructed grafts and contralateral native ACLs (P < .01). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that graft remodeling is location specific. Repaired ACLs were more homogeneous, with lower or comparable normalized signal intensity values at 2 years as compared with the contralateral native ACL and reconstructed grafts.

4.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(10): 617-624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little data exists on surgical outcomes of sports-related cervical spine injuries (CSI) sustained in children and adolescent athletes. This study reviewed demographics, injury characteristics, management, and operative outcomes of severe CSI encountered in youth sports. METHODS: Children below 18 years with operative sports-related CSI at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center were reviewed (2004 to 2019). All patients underwent morden cervical spine instrumentation and fusion. Clinical, radiographic, and surgical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 3231 patients (mean, 11.3±4.6 y) with neck pain were evaluated for CSI. Sports/recreational activities were the most common etiology in 1358 cases (42.0%). Twenty-nine patients (2.1%) with sports-related CSI (mean age, 14.5 y; range, 6.4 to 17.8 y) required surgical intervention. Twenty-five were males (86%). Operative CSI occurred in football (n=8), wrestling (n=7), gymnastics (n=5), diving (n=4), trampoline (n=2), hockey (n=1), snowboarding (n=1), and biking (n=1). Mechanisms were 27 hyperflexion/axial loading (93%) and 2 hyperextension injuries (7%). Most were cervical fractures (79%) and subaxial injuries (79%). Seven patients (24%) sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) and 3 patients (10%) cord contusion or myelomalacia without neurological deficits. The risk of SCI increased with age (P=0.03). Postoperatively, 2 SCI patients (29%) improved 1 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale Grade and 1 (14%) improved 2 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale Grades. Increased complications developed in SCI than non-SCI cases (mean, 2.0 vs. 0.1 complications; P=0.02). Bony fusion occurred in 26/28 patients (93%) after a median of 7.2 months (interquartile range, 6 to 15 mo). Ten patients (34%) returned to their baseline sport and 9 (31%) to lower-level activities. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of sports-related CSI requiring surgery is low with differences in age/sex, sport, and injury patterns. Older males with hyperflexion/axial loading injuries in contact sports were at greatest risk of SCI, complications, and permanent disability. Prevention campaigns, education on proper tackling techniques, and neck strength training are required in sports at high risk of hyperflexion/axial loading injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
5.
J Hip Preserv Surg ; 8(1): 75-82, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567603

RESUMO

Few studies have examined factors related to the increased consumption of opioids after hip arthroscopy in adolescents and young adults. This study sought to determine prescription patterns following hip arthroscopy in this population, and to determine clinical or surgical factors associated with increased post-operative opioid use. Daily post-operative opioid intake was obtained from pain-control logbooks of adolescents and young adults who underwent hip arthroscopy between January 2017 and 2020. Study outcomes were defined as the median total number of opioid tablets consumed, total days opioids were consumed, mean daily opioid consumption and the ratio of opioids prescribed post-operatively to consumed. Clinical and surgical factors were analyzed to determine any association with opioid consumption. Fifty-eight (20%) patients returned completed logbooks. Most patients (73%) were prescribed 30 oxycodone tablets. The median number of tablets consumed was 7 (range 0-41) over a median duration of 7 days (range 1-22). The median ratio of tablets consumed to prescribed was 20%. Increasing patient age at surgery was associated with increased total number of tablets consumed (r = 0.28, P = 0.04) and to the ratio of tablets consumed to prescribed (r = 0.30, P = 0.03). Patients who were prescribed more than 30 tablets consumed on average 7.8 more tablets than patients prescribed fewer (P = 0.003). Patients who underwent regional anesthesia consumed tablets for longer compared with those who did not (median, 10 versus 4 days; P = 0.03). After undergoing hip arthroscopy, adolescents and young adult patients are commonly overprescribed opioids, consuming on average only one-fifth of the tablets prescribed.

6.
J Child Orthop ; 15(2): 149-156, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040661

RESUMO

Purpose: Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of knee pain and dysfunction in paediatric and adolescent patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of patellar dislocations seen in emergency departments (EDs) and the rates of surgical procedures for patellar instability at paediatric hospitals in the United States between 2004 and 2014. Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried for all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for patellar instability or were seen in the ED for acute patellar dislocation between 2004 and 2014. This was compared with the annual numbers of overall orthopaedic surgical procedures. Results: Between 2004 and 2014, there were 3481 patellar instability procedures and 447 285 overall orthopaedic surgical procedures performed at the included institutions, suggesting a rate of 7.8 per 1000 orthopaedic surgeries. An additional 5244 patellar dislocations treated in EDs were identified. Between 2004 and 2014, the number of patellar instability procedures increased 2.1-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 3.0), while orthopaedic surgical procedures increased 1.7-fold (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0), suggesting a 1.2-fold relative increase in patellar instability procedures, compared with total paediatric orthopaedic surgeries. Conclusion: This study shows a significant rise in the rate of acute patellar instability treatment events in paediatric and adolescent patients across the country. Surgery for patellar instability also increased over the study period, though only slightly more than the rate of all paediatric orthopaedic surgical procedures. This may suggest that increasing youth sports participation may be leading to a spectrum of increasing injuries and associated surgeries in children. Level of Evidence: IV.

7.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(5): 284-289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative ipsilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears after tibial eminence fracture fixation has been previously noted in the literature. This study aims to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for postoperative ACL tears in a cohort of patients operatively treated for tibial eminence fracture. METHODS: A retrospective review of children undergoing treatment of a tibial eminence fracture at 10 tertiary care children's hospitals was performed. The primary outcome of interest was subsequent ACL rupture. Incidence of ACL tear was recorded for the entire cohort. Patients who sustained a postoperative ACL tear were compared with those without ACL tear and analyzed for demographics and risk factors. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients with a minimum of 2-year follow-up data or those who had met the primary outcome (ACL tear) before 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 385 pediatric patients were reviewed. 2.6% of the cohort experienced a subsequent ACL tear. The median follow-up time was 6.5 months (SD=6.4 mo). Subsequent ACL tears occurred at a median of 10.2 months (SD=19.5 mo) postoperatively. There was a statistically significant association with higher grade tibial spine fractures (Myers and McKeever type III and IV) and subsequent ACL tear (P=0.01). Patients with a subsequent ACL tear were older on average (13.5 vs. 12.2 y old), however, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.08). Subgroup analysis of 46 patients who had a 2-year follow-up or sustained an ACL tear before 2 years showed a 21.7% incidence of a subsequent ACL tear. There was a statistically significant association with higher grade tibial spine fractures (Myers and McKeever type III and IV) and subsequent ACL rupture (P=0.006) in this subgroup. Postoperative ACL tears occurred in patients who were older at the time that they sustained their original tibial eminence fracture (13.4 vs. 11.3 y old, P=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral ACL tears following operatively treated pediatric tibial eminence fractures in a large multicenter cohort occurred at a rate of 2.6%. However, in those with at least 2 years of follow-up, the incidence was 21.7%. Subsequent ACL tear was more likely in those with completely displaced (type III or IV) tibial eminence fractures and older patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-retrospective cohort study.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/classificação , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Arthrosc Tech ; 10(3): e659-e667, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738199

RESUMO

Surgical management of septic arthritis in young children is traditionally performed with open techniques, although arthroscopic approaches are commonly used in the knee and shoulder. Hip arthroscopy is technically demanding in small children and requires modification from traditional hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study is to describe a safe technique to perform hip arthroscopy without traction in the pediatric hip and, secondarily, to report short-term results of a case series. Pediatric hip arthroscopy can be safely performed without traction on a radiolucent table and allows joint irrigation and debridement including drain placement through the use of 1 or 2 portals. Hip arthroscopy is a safe, valuable, minimally invasive technique in the treatment of children with septic arthritis of the hip.

9.
J Dance Med Sci ; 25(2): 105-109, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781373

RESUMO

Hip microinstability, characterized by supraphysiologic movement of the femoroacetabular joint, has recently been recognized as a clinically relevant pathology. The potentially detrimental effects of its presence on joint health make identifying microinstability important; however, due to its multifaceted nature, screening for microinstability presents challenges. Musculoskeletal ultrasound offers an opportunity to visualize the arthrokinematics of the femoroacetabular joint on dynamic evaluation. Dancers may be particularly afflicted by microinstability due to the unique demands of their discipline. This study describes a method for evaluating femoral translation using dynamic ultrasound in adolescent dancers. One hundred forty-two dancers (117 females and 25 males) were recruited from a northeast high school dance program. Females mean age was 16.02 ± 1.06 years, mean BMI 20.35 ± 2.30 kg/m², and mean years of dance experience 10.91 ± 2.84 years. Males mean age was 15.84 ± 1.26 years, mean BMI 21.78 ± 2.84 kg/m², and mean years of dance experience 7.96 ± 2.82 years. Two hundred eighty-four hips were visualized under ultrasound imaging with the participants in both a neutral position and with the hip extended and externally rotated. The distance (mm) the femoral head was positioned anterior to the acetabulum was recorded for both these positions. The calculated difference in these values represented anterior translation. For female hips, the total mean anterior translation was 1.23 ± 2.01mm (-4.8 to 9.30 mm); for male hips, the mean of anterior translation was 1.39 ± 2.22 mm (-7.90 to 5.90 mm). This study identified a normative value range for hip anterior translational motion under dynamic ultrasound among a healthy population of adolescent dancers.


Assuntos
Dança , Articulação do Quadril , Acetábulo , Adolescente , Feminino , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Ultrassonografia
10.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(1): 2325967120975410, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553452

RESUMO

Background: Tibial spine fractures (TSFs) are typically treated nonoperatively when nondisplaced and operatively when completely displaced. However, it is unclear whether displaced but hinged (type 2) TSFs should be treated operatively or nonoperatively. Purpose: To compare operative versus nonoperative treatment of type 2 TSFs in terms of overall complication rate, ligamentous laxity, knee range of motion, and rate of subsequent operation. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We reviewed 164 type 2 TSFs in patients aged 6 to 16 years treated between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2019. Excluded were patients with previous TSFs, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, femoral or tibial fractures, or grade 2 or 3 injury of the collateral ligaments or posterior cruciate ligament. Patients were placed according to treatment into the operative group (n = 123) or nonoperative group (n = 41). The only patient characteristic that differed between groups was body mass index (22 [nonoperative] vs 20 [operative]; P = .02). Duration of follow-up was longer in the operative versus the nonoperative group (11 vs 6.9 months). At final follow-up, 74% of all patients had recorded laxity examinations. Results: At final follow-up, the nonoperative group had more ACL laxity than did the operative group (P < .01). Groups did not differ significantly in overall complication rate, reoperation rate, or total range of motion (all, P > .05). The nonoperative group had a higher rate of subsequent new TSFs and ACL injuries requiring surgery (4.9%) when compared with the operative group (0%; P = .01). The operative group had a higher rate of arthrofibrosis (8.9%) than did the nonoperative group (0%; P = .047). Reoperation was most common for hardware removal (14%), lysis of adhesions (6.5%), and manipulation under anesthesia (6.5%). Conclusion: Although complication rates were similar between nonoperatively and operatively treated type 2 TSFs, patients treated nonoperatively had higher rates of residual laxity and subsequent tibial spine and ACL surgery, whereas patients treated operatively had a higher rate of arthrofibrosis. These findings should be considered when treating patients with type 2 TSF.

11.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(1): 2325967120979985, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553459

RESUMO

Background: Small-diameter semitendinosus-gracilis tendon autografts may be encountered intraoperatively during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR); these have been shown to be at increased risk of graft rupture. One option that surgeons have pursued to reduce the theoretical failure rate of these smaller-diameter grafts is augmenting them with allograft material, thereby forming a larger-diameter hybrid autograft-allograft construct. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in adolescent athletes of primary ACLR using a hybrid autologous hamstring tendon and soft tissue allograft construct versus ACLR using small-diameter hamstring tendon autograft. The hypothesis was that the hybrid hamstring autograft-allograft construct would provide superior short-term results. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 47 patients aged between 12 and 20 years who underwent hybrid graft ACLR (mean diameter, 9.1 mm) at a single institution. Electronic medical records including clinic notes, radiographic images, operative notes, and pathology reports were reviewed for study analysis. A control group of 64 patients who underwent small-diameter hamstring reconstruction (mean diameter, 7.1 mm) without allograft supplementation was compiled. Corresponding clinical, radiographic, and surgical characteristics were collected for the control group to allow for comparative analysis. Results: Mean follow-up was 2.7 years for the hybrid cohort and 2.3 years for the control group. Despite a significantly larger mean graft diameter in the hybrid group as compared with the control group (P < .001), no significant difference in retear rate was seen between cohorts (hybrid, 9%; control, 13%; P = .554). Patients with hybrid anterior cruciate ligament constructs also underwent a comparable number of reoperations overall (P = .838). Functionally, all patients with adequate follow-up returned to sports, with no significant difference in time to return to sports between the groups (P = .213). Radiographically, hybrid graft constructs did not undergo a significantly larger degree of tunnel lysis (P = .126). Conclusion: A cohort of adolescents with hybrid anterior cruciate ligament grafts was shown to have retear rates and overall clinical results comparable with those of a control group that received small-diameter hamstring tendon autografts alone.

12.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 41(1): e20-e25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions for patients with tibial spine fractures depend heavily on radiographic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine whether existing classification systems and radiographic measurements are reliable among a multicenter tibial spine research interest group. A secondary purpose was to evaluate agreement in treatment of tibial spine fractures. METHODS: Using a deidentified radiographic imaging series and identical imaging software, we examined the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the Meyers and McKeever classification, as well as a cohort of measurements of tibial spine fractures and treatment recommendations. Forty patients were included based on previous reliability studies. Interobserver and intraobserver data were analyzed using kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient reliability measures for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS: Good interobserver reliability was seen with superior displacement measurements of the anterior portion of the tibial spine fracture (0.73, 0.78) and excellent intraobserver reliability with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.81. Several measurements demonstrated moderate interobserver and intraobserver reliability including posterior-proximal displacement, and length and height of the tibial spine fracture. Moderate intraobserver reliability was seen with a majority of measurements and classification schemata (0.42 to 0.60) except for a poor agreement in posterior-sagittal displacement (0.27). Classifying tibial spine fractures according to the original Meyers and McKeever classification demonstrated fair agreement [κ=0.35, 0.33 (inter); 0.47 (intra)]. When combining Type III and IV, agreement increased for both reviews [κ=0.42, 0.44 (inter); 0.52 (intra)]. A total of 24 (60%) fractures were classified as 3 different types. There was fair agreement in both reviews regarding open reduction (either open or arthroscopic) versus closed reduction for initial treatment [κ=0.33, 0.38 (inter); 0.51 (intra)]. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of superior displacement of the anterior portion of tibial spine fractures on the lateral images is the only radiographic assessment with good interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Reliability of radiographic measurements and a modified classification for tibial spine fractures remains fair, and perhaps unacceptable, even among a group of pediatric sports medicine specialty-trained surgeons. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-diagnostic reliability study of nonconsecutive patients.


Assuntos
Fraturas da Tíbia/classificação , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/terapia
13.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(12): 2325967120966323, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330736

RESUMO

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is the most common ligament injury treated surgically by orthopaedic surgeons. The gold standard for the treatment of the majority of primary ACL tears is ACL reconstruction. However, novel methods of repair, such as bridge-enhanced ACL repair (BEAR), are currently being investigated as alternatives to reconstruction. To assess patients for midsubstance repair suitability, clarify the prognostic implications of injury location and damage, and evaluate the results of a repair technique, it is important to have a baseline classification system or grading scale that is reproducible across surgeons, particularly for multicenter collaboration. Currently, no such system or scale exists. Purpose: To develop an arthroscopic ACL tear classification system and to evaluate its interobserver reliability. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Eleven fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon investigators reviewed 75 video clips containing arthroscopic evaluation of a torn ACL and then completed the 6-question ACL Pathology Evaluation Form. Agreement statistics including exact agreement, Fleiss κ, Gwet agreement coefficient 1 (AC1), and Gwet AC2 were then calculated to assess interobserver reliability. Results: In aggregate, the multiple assessments of observer reproducibility revealed that surgeon participants in this study, when evaluating the same injury, agreed roughly 80% of the time on whether (1) at least 50% of the tibial footprint remained, (2) the remaining tibial stump was ≥10 mm, and (3) the injury was therefore reparable using the BEAR procedure. Participants also agreed roughly 60% of the time on exactly how many suturable bundles were available. These characteristics are believed to be most important, among those studied, in determining whether a torn ACL is amenable to midsubstance repair. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the interobserver reliability of arthroscopic classification of ACL tears. We have demonstrated that this classification system, though not ideally reproducible, is reliable enough across surgeons at multiple institutions for use in multicenter studies. Registration: NCT03776162 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

14.
HSS J ; 16(Suppl 2): 221-225, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380950

RESUMO

Background: Since its release in 2015, the hoverboard has been associated with injuries in children and adolescents. However, its public health implications have yet to be explored in the orthopedic literature across multiple centers. Purpose/Questions: We sought to assess the nature of orthopedic injuries and the use of clinical resources related to the hoverboard at four high-volume, regional pediatric hospitals. Methods: Departmental databases of emergency department (ED) consultations and urgent orthopedic clinic (UC) visits were queried for hoverboard injuries. A retrospective medical record review was performed for patients presenting over a 3-month period at four institutions. Data on demographics, injuries, clinical course, and resource use were analyzed. The frequency of hoverboard-related consultations was compared to those for monkey bar-related injuries at the primary study institution. Results: Eighty-nine patients with orthopedic hoverboard injuries presented to the ED and/or UC in the study period. Hoverboard injuries represented 2.2% of orthopedic ED consultations at the primary institution, compared to 1.5% for monkey bar injuries. Sixty-nine out of 89 (77.5%) total injuries involved the upper extremity, including 47 (52.8%) distal radius fractures, the most common hoverboard-related diagnosis. All but one injury (97.8%) underwent radiography, and eight (9%) required surgery. No patients reported wearing protective gear at the time of their injury. Conclusions: Hoverboards were associated with a variety of pediatric orthopedic injuries and required the use of significant resources in the ED, UC, and operating room. These data may represent a starting point for further prospective multi-center studies and public health efforts toward prevention of hoverboard injuries.

15.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(8): 2325967120941380, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923496

RESUMO

Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a relatively well-known condition, most commonly arising in the femoral condyle. Lesions arising in the tibial plateau are rarely described. Purpose: To present a case series of OCD lesions of the tibial plateau. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Medical records and diagnostic imaging of patients <20 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of OCD of the tibial plateau from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristic and radiographic features as well as details of both nonoperative and surgical management were investigated. Lesion characteristics and treatment outcomes were also analyzed. Results: A total of 9 lesions were identified in 9 patients (5 females, 4 males) who fit the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.2 years (range, 9-17 years). Knee pain (8/9) of longer than 1 year in duration was the most common presenting symptom. All 9 lesions were located on the lateral tibial plateau, and concomitant lateral compartment pathology was present in 5 of 9 patients (4 lateral femoral condyle OCDs, 3 lateral meniscal tears [1 discoid], and 1 discoid meniscus). Only 2 lesions were visible on initial radiographs; all 9 were visible on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent initial nonoperative treatment; 2 patients demonstrated resolution of symptoms. Two patients underwent surgery for concomitant pathology, and the OCD was not addressed surgically. A total of 5 patients continued to be symptomatic after nonoperative treatment, prompting surgical intervention, which consisted of microfracture and chondroplasty in all 5 cases. A total of 2 of the 5 microfracture patients had resolution of symptoms, while another 2 patients had continued symptoms ultimately responsive to steroid injection treatment. One patient had revision microfracture, followed by autologous chondrocyte implantation and an arthroscopic lysis of adhesions. At final follow-up, ranging from 7 months to 10 years, 8 patients were asymptomatic, while 1 patient had developed early osteoarthritis. Conclusion: OCD of the tibial plateau in young patients is rare, usually involves the lateral side, and may have significant long-term implications for knee function. Presenting symptoms are often vague, and lesions may not always be visible on initial radiographs, which may lead to delayed treatment and adversely affect outcomes.

16.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(13): 3208-3213, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high rate of concomitant injuries reported in pediatric patients with tibial spine fractures, ranging from 40% to 68.8%. Many tibial spine fractures are treated without initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PURPOSE: To understand rates of concomitant injury and if the reported rates of these injuries differed among patients with and without pretreatment MRI. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; level of evidence, 3. METHODS: We performed an institutional review board-approved multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients treated for tibial spine fractures between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2019, at 10 institutions. Patients younger than 25 years of age with tibial spine fractures were included. Data were collected on patient characteristics, injury, orthopaedic history, pretreatment physical examination and imaging, and operative findings. We excluded patients with multiple trauma and individuals with additional lower extremity fractures. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with and those without pretreatment MRI. The incidence of reported concomitant injuries was then compared between groups. RESULTS: There were 395 patients with a tibial spine fracture who met inclusion criteria, 139 (35%) of whom were reported to have a clinically significant concomitant injury. Characteristics and fracture patterns were similar between groups. Of patients with pretreatment MRI, 79 of 176 (45%) had an identified concomitant injury, whereas only 60 of 219 patients (27%) without pretreatment MRI had a reported concomitant injury (P < .001). There was a higher rate of lateral meniscal tears (P < .001) in patients with pretreatment MRI than in those without. However, there was a higher rate of soft tissue entrapment at the fracture bed (P = .030) in patients without pretreatment MRI. Overall, 121 patients (87%) with a concomitant injury required at least 1 treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with pretreatment MRI had a statistically significantly higher rate of concomitant injury identified. Pretreatment MRI should be considered in the evaluation of tibial spine fractures to improve the identification of concomitant injuries, especially in patients who may otherwise be treated nonoperatively or with closed reduction. Further studies are necessary to refine the indications for MRI in patients with tibial spine fractures, determine the characteristics of patients at highest risk of having a concomitant injury, define the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in tibial spine fractures, and investigate patient outcomes based on pretreatment MRI status.


Assuntos
Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Fraturas da Tíbia , Lesões do Menisco Tibial , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
17.
Am J Sports Med ; 48(12): 2986-2993, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tibial spine fractures (TSFs) are relatively rare pediatric injuries. Postoperative arthrofibrosis remains the most common complication, with few studies having examined factors associated with its development. PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for arthrofibrosis and required MUA or lysis of adhesions in the largest known cohort of patients with TSFs. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: This was a multicenter study of 249 patients ≤18 years old who had a TSF between January 2000 and February 2019. Patients were separated into cohorts based on whether they developed arthrofibrosis, defined as a 10° deficit in extension and/or 25° deficit in flexion at postoperative 3 months or a return to the operating room for manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) and/or lysis of adhesions. RESULTS: A total of 58 (23.3%) patients developed postoperative arthrofibrosis, with 19 (7.6%) requiring a return to the operating room for MUA. Patients with arthrofibrosis were younger (mean ± SD, 11.3 ± 2.7 vs 12.3 ± 2.8 years; P = .029). They were more likely to have a nonsport, trauma-related injury (65.4% vs 32.1%; P < .001) and a concomitant ACL injury (10.3% vs 1.1%; P = .003). Those with arthrofibrosis had longer operative times (135.0 vs 114.8 minutes; P = .006) and were more likely to have been immobilized in a cast postoperatively (30.4% vs 16.6%; P = .043). In multivariate regression, concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury (odds ratio [OR], 20.0; P = .001), traumatic injury (OR, 3.8; P < .001), age <10 years (OR, 2.2; P = .049), and cast immobilization (OR, 2.4; P = .047) remained significant predictors of arthrofibrosis. Concomitant ACL injury (OR, 7.5; P = .030) was additionally predictive of a required return to the operating room for MUA. CONCLUSION: Surgeons should be cognizant of arthrofibrosis risk in younger patients with concomitant ACL tears and traumatic injuries not resulting from athletics. Furthermore, postoperative immobilization in a cast should be avoided given the high risk of arthrofibrosis. Concomitant ACL injury is associated with a higher return to the operating room for MUA.


Assuntos
Fibrose/etiologia , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/complicações , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/complicações , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 8(7): 2325967120927655, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656289

RESUMO

Background: A bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR) procedure places an extracellular matrix implant, combined with autologous whole blood, in the gap between the torn ends of the ligament at the time of suture repair to stimulate healing. Prior studies have suggested that white blood cell (WBC) and platelet concentrations significantly affect the healing of other musculoskeletal tissues. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether concentrations of various blood cell types placed into a bridging extracellular matrix implant at the time of ACL repair would have a significant effect on the healing ligament cross-sectional area or tissue organization (as measured by signal intensity). We hypothesized that patients with higher physiologic platelet and lower WBC counts would have improved healing of the ACL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (higher cross-sectional area and/or lower signal intensity) 6 months after surgery. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 61 patients underwent MRI at 6 months after bridge-enhanced ACL repair as part of the BEAR II trial. The normalized signal intensity and average cross-sectional area of the healing ligament were measured from a magnetic resonance stack obtained using a gradient echo sequence. The results were stratified by sex, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses determined significant correlations between blood cell concentrations on these 2 magnetic resonance parameters. Results: In unadjusted analyses, older age and male sex were associated with greater healing ligament cross-sectional area (P < .04) but not signal intensity (P > .15). Adjusted multivariable analyses indicated that in female patients, a higher monocyte concentration correlated with a higher ACL cross-sectional area (ß = 1.01; P = .049). All other factors measured, including the physiologic concentration of platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, and immunoglobulin against bovine gelatin, were not significantly associated with either magnetic resonance parameter in either sex (P > .05 for all). Conclusion: Although older age, male sex, and monocyte concentration in female patients were associated with greater healing ligament cross-sectional area, signal intensity of the healing ligament was independent of these factors. Physiologic platelet concentration did not have any significant effect on cross-sectional area or signal intensity of the healing ACL at 6 months after bridge-enhanced ACL repair in this cohort. Given these findings, factors other than the physiologic platelet concentration and total WBC concentration may be more important in the rate and amount of ACL healing after bridge-enhanced ACL repair.

19.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 26(13-14): 702-711, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589515

RESUMO

Background: While a sex effect on outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery has been previously documented, less is known following bridge-enhanced ACL repair (BEAR). We hypothesized that female sex would have significantly worse early functional outcomes and higher retear rates following primary repair of the ACL enhanced with a tissue-engineered scaffold. Methods: Sixty-five patients (28 males and 37 females), age 14-35 with a complete ACL tear underwent primary repair of the ACL enhanced with a tissue-engineered scaffold (bridge-enhanced ACL repair) within 45 days of injury. International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS) scores, as well as instrumented anteroposterior (AP) laxity through KT-1000 testing and functional outcome measures were obtained at time points up to 2 years postoperatively and compared between males and females using mixed model repeated measures analyses and chi square tests. Results: There was no significant sex difference on the postoperative IKDC Subjective Score at 3, 6, 12, or 24 months or any of the five KOOS scores at 12 and 24 months. Instrumented AP laxity testing demonstrated mean (standard deviation) side-to-side differences that were similar in the two sexes at 2 years; 1.7 (2.7) mm and 1.5 (3.7) mm in females and males, respectively, p = 0.72. At 6 months postoperatively, males had a larger deficit in hamstring strength on the operated leg (14.0% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03) and a larger deficit in quadriceps strength on the operated leg (11.3% vs. 2.0%; p = 0.004); however, no sex difference was noted at 12 or 24 months. Females demonstrated superior single leg hop testing at 6 and 12 months ([91.3% vs. 78.1%, p = 0.001], [96.9% vs. 87.0%, p = 0.01] respectively). There were no significant sex differences on ipsilateral (males; 14.3% vs. females; 13.9%, p = 1.00) or contralateral (males; 3.6% vs. females; 2.8%, p = 1.00) ACL reinjury rates. Conclusions: Female subjects had better hamstring and quadriceps strength indices at 6 months than males as well as better hop test results at the 6 and 12-month time period. Despite this, there was no significant sex difference on patient-reported outcomes and objective AP laxity testing at time points up to 2 years postoperatively. Impact statement This is the first study comparing sex specific outcomes following the bridge-enhanced ACL repair technique (BEAR). The results of this study suggest that females have earlier recovery of both muscle strength and functional outcomes compared to their male counterparts. This is an important finding when considering future modifications to postoperative care and rehabilitation in females and males following this tissue-engineered BEAR technique.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Feminino , Músculos Isquiossurais/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Child Orthop ; 14(2): 98-105, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351621

RESUMO

Purpose: Our primary research question was to investigate the severity of deformity and articular damage as well as outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy compared with open surgery for the treatment of symptomatic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) deformity. Methods: Retrospective review of surgical treatment of symptomatic SCFE deformity with a minimum one-year follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups: the arthroscopic group, surgical hip dislocation(SHD) group and SHD with femoral osteotomy (SHD+ITO) group. Deformity severity was quantified. Hip outcome was assessed by the modified Merle d'Aubigné Postel (MDP) scores. Results: There were more severe slips treated by SHD and SHD+ITO. There was more severe deformity in the SHD+ITO group than the arthroscopy group (p < 0.001). There were more full thickness acetabular cartilage defects in the SHD and the SHD+ITO groups (> 40%) compared with the arthroscopy group (11%; p = 0.03). The SHD+ITO and SHD group had lower MDP scores compared with the arthroscopy group both before and after surgery but no difference was detected in the amount of improvement from surgery across groups (p > 0.05). Moderate and severe SCFEs had worse preoperative scores but improvement was not different compared with mild SCFEs (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients undergoing open treatment had more severe SCFE deformity with more extensive articular damage at reconstructive surgery compared with patients undergoing arthroscopy. All groups with SCFE deformity had improved pain and hip function postoperatively. Level of Evidence: III.

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