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1.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review characteristics of individuals newly diagnosed with HIV following implementation of a national pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme (comprehensive PrEP services, delivered in sexual health clinics) to inform future delivery and broader HIV prevention strategies. METHODS: We extracted data from national HIV databases (July 2015-June 2018). We compared sociodemographic characteristics of individuals diagnosed in the period before and after PrEP implementation, and determined the proportion of 'potentially preventable' infections with the sexual health clinic-based PrEP delivery model used. RESULTS: Those diagnosed with HIV before PrEP implementation were more likely to be male (342/418, 81.8% vs 142/197, 72.1%, p=0.005), be white indigenous (327/418, 78.2% vs 126/197, 64.0%, p<0.001), report transmission route as sex between men (219/418, 52.4% vs 81/197, 41.1%, p=0.014), and have acquired HIV in the country of the programme (302/418, 72.2% vs 114/197, 57.9% p<0.001) and less likely to report transmission through heterosexual sex (114/418, 27.3% vs 77/197, 39.1%, p=0.002) than after implementation.Pre-implementation, 8.6% (36/418) diagnoses were 'potentially preventable' with the PrEP model used. Post-implementation, this was 6.6% (13/197), but higher among those with recently acquired HIV (49/170, 28.8%). Overall, individuals with 'potentially preventable' infections were more likely to be male (49/49, 100% vs 435/566, 76.9%, p<0.001), aged <40 years (37/49, 75.5% vs 307/566, 54.2%, p=0.004), report transmission route as sex between men (49/49, 100% vs 251/566, 44.3%, p<0.001), have previously received post-exposure prophylaxis (12/49, 24.5% vs 7/566, 1.2%, p<0.001) and less likely to be black African (0/49, 0% vs 67/566, 11.8%, p=0.010) than those not meeting this definition. CONCLUSIONS: The sexual health clinic-based national PrEP delivery model appeared to best suit men who have sex with men and white indigenous individuals but had limited reach into other key vulnerable groups. Enhanced models of delivery and HIV combination prevention are required to widen access to individuals not benefiting from PrEP at present.

2.
AIDS ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate Scotland's national HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme in relation to PrEP uptake and associated population-level impact on HIV incidence among MSM. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study within real-world implementation. METHODS: Comparison of HIV diagnoses from national surveillance data and HIV incidence within a retrospective cohort of HIV-negative MSM attending sexual health clinics from the National Sexual Health information system between the 2-year periods pre(July 2015-June 2017) and post(July 2017-June 2019) introduction of PrEP. RESULTS: Of 16 723 MSM attending sexual health services in the PrEP period, 3256 (19.5%) were prescribed PrEP. Between pre-PrEP and PrEP periods, new HIV diagnoses among MSM declined from 229 to 184, respectively [RRR: 19.7%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.5-33.8]; diagnosed recently acquired infections declined from an estimated 73 to 47, respectively (35.6%, 95% CI 7.1-55.4). Among MSM attending sexual health clinics, HIV incidence per 1000 person-years declined from 5.13 (95% CI 3.90-6.64) pre-PrEP to 3.25 (95% CI 2.30-4.47) in the PrEP period (adjusted IRR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87). Compared with the pre-PrEP period, incidence of HIV was lower in the PrEP period for those prescribed PrEP (aIRR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.70) and for those not prescribed PrEP (aIRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.43-1.05). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate national population-level impact of PrEP for the first time in a real-world setting. HIV incidence reduced in MSM who had been prescribed PrEP and, to a lesser extent, in those who had not. Promotion of the benefits of PrEP needs to extend to MSM who do not access sexual health clinics.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 321: 61-68, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a significant concern after cardiac surgery and has not been studied in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We sought to examine the prevalence of pre-procedure depression and anxiety symptoms and explore whether brief bedside cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could prevent post-TAVR psychological distress. METHODS: We prospectively recruited consecutive TAVR patients and randomized them to receive brief CBT or treatment as usual (TAU) during their hospitalization. Multi-level regression techniques were used to evaluate changes by treatment arm in depression, anxiety, and quality of life from baseline to 1 month post-TAVR adjusted for sex, race, DM, CHF, MMSE, and STS score. RESULTS: One hundred and forty six participants were randomized. The mean age was 82 years, and 43% were female. Self-reported depression and anxiety scores meeting cutoffs for clinical level distress were 24.6% and 23.2% respectively. Both TAU and CBT groups had comparable improvements in depressive symptoms at 1-month (31% reduction for TAU and 35% reduction for CBT, p = .83). Similarly, both TAU and CBT groups had comparable improvements in anxiety symptoms at 1-month (8% reduction for TAU and 11% reduction for CBT, p = .1). Quality of life scores also improved and were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-procedure depression and anxiety may be common among patients undergoing TAVR. However, TAVR patients show spontaneous improvement in depression and anxiety scores at 1-month follow up, regardless of brief CBT. Further research is needed to determine whether more tailored CBT interventions may improve psychological and medical outcomes.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(4): e008587, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracoronary acetylcholine (Ach) provocation testing is the gold standard for assessing coronary endothelial function. However, dosing regimens of Ach are quite varied in the literature, and there are limited data evaluating the optimal dose. We evaluated the dose-response relationship between Ach and minimal lumen diameter (MLD) by sex and studied whether incremental intracoronary Ach doses given during endothelial function testing improve its diagnostic utility. METHODS: We evaluated 65 men and 212 women with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease who underwent endothelial function testing using the highest tolerable dose of intracoronary Ach, up to 200 µg. Epicardial endothelial dysfunction was defined as a decrease in MLD >20% after intracoronary Ach by quantitative coronary angiography. We used a linear mixed effects model to evaluate the dose-response relationship. Deming regression analysis was done to compare the %MLD constriction after incremental doses of intracoronary Ach. RESULTS: The mean age was 53.5 years. Endothelial dysfunction was present in 186 (68.1%). Among men with endothelial dysfunction, there was a significant decrease in MLD/10 µg of Ach at doses above 50 µg and 100 µg, while this decrease in MLD was not observed in women (P<0.001). The %MLD constriction at 20 µg versus 50 µg and 50 µg versus 100 µg were not equivalent while the %MLD constriction at 100 µg versus 200 µg were equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Women and men appear to have different responses to Ach during endothelial function testing. In addition to having a greater response to intracoronary Ach at all doses, men also demonstrate an Ach-MLD dose-response relationship with doses up to 200 µg, while women have minimal change in MLD with doses above 50 µg. An incremental dosing regimen during endothelial function testing appears to improve the diagnostic utility of the test and should be adjusted based on the sex of the patient.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/administração & dosagem , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasoespasmo Coronário/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstrição , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/induzido quimicamente , Vasoespasmo Coronário/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Gut ; 69(12): 2223-2231, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Population-based studies demonstrating the clinical impact of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are lacking. We examined the impact of the introduction of DAAs on HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (DC) through analysis of population-based data from Scotland. DESIGN: Through analysis of national surveillance data (involving linkage of HCV diagnosis and clinical databases to hospital and deaths registers), we determined i) the scale-up in the number of patients treated and achieving a sustained viral response (SVR), and ii) the change in the trend of new presentations with HCV-related DC, with the introduction of DAAs. RESULTS: Approximately 11 000 patients had been treated in Scotland over the 8-year period 2010/11 to 2017/18. The scale-up in the number of patients achieving SVR between the pre-DAA and DAA eras was 2.3-fold overall and 5.9-fold among those with compensated cirrhosis (the group at immediate risk of developing DC). In the pre-DAA era, the annual number of HCV-related DC presentations increased 4.6-fold between 2000 (30) and 2014 (142). In the DAA era, presentations decreased by 51% to 69 in 2018 (and by 67% among those with chronic infection at presentation), representing a significant change in trend (rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.90). With the introduction of DAAs, an estimated 330 DC cases had been averted during 2015-18. CONCLUSIONS: National scale-up in interferon-free DAA treatment is associated with the rapid downturn in presentations of HCV-related DC at the population-level. Major progress in averting HCV-related DC in the short-term is feasible, and thus other countries should strive to achieve the same.

6.
Am Heart J ; 222: 30-37, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) after heart transplantation (HT) is unknown. This study examined long-term clinical outcomes after ACEI in HT recipients. METHODS: The ACEI after HT study was a prospective, randomized trial that tested the efficacy of ACEI with ramipril after HT. In this study, long-term clinical outcomes were assessed in 91 patients randomized to either ramipril or placebo (median, 5.8 years). The primary endpoint was a composite of death, retransplantation, hospitalization for rejection or heart failure, and coronary revascularization. RESULTS: The primary endpoint occurred in 10 of 45 patients (22.2%) in the ramipril group and in 14 of 46 patients (30.4%) in the placebo group (Hazard ratio (HR), 0.68; 95% CI, 0.29-1.51; P = .34). When the analysis was restricted to comparing patients who remained on a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor beyond 1 year with those who did not, there was a trend to improved outcomes (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22-1.28, P = .16). There was no significant difference in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and potassium at 3 years after randomization. The cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint was significantly higher in patients in whom the index of microcirculatory resistance increased from baseline to 1 year compared with those in whom it did not (39.1 vs 17.4%, HR: 3.36; 95% CI, 1.07-12.7; P = .037). CONCLUSION: The use of ramipril after HT safely lowers blood pressure and is associated with favorable long-term clinical outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01078363.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Ramipril/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 7-11, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired epicardial coronary vasomotion is a potential mechanism of angina and a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients without angiographic evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to evaluate the association of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-a marker of nitric oxide-mediated vascular dysfunction-with epicardial coronary vasomotor dysfunction in this select population. METHODS: Invasive testing for epicardial vasomotor dysfunction was performed using intracoronary acetylcholine in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Impaired vasomotor response was defined as a luminal constriction of >20% on quantitative coronary angiography. Plasma ADMA levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. A robust multivariate linear mixed-effect model approach and Akaike information criterion were used to determine predictors of vasomotor dysfunction. RESULTS: In 191 patients with angina in the absence of obstructive CAD, abnormal epicardial vasomotion was observed in 137 (71.7%) patients. Median ADMA rose as the extent of impairment progressed: none (0.48 [0.44-0.59] µM), any (0.51 [0.46-0.60] µM, p = 0.12), focal (0.54 [0.49,0.61] µM, p = 0.17), and diffuse (0.55 [0.49,0.63] µM, p = 0.02). In unadjusted analysis, ADMA was highly predictive of vasomotor dysfunction (χ2=15.1, p = 0.002). Notably, ADMA remained a significant predictor even after adjusting for other factors in the best fit model (χ2=10.0, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: ADMA is an independent predictor of epicardial coronary vasomotor dysfunction in patients with angina in the absence of obstructive CAD. These data support a very early mechanistic role of ADMA in the continuum of atherosclerotic heart disease.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/sangue , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico por imagem , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Vasomotor/diagnóstico por imagem , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 95(6): 1067-1073, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stent (R-ZES). BACKGROUND: The R-ZES has been associated with low rates of adverse events over short-intermediate term follow-up. However, reliable assessment of the safety and efficacy of any implanted device requires long-term evaluation. METHODS: The RESOLUTE US trial was a prospective, observational study conducted at 116 U.S. sites and enrolled patients with de novo coronary lesions. Patients were followed clinically for 5 years with independent event adjudication and data monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 1,402 patients (1,573 lesions) were enrolled; 34% had diabetes mellitus and 75% had ACC type B2/C lesions. The 5-year rate of target lesion failure (TLF) was 12.3%, target lesion revascularization was 6.5%, target vessel myocardial infarction was 3.2%, and cardiac death was 4.1%. Dual antiplatelet therapy usage was 94% at 1 year and 47% at 5 years, with a 0.1% and 0.5% respective incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis. The 5-year rate of TLF was 16.9% among patients with diabetes mellitus and 14.7% in patients with at least one small (≤2.5 mm) vessel treated. Covariates independently associated with 5-year TLF in multivariable analysis included diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, p < .001), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (OR 2.28, p < .001), prior myocardial infarction (OR 1.85, p = .002), and smaller reference vessel diameter (OR 1.75, p = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Results from the fully adjudicated and monitored RESOLUTE US trial demonstrate long-term 5-year safety and efficacy of the R-ZES stent among a relatively low-risk population of patients, including a 0.5% rate of stent thrombosis at 5 years.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14936, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624275

RESUMO

High-sensitivity Troponin (hs-Tn) has emerged as a useful marker for patients with myocardial injury or heart failure. However, few studies have compared intermediate and hs-Tn in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Moreover, there remains uncertainty of which thresholds are the most useful for discriminating ventricular dysfunction or outcome. In this study we prospectively enrolled 105 patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who underwent TAVR as well as blood sampling for high-sensitivity (hs-TnI) and conventional troponin I (EXL-LOCI and RXL) assessment. Patients underwent comprehensive pre-procedure echocardiography. Ventricular dysfunction was defined using left ventricular mass index (LVMI), LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) and LV end-diastolic pressure. The mean age was 84.0 ± 8.7 years old and 60% were male sex with mean transaortic pressure gradient of 50.1 ± 16.0 mmHg and AVA of 0.63 ± 0.19 cm2. When using a threshold of 6 ng/L, 77% had positive hs-TnI while 27% had positive hs-TnI using recommended thresholds (16 ng/L for female and 34 ng/L for male). Troponin levels were higher in the presence of abnormal LV phenotypes. The strongest correlate of troponin was LVMI. During median follow-up of 375 days, 21 patients (20%) died. Lower threshold of hs-TnI and EXL-TnI was more discriminatory for overall mortality (Log-rank P = 0.03 for both), while higher threshold of hs-TnI (p = 0.75) and RXL-TnI were not (p = 0.30). Combining hs-TnI and BNP improved to predict long-term outcome (p = 0.004). In conclusion, hs-TnI levels correlated with the degree of LV dysfunction phenotypes. Furthermore, applying a lower threshold for hs-TnI performed better for outcome prediction than a recommended threshold in patients undergoing TAVR. Combining hs-TnI with BNP helped better risk stratification.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Troponina I/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029538, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second largest contributor to liver disease in the UK, with injecting drug use as the main risk factor among the estimated 200 000 people currently infected. Despite effective prevention interventions, chronic HCV prevalence remains around 40% among people who inject drugs (PWID). New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapies combine high cure rates (>90%) and short treatment duration (8 to 12 weeks). Theoretical mathematical modelling evidence suggests HCV treatment scale-up can prevent transmission and substantially reduce HCV prevalence/incidence among PWID. Our primary aim is to generate empirical evidence on the effectiveness of HCV 'Treatment as Prevention' (TasP) in PWID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to establish a natural experiment with Tayside, Scotland, as a single intervention site where HCV care pathways are being expanded (including specialist drug treatment clinics, needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), pharmacies and prison) and HCV treatment for PWID is being rapidly scaled-up. Other sites in Scotland and England will act as potential controls. Over 2 years from 2017/2018, at least 500 PWID will be treated in Tayside, which simulation studies project will reduce chronic HCV prevalence among PWID by 62% (from 26% to 10%) and HCV incidence will fall by approximately 2/3 (from 4.2 per 100 person-years (p100py) to 1.4 p100py). Treatment response and re-infection rates will be monitored. We will conduct focus groups and interviews with service providers and patients that accept and decline treatment to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing TasP. We will conduct longitudinal interviews with up to 40 PWID to assess whether successful HCV treatment alters their perspectives on and engagement with drug treatment and recovery. Trained peer researchers will be involved in data collection and dissemination. The primary outcome - chronic HCV prevalence in PWID - is measured using information from the Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative survey in Scotland and the Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Programme in England, conducted at least four times before and three times during and after the intervention. We will adapt Bayesian synthetic control methods (specifically the Causal Impact Method) to generate the cumulative impact of the intervention on chronic HCV prevalence and incidence. We will use a dynamic HCV transmission and economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the HCV TasP intervention, and to estimate the contribution of the scale-up in HCV treatment to observe changes in HCV prevalence. Through the qualitative data we will systematically explore key mechanisms of TasP real world implementation from provider and patient perspectives to develop a manual for scaling up HCV treatment in other settings. We will compare qualitative accounts of drug treatment and recovery with a 'virtual cohort' of PWID linking information on HCV treatment with Scottish Drug treatment databases to test whether DAA treatment improves drug treatment outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Extending HCV community care pathways is covered by ethics (ERADICATE C, ISRCTN27564683, Super DOT C Trial clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02706223). Ethical approval for extra data collection from patients including health utilities and qualitative interviews has been granted (REC ref: 18/ES/0128) and ISCRCTN registration has been completed (ISRCTN72038467). Our findings will have direct National Health Service and patient relevance; informing prioritisation given to early HCV treatment for PWID. We will present findings to practitioners and policymakers, and support design of an evaluation of HCV TasP in England.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Redução do Dano/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/etiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escócia/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
11.
NPJ Digit Med ; 2: 80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453375

RESUMO

Current remote monitoring devices for heart failure have been shown to reduce hospitalizations but are invasive and costly; accurate non-invasive options remain limited. The EuleriAn Video Magnification ApPLications In Heart Failure StudY (AMPLIFY) pilot aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a novel noninvasive method that uses Eulerian video magnification. Video recordings were performed on the neck veins of 50 patients who were scheduled for right heart catheterization at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center. The recorded jugular venous pulsations were then enhanced by applying Eulerian phase-based motion magnification. Assessment of jugular venous pressure was compared across three categories: (1) physicians who performed bedside exams, (2) physicians who reviewed both the amplified and unamplified videos, and (3) direct invasive measurement of right atrial pressure from right heart catheterization. Motion magnification reduced inaccuracy of the clinician assessment of central venous pressure compared to the gold standard of right heart catheterization (mean discrepancy of -0.80 cm H2O; 95% CI -2.189 to 0.612, p = 0.27) when compared to both unamplified video (-1.84 cm H2O; 95% CI -3.22 to -0.46, p = 0.0096) and the bedside exam (-2.90 cm H2O; 95% CI -4.33 to 1.40, p = 0.0002). Major categorical disagreements with right heart catheterization were significantly reduced with motion magnification (12%) when compared to unamplified video (25%) or the bedside exam (27%). This novel method of assessing jugular venous pressure improves the accuracy of the clinical exam and may enable accurate remote monitoring of heart failure patients with minimal patient risk.

14.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 24, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975992

RESUMO

Studies have established the importance of physical activity and fitness for long-term cardiovascular health, yet limited data exist on the association between objective, real-world large-scale physical activity patterns, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health primarily due to difficulties in collecting such datasets. We present data from the MyHeart Counts Cardiovascular Health Study, wherein participants contributed data via an iPhone application built using Apple's ResearchKit framework and consented to make this data available freely for further research applications. In this smartphone-based study of cardiovascular health, participants recorded daily physical activity, completed health questionnaires, and performed a 6-minute walk fitness test. Data from English-speaking participants aged 18 years or older with a US-registered iPhone who agreed to share their data broadly and who enrolled between the study's launch and the time of the data freeze for this data release (March 10 2015-October 28 2015) are now available for further research. It is anticipated that releasing this large-scale collection of real-world physical activity, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health data will enable the research community to work collaboratively towards improving our understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular indicators, lifestyle, and overall health, as well as inform mobile health research best practices.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Exercício Físico , Sono , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 290: 27-32, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute allograft rejection (AAR) plays an important role in patient and graft survival; therefore, more emphasis should be placed on its prediction. This study aimed to investigate baseline clinical and diagnostic variables associated with subsequent AAR during the first year post-transplant, especially focusing on early physiologic and anatomic measures. METHODS: This study enrolled 88 heart transplant patients who underwent fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR), the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in the left anterior descending artery at baseline (within 8 weeks post-transplant). Cardiac index (CI), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right atrial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction were also evaluated. AAR was defined as acute cellular rejection of grade ≥2R and/or pathological antibody-mediated rejection of grade ≥pAMR2. RESULTS: During the first year post-transplant, 25.0% of patients experienced AAR. Patients with AAR during the first year showed higher rates of recipient obesity, lower rates of recipient-donor sex mismatch and rATG and tacrolimus uses, higher PCWP, mPAP and IMR, and lower CFR at baseline, compared with those without. In the multivariate analysis, only baseline IMR ≥ 16.0 was independently associated with AAR during the first year, demonstrating high negative predictive value (96.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Invasively assessing microvascular resistance (baseline IMR ≥ 16.0) in the early post-transplant period was an independent determinant of subsequent acute allograft rejection during the first year post-transplant, suggesting that early assessment of IMR may enhance patient risk stratification and target medical therapies to improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração/tendências , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/tratamento farmacológico , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
16.
J Nucl Med ; 60(9): 1308-1316, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737298

RESUMO

Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) are the unstable lesions in coronary artery disease that are prone to rupture, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, their small size and complex morphologic and biologic features make early detection and risk assessment difficult. We tested our newly developed catheter-based Circumferential-Intravascular-Radioluminescence-Photoacoustic-Imaging (CIRPI) system in vivo to enable detection and characterization of vulnerable plaque structure and biology in rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods: The CIRPI system includes a novel optical probe combining circumferential radioluminescence imaging and photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The probe's CaF2:Eu-based scintillating imaging window captures radioluminescence images (360° view) of plaques by detecting ß-particles during 18F-FDG decay. A tunable laser-based PAT characterizes tissue constituents of plaque at 7 different wavelengths-540 and 560 nm (calcification), 920 nm (cholesteryl ester), 1040 nm (phospholipids), 1180 nm (elastin/collagen), 1210 nm (cholesterol), and 1235 nm (triglyceride). A single B-scan is concatenated from 330 A-lines captured during a 360° rotation. The abdominal aorta was imaged in vivo in both atherosclerotic rabbits (Watanabe Heritable Hyper Lipidemic [WHHL], 13-mo-old male, n = 5) and controls (New Zealand White, n = 2). Rabbits were fasted for 6 h before 5.55 × 107 Bq (1.5 mCi) of 18F-FDG were injected 1 h before the imaging procedure. Rabbits were anesthetized, and the right or left common carotid artery was surgically exposed. An 8 French catheter sheath was inserted into the common carotid artery, and a 0.035-cm (0.014-in) guidewire was advanced to the iliac artery, guided by x-ray fluoroscopy. A bare metal stent was implanted in the dorsal abdominal aorta as a landmark, followed by the 7 French imaging catheters that were advanced up to the proximal stent edge. Our CIRPI and clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed using pullback and nonocclusive flushing techniques. After imaging with the CIRPI system, the descending aorta was flushed with contrast agent, and OCT images were obtained with a pullback speed of 20 mm/s, providing images at 100 frames/s. Results were verified with histochemical analysis. Results: Our CIRPI system successfully detected the locations and characterized both stable and vulnerable aortic plaques in vivo among all WHHL rabbits. Calcification was detected from the stable plaque (540 and 560 nm), whereas TCFA exhibited phospholipids/cholesterol (1040 nm, 1210 nm). These findings were further verified with the clinical OCT system showing an area of low attenuation filled with lipids within TCFA. PAT images illustrated broken elastic fiber/collagen that could be verified with the histochemical analysis. All WHHL rabbits exhibited sparse to severe macrophages. Only 4 rabbits showed both moderate-to-severe level of calcifications and cholesterol clefts. However, all rabbits exhibited broken elastic fibers and collagen deposition. Control rabbits showed normal wall thickness with no presence of plaque tissue compositions. These findings were verified with OCT and histochemical analysis. Conclusion: Our novel multimodality hybrid system has been successfully translated to in vivo evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque structure and biology in a preclinical rabbit model. This system proposed a paradigm shift that unites molecular and pathologic imaging technologies. Therefore, the system may enhance the clinical evaluation of TCFA, as well as expand our understanding of coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoscopia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Animais , Calcinose/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateteres , Colesterol/química , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Luminescência , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Patologia Molecular , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Coelhos , Refratometria , Tomografia
17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 66: 30-37, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel Psychoactive Substance (NPS) use has increased in recent years and generated significant concern within public health. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of blood borne viruses, in particular Hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, little is known about the extent of NPS injecting at a national level and its association with HCV. This study provides one of the first epidemiological analyses of the association between NPS injecting and HCV among a population level sample of PWID. METHODS: Five cross sectional surveys of almost 13,000 PWID attending services providing injecting equipment across Scotland between 2008 and 2016 were analysed. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between NPS injecting and HCV. RESULTS: The proportion of PWID reporting that they had injected NPS in the previous six months increased from 0.2% in 2008-09 to 11.0% in 2015-16. Those who reported injecting NPS were considerably more likely to be resident in the Lothian NHS Board area at the time of the study (AOR 5.6 (95% CI 4.1-7.5)) and to have had recent experience of homelessness (AOR 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9)). People who injected NPS were also significantly more likely to be HCV positive (AOR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.4)). In Lothian, HCV prevalence rose from around 30% between 2008 and 2012 to 41% and then 48% in 2013-14 and 2015-16 respectively. Increases in prevalent HCV infection in Lothian may be partly attributed to increases in NPS injecting. CONCLUSION: In Scotland, people who had injected Novel Psychoactive Substances were at increased risk of hepatitis C virus. Novel Psychoactive Substance injecting poses a threat to HCV elimination strategies.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 282: 7-15, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While >20% of patients presenting to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with angina have no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), a majority (77%) have an occult coronary abnormality (endothelial dysfunction, microvascular dysfunction (MVD), and/or a myocardial bridge (MB)). There are little data regarding the ability of noninvasive stress testing to identify these occult abnormalities in patients with angina in the absence of obstructive CAD. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 155 patients (76.7% women) with angina and no obstructive CAD who underwent stress echocardiography and/or electrocardiography before angiography. We evaluated Duke treadmill score, heart rate recovery (HRR), metabolic equivalents, and blood pressure response. During angiography, patients underwent invasive testing for endothelial dysfunction (decrease in epicardial coronary artery diameter >20% after intracoronary acetylcholine), MVD (index of microcirculatory resistance ≥25), and intravascular ultrasound for the presence of an MB. RESULTS: Stress echocardiography and electrocardiography were positive in 58 (43.6%) and 57 (36.7%) patients, respectively. Endothelial dysfunction was present in 96 (64%), MVD in 32 (20.6%), and an MB in 83 (53.9%). On multivariable logistic regression, stress echo was not associated with any abnormality, while stress ECG was associated with endothelial dysfunction. An abnormal HRR was associated with endothelial dysfunction and MVD, but not an MB. CONCLUSION: Conventional stress testing is insufficient for identifying occult coronary abnormalities that are frequently present in patients with angina in the absence of obstructive CAD. A normal stress test does not rule out a non-obstructive coronary etiology of angina, nor does it negate the need for comprehensive invasive testing.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse/normas , Teste de Esforço/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Card Fail ; 25(2): 97-104, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the development of post-heart transplantation (HT) cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), but has not been well studied in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 90 HT patients, plasma ET-1 was measured within 8 weeks after HT (baseline) via a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three-dimensional volumetric intravascular ultrasound of the left anterior descending artery was performed at baseline and at 1 year. Accelerated CAV (lumen volume loss) was defined with the 75th percentile as a cutoff. Patients were followed beyond the first year after HT for late death or retransplantation. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that a baseline ET-1 concentration of 1.75 pg/mL provided the best accuracy for diagnosis of accelerated CAV at 1 year (area under the ROC curve 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.82; P = .007). In multivariate logistic regression, a higher baseline ET-1 concentration was independently associated with accelerated CAV (odds ratio [OR] 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94; P = .01); this relationship persisted when ET-1 was dichotomized at 1.75 pg/mL (OR 4.88, 95% CI 1.69-14.10; P = .003). Eighteen deaths occurred during a median follow-up period of 3.99 (interquartile range 2.51-9.95) years. Treated as a continuous variable, baseline ET-1 was not associated with late mortality in multivariate Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% CI 0.72-2.05; P = .44). However, ET-1 >1.75 pg/mL conferred a significantly lower cumulative event-free survival on Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = .047) and was independently associated with late mortality (HR 2.94, 95% CI 1.12-7.72; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ET-1 early after HT is an independent predictor of accelerated CAV and late mortality, suggesting that ET-1 has durable prognostic value in the HT arena.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Endotelina-1/sangue , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Aloenxertos , Biomarcadores/sangue , California/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
20.
Lancet Digit Health ; 1(7): e344-e352, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone apps might enable interventions to increase physical activity, but few randomised trials testing this hypothesis have been done. The MyHeart Counts Cardiovascular Health Study is a longitudinal smartphone-based study with the aim of elucidating the determinants of cardiovascular health. We aimed to investigate the effect of four different physical activity coaching interventions on daily step count in a substudy of the MyHeart Counts Study. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled crossover trial, we recruited adults (aged ≥18 years) in the USA with access to an iPhone smartphone (Apple, Cupertino, CA, USA; version 5S or newer) who had downloaded the MyHeart Counts app (version 2.0). After completion of a 1 week baseline period of interaction with the MyHeart Counts app, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of 24 permutations (four combinations of four 7 day interventions) in a crossover design using a random number generator built into the app. Interventions consisted of either daily prompts to complete 10 000 steps, hourly prompts to stand following 1 h of sitting, instructions to read the guidelines from the American Heart Association website, or e-coaching based upon the individual's personal activity patterns from the baseline week of data collection. Participants completed the trial in a free-living setting. Due to the nature of the interventions, participants could not be masked from the intervention. Investigators were not masked to intervention allocation. The primary outcome was change in mean daily step count from baseline for each of the four interventions, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat analysis set, which included all participants who had completed 7 days of baseline monitoring and at least 1 day of one of the four interventions. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03090321. FINDINGS: Between Dec 12, 2016, and June 6, 2018, 2783 participants consented to enrol in the coaching study, of whom 1075 completed 7 days of baseline monitoring and at least 1 day of one of the four interventions and thus were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis set. 493 individuals completed the full set of assigned interventions. All four interventions significantly increased mean daily step count from baseline (mean daily step count 2914 [SE 74]): mean step count increased by 319 steps (75) for participants in the American Heart Association website prompt group (p<0·0001), 267 steps (74) for participants in the hourly stand prompt group (p=0·0003), 254 steps (74) for participants in the cluster-specific prompts group (p=0·0006), and by 226 steps (75) for participants in the 10 000 daily step prompt group (p=0·0026 vs baseline). INTERPRETATION: Four smartphone-based physical activity coaching interventions significantly increased daily physical activity. These findings suggests that digital interventions delivered via a mobile app have the ability to increase short-term physical activity levels in a free-living cohort. FUNDING: Stanford Data Science Initiative.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone , Estados Unidos
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