Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
1.
Ann Surg ; 271(2): 257-265, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to appraise the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus (BE) after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. BACKGROUND: The precise prevalence of new-onset or worsening GERD after SG is controversial. Subsequent esophagitis and BE can be a serious unintended sequalae. Their postoperative prevalence remains unclear. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies evaluating postoperative outcomes in primary SG for morbid obesity. The primary outcome was prevalence of GERD, esophagitis, and BE after SG. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate combined prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 46 studies totaling 10,718 patients were included. Meta-analysis found that the increase of postoperative GERD after sleeve (POGAS) was 19% and de novo reflux was 23%. The long-term prevalence of esophagitis was 28% and BE was 8%. Four percent of all patients required conversion to RYGB for severe reflux. CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative prevalence of GERD, esophagitis, and BE following SG is significant. Symptoms do not always correlate with the presence of pathology. As the surgical uptake of SG continues to increase, there is a need to ensure that surgical decision-making and the consent process for this procedure consider these long-term complications while also ensuring their postoperative surveillance through endoscopic and physiological approaches. The long-term outcomes of this commonly performed bariatric procedure should be considered alongside its weight loss and metabolic effects.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802568

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the capture of biologics (originator and biosimilar) in the Biologics and Biosimilars Collective Intelligence Consortium (BBCIC) Distributed Research Network (DRN), with a focus on medical claim National Drug Code (NDC), a new data field, and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) modifier. METHODS: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study among patients with medical and pharmacy benefits enrolled in insurance plans participating in the BBCIC DRN between 1 January 2013 and 30 September 2017. We calculated the proportion of medical claims with ≥1 NDC and identified select biologics using four different approaches: (a) specific HCPCS alone, (b) specific HCPCS and NDC, (c) non-specific HCPCS with NDC, and (d) HCPCS with modifiers (applicable to biosimilars). Numbers of dispensings were calculated for each biologic by approach and select patient and claim characteristics. RESULTS: More than 1.5 million eligible participants contributed approximately 4 million person-years of data, including 1.2 billion medical claims. The proportion of medical claims with ≥1 NDC increased from 1.2% in 2013 to 3.0% in 2017. Medical claim NDCs identified 39% and 28% of vedolizumab dispensed in 2014 and 2015 and 30% of Epogen/Procrit dispensed overall. Out of 26,381 filgrastim biosimilar dispensings identified, 51% had a HCPCS modifier and 12% had a medical claim NDC for Zarxio. HCPCS modifiers and medical claim NDCs were present for 38% and 3% of all infliximab biosimilars dispensed (total n = 1,244). CONCLUSIONS: Medical claim NDC and HCPCS modifier improves identification of select biologics without product-specific HCPCS code, thereby facilitating product-specific biologic research.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 87: 105851, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614214

RESUMO

The OsteoArthritis and Therapy for Sleep (OATS) study is a population-based randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) with four innovative methodological aims. These are to: (1) Enroll representative participants across Washington state, including those from medically underserved communities; (2) Enroll persons with persistent insomnia and chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain; (3) Test a scalable CBT-I intervention; and (4) Evaluate patient-reported outcomes (insomnia, pain severity, fatigue, depression) and cost-effectiveness over one year. This paper describes progress towards achieving these aims. The target population was persons age 60+ who had received OA care within the Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPW) health care system. We employed a two-phase screening via mail survey and telephone follow-up, with a 3-week interval between screens to exclude persons with spontaneous improvement in sleep or pain symptoms. Participants were randomized to a 6-session telephone-delivered CBT-I intervention or a 6-session telephone education only control condition (EOC). Blinded outcome assessments (completed online or on mailed paper forms) included primary and secondary sleep and pain outcome measures and quality of life measures. We obtained healthcare utilization from administrative claims data. Intent to treat analyses, including all participants randomized when they scheduled the first telephone session, will be conducted to compare CBT-I and EOC outcomes. The trial will be the largest experimental evaluation of telephone CBT-I to date, and the first to evaluate its cost-effectiveness. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02946957.

4.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1166-1172, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been the standard of care for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. However, few studies have evaluated changes in the treatment landscape of CML over time. This study assessed the long-term treatment patterns of oral anticancer therapies among patients with CML. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients newly diagnosed with CML between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016, from 10 integrated healthcare systems. The proportion of patients treated with 5 FDA-approved oral TKI agents-bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib-in the 12 months after diagnosis were measured, overall and by year, between 2000 and 2017. We assessed the use of each oral agent through the fourth-line setting. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the odds of receiving any oral agent, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 853 patients with CML, 81% received an oral agent between 2000 and 2017. Use of non-oral therapies decreased from 100% in 2000 to 5% in 2005, coinciding with imatinib uptake from 65% in 2001 to 98% in 2005. Approximately 28% of patients switched to a second-line agent, 9% switched to a third-line agent, and 2% switched to a fourth-line agent. Adjusted analysis showed that age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and comorbidity burden were statistically significantly associated with odds of receiving an oral agent. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic shift was seen in CML treatments away from traditional, nonoral chemotherapy toward use of novel oral TKIs between 2000 and 2017. As the costs of oral anticancer agents reach new highs, studies assessing the long-term health and financial outcomes among patients with CML are warranted.

5.
CMAJ ; 191(29): E811-E815, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332049
6.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(10): 1287-1300, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether private insurance benefit designs align with the most widely used ex-US definition of value, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). A large Pacific Northwest private insurance plan explicitly implemented a tiered formulary based on cost-effectiveness estimates of individual drugs in 2010, resulting in cost savings to the plan without negatively affecting patient health service utilization. Given the pressures of rising costs, we investigate whether employer-based private health insurance plans have adopted value-based cost-sharing approaches that are in line with cost-effectiveness estimates. METHODS: At the drug level, we identified five drug tier designations (0-4) that are tied to increasing ICER ranges in a large claims dataset from 2010 to 2013. We used a random effects model to evaluate whether out-of-pocket (OOP) cost levels and trends were associated with drug value designation, controlling for generic status and list price, and whether the associations varied by insurance plan type and insurance market concentration, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). We also estimated the weighted mean cost effectiveness of the drug claims in the sample by year and generic status using the formulary's cost-effectiveness value ranges. RESULTS: The 2010 volume weighted mean OOP cost for a 30-day supply of drugs in tiers 0 through 4 were $US6.87, $US22.62, $US62.22, $US57.36, and $US59.85, respectively (2013 US dollars). OOP costs for cost-saving and preventive drugs (tier 0) decreased 5% annually from 2010 to 2013 (p < 0.01); OOP costs for drugs costing under $US10,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (tier 1) decreased 4.5% annually (p < 0.01) and OOP costs for drugs costing over $US50,000/QALY (tier 3) and $US150,000/QALY (tier 4) decreased by 2.4% and 2.2%, respectively (p < 0.01 and p = 0.046). OOP costs for drugs valued between $US10,000 and $US50,000/QALY did not change significantly (p = 0.31). Average ICER estimates increased for generic drugs and did not change for brand name drugs. CONCLUSION: OOP costs for prescription drugs are decreasing across value levels, with OOP costs for higher-value drugs generally decreasing at a faster rate than lower-value drugs. The relationship between cost sharing and value remains tenuous, however, particularly at higher ICER levels, likely reflecting the persistence of traditional formulary structures and increasing use of generic drugs over brand name drugs.

7.
Value Health ; 22(6): 648-655, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent regulatory approvals of potentially curative but high-cost treatments have made these therapies a focus of health policy discussions. Cures present new challenges to healthcare payers because they have high upfront costs but have life-long health benefits. The objectives of this study are to understand how healthcare payers define and manage cures. We investigated payers' views on key features of curative treatments and the affordability and value challenges they present. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews in 2016 with key informants in US payer organizations. Interviewees were directly involved in coverage determination for highly effective and curative therapies. RESULTS: We contacted 24 individuals and 18 participated. When asked what aspects of cures were important for coverage determination, an equal percentage of respondents (61% each) mentioned clinical and economic factors. In defining a cure, half of respondents included an economic element such as no downstream costs associated with the disease. When asked about challenges, 72% of respondents mentioned uncertainty regarding long-term outcomes and 56% mentioned membership churn and competition. CONCLUSIONS: Payers expressed a novel definition of a cure-which we call a "healthcare cost cure"-that captures both the clinical and economic consequences of treatment. This definition may be more pertinent in fragmentary financing systems that unevenly distribute cure costs and benefits across payers. Overall findings indicate that decision makers desire evidence to ensure that the long-term real-world consequences of covering cures match the expected benefits. Future policies need to balance upfront acquisition costs with downstream financial benefits.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde/tendências , Terapêutica/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Terapêutica/métodos , Terapêutica/tendências
8.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(7): 738-741, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232202

RESUMO

Value-based insurance design (VBID) is an approach to designing insurance to align the use of health care services with some notion of value. While there is substantial federal interest in VBID and a growing body of evidence of its effects among populations covered by employer-sponsored plans, much of the focus has been on VBIDs that solely reduce cost sharing for certain treatments. The minority of VBIDs that have identified and increased cost sharing for low-value treatments have produced some promising results. Looking to the future, health plans should continue to develop and benefit from innovations in formulary design and health information technology that distinguishes and incentivizes high-value drugs in a patient-specific manner. DISCLOSURES: No funding contributed to the writing of this article. The author has nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Seguro de Saúde Baseado em Valor/economia , Formulários Farmacêuticos como Assunto , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/tendências , Informática Médica/tendências
9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(4): 461-467, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drugs for inflammatory conditions are one of the highest expenditure therapeutic classes for health plans. Published literature for adherence, persistence, nonadherence risk factors, and health care costs are incomplete for newer biologic agents. OBJECTIVES: To (a) examine differences in adherence, persistence, switch patterns, and health care costs among high-cost specialty anti-inflammatory medications and (b) suggest risk factors for nonadherence in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In this exploratory retrospective cohort study, we used medical and pharmacy claims from 1.2 million enrollees in commercial health plans administrated by Premera Blue Cross, the largest not-for-profit health plan in the Pacific Northwest. We included members with rheumatoid arthritis who used the following high-cost disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: abatacept, adalimumab, anakinra, apremilast, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab, sekukinumab, tocilizumab, tofacitinib, and ustekinumab. Adherence was calculated via medication possession ratio. Persistence was calculated as the amount of days between the initial fill and final fill plus days supply. Switch rates for adalimumab and etanercept were calculated as the percentage of members who switched to another target drug during the observation period. Direct medical costs (total health care costs) and health care costs excluding specialty agents were calculated using the net allowable amount per claim for the duration of each therapy. Adherence, persistence, and costs of care were also examined for concurrent methotrexate use for the most used target drugs. RESULTS: The most commonly used drugs were abatacept (n = 47), adalimumab (n = 226), and etanercept (n = 252). Nonadherence in certain subgroups was associated with higher mean monthly health care costs, excluding specialty agents (etanercept cohort: +$1,063 for nonmethotrexate users; +$492 for nonadherent methotrexate users), but adherence was associated with higher total health care costs (+$883 for etanercept). Relative to specialty pharmacies, retail was associated with 9% higher nonadherence. Concurrent methotrexate use was associated with higher persistence (+307 and +192 days with adalimumab and etanercept). The most commonly switched-to drug after adalimumab/etanercept was abatacept (n = 39). CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study raises signals suggesting that retail pharmacies may be associated with higher nonadherence; nonadherence may be associated with increased health care costs, excluding specialty agents; adherence may increase total health care costs; and methotrexate use may be associated with increased persistence. Future research should confirm these findings. DISCLOSURES: This research was part of an internship awarded to Khilfeh by the AMCP Foundation/Pfizer Summer Internship Program and funded by Pfizer. Gross is an employee of Pfizer. The other authors have nothing to disclose. A portion of this research was presented at the AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting as a continuing education session entitled "The Evolving Role of Real-World Data in Health Care Decision Making" on March 29, 2017, in Denver, CO, and at AMCP Nexus 2016 as a poster on October 3-6, 2016, in National Harbor, MD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/economia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/economia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Health Econ ; 27(11): 1788-1804, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028050

RESUMO

Empirical estimates of price elasticities of demand (PED) for pharmaceuticals suggest that they are relatively price inelastic. However, in many settings, a medication and its substitutes and complements face simultaneous differential changes in prices that affect the observed "composite" PED. We exploit an implementation of a value-based formulary (VBF) that utilized drug-specific incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) to inform drug copayments, resulting in increases in copayments for some medications and decreases in copayments for others. We first show theoretically that by changing the price of a medication and its substitute in opposite directions, VBF designs can leverage cross-price effects to increase the range of composite PEDs. We then empirically estimate PED and welfare effects using a consumer surplus approach. Overall PED was -0.16, similar to the RAND Health Insurance Experiment estimate. However, there was substantial dispersion of PED across the VBF copayment tiers ranging from -0.09 to -0.87 with a statistically significant trend aligned with the levels of value as reflected by the ICER estimates (p < 0.001). The net welfare increase was $147,000 for the cohort or $28 per member over the postpolicy year. Further experimentations of VBF designs with alternative cost-effectiveness thresholds, copayment levels and value definitions could be quite promising for improving welfare.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos
11.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 23(10): 1084-1090, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies. It is unclear which policy options would be most acceptable to health care payer and biomedical manufacturer stakeholders. OBJECTIVES: To (a) briefly review pharmaceutical policy options to address health system affordability and (b) assess the acceptability of alternative policy options to health care payers and biomedical manufacturers before and after an Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) continuing pharmacy education (CPE) session. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Cochran databases for pharmaceutical policy options addressing affordability. With input from a focus group of managed care professionals, we developed CPE session content and an 8-question survey focusing on the most promising policy options. We fielded the survey before and after the CPE session, which occurred as part of the 2016 AMCP Annual Meeting. We first conducted a chi-squared goodness-of-fit test to assess response distributions. Next, we tested how responses differed before and after by using an ordered logit and a multinomial logit to model Likert scale and unordered responses, respectively. RESULTS: Although risk-sharing payments over time remained the most favorable choice before (37%) and after (35%) the CPE session, this choice was closely followed by HealthCoin after the session, which increased in favorability from 4% to 33% of responses (P = 0.001). About half of the respondents (54%) indicated that legislative change is the most significant barrier to the implementation of any policy. CONCLUSIONS: As high-cost curative drugs reach the market, managed care stakeholders need information from a balanced education source regarding alternative policies to address affordability. We found that after the AMCP CPE session, risk-sharing payments over time and HealthCoin were the most favorable options. DISCLOSURES: No funding was provided for this research. Carlson reports consulting fees from Genentech, Pfizer, and Seattle Genetics. The other authors have nothing to disclose. Study concept and design were contributed by Yeung, Garrison, and Carlson. Yeung collected the data, which were interpreted by Yeung and Basu. The manuscript was written by Yeung, Suh, and Bansal and revised by Yeung. A portion of this research was presented at the Academy of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting as a continuing education session entitled "Paying for Cures: How Can We Afford It?" on April 20, 2016, in San Francisco, California.


Assuntos
Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , California , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Educação Continuada em Farmácia/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Benefícios do Seguro/economia , Percepção , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia , Farmácia/métodos
12.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 23(10): 1010-1015, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in pharmaceutical expenditures in recent years has increased health care payer interest in ensuring good value for the money. Indication-based pricing (IBP) sets separate, indication-specific prices paid to the manufacturer according to the expected efficacy of a drug in each of its indications. IBP allows payers to consistently pay for value across indications. While promising, a limitation of IBP as originally conceived is that efficacy estimates are typically based on clinical trial data, which may differ from real-world effectiveness. An outcomes guarantee is a type of performance-based risk-sharing arrangement that adjusts payments according to prospectively tracked outcomes. We suggest that an outcomes guarantee contract, which has been used by some payers, may be adapted to achieve indication-based prices supported by real-world effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the potential of an outcomes guarantee to achieve indication-based prices aligned with real-world value, using a case study of trastuzumab for the treatment of metastatic breast and advanced gastric cancers. METHODS: We estimated costs and outcomes under traditional IBP (i.e., expected value IBP) and outcomes guarantee frameworks and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) comparing treatment with and without trastuzumab. Efficacy data came from pivotal trials, whereas effectiveness data came from observational studies. We adjusted trastuzumab prices in order to achieve target ICERs of $150,000 per quality-adjusted life-year under each framework and for each indication. RESULTS: To achieve the ICER target under traditional IBP, the unit price of trastuzumab using efficacy evidence was adjusted for metastatic breast and advanced gastric cancers from an average sales price of $9.17 per mg to $3.50 per mg and $0.93 per mg, respectively. Under an outcomes guarantee, the unit price of trastuzumab using effectiveness evidence was adjusted for metastatic breast cancer and advanced gastric cancer to $8.66 per mg and $0.20 per mg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Like expected value IBP, outcomes guarantee contracts can also vary payment based on indication. In addition, an outcomes guarantee can also reduce uncertainty regarding effectiveness and better align payment with the actual value of a treatment. DISCLOSURES: No funding supported this study. Carlson reports consulting fees from Genentech, Pfizer, and Seattle Genetics. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Study concept and design were contributed by Carlson, Yeung, and Li. Yeung, Carlson, and Li collected and analyzed the data. The manuscript was written primarily by Yeung, along with Carlson and Li, and revised by all the authors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Comércio/economia , Trastuzumab/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Risco , Incerteza
13.
J Clin Anesth ; 36: 178-183, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesia drugs can be prepared by anesthesia providers, hospital pharmacies or outsourcing facilities. The decision whether to outsource all or some anesthesia drugs is challenging since the costs associated with different anesthesia drug preparation methods remain poorly described. METHODS: The costs associated with preparation of 8 commonly used anesthesia drugs were analyzed using a budget impact analysis for 4 different syringe preparation strategies: (1) all drugs prepared by anesthesiologist, (2) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy, (3) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and outsourcing facility, and (4) all drugs prepared by outsourcing facility. MAIN RESULTS: A strategy combining anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs was associated with the lowest estimated annual cost in the base-case budget impact analysis with an annual cost of $225 592, which was lower than other strategies by a margin of greater than $86 000. CONCLUSION: A combination of anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs resulted in the lowest annual cost in the budget impact analysis. However, the cost of drugs prepared by an outsourcing facility maybe lower if the capital investment needed for the establishment and maintenance of the US Pharmacopeial Convention Chapter <797> compliant facility is included in the budget impact analysis.


Assuntos
Anestesia/economia , Anestésicos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Terceirizados/economia , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/economia , Anestesiologistas , District of Columbia , Composição de Medicamentos/economia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos , Fármacos Neuromusculares Despolarizantes/economia , Seringas , Vasoconstritores/economia
14.
Am J Manag Care ; 23(3 Suppl): S46-S53, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Value-based insurance design has been suggested as an effective approach to ensure access to highvalue medications in health insurance markets. Premera Blue Cross, a large regional health plan, implemented a value-based formulary (VBF) for pharmaceuticals in 2010 that explicitly used cost-effectiveness analysis to inform medication co-payments. This study assesses the impact of a VBF on adherence and patient and health plan expenditures on 3 chronic disease states: diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. STUDY DESIGN: Interrupted time series design of employer-sponsored plans from 2006 to 2013. Beneficiaries exposed to the VBF formed the intervention group, and beneficiaries in similar plans without any changes in pharmacy benefits formed the control group. METHODS: We measured medication expenditures from member, health plan, and member-plus-health plan (overall) perspectives and medication adherence as proportion of days covered. We conducted an exploratory analysis of medication utilization classifying medications according to whether co-payments moved up or down in the year following VBF implementation. RESULTS: For the diabetes cohort, there was a statistically significant reduction in member and overall expenditures of $5 per member per month (PMPM) and $9 PMPM, respectively. For the hypertension cohort, there was a statistically significant reduction in member expenditures of $4 PMPM and an increase in health plan expenditures of $3 PMPM. There were no statistically significant effects on hyperlipidemia cohort expenditures or on medication adherence in any of the 3 disease cohorts. Exploratory analyses suggest that patients in the diabetes and hyperlipidemia cohorts were switching to higher-value medications. CONCLUSIONS: A VBF can ensure access to high-value medications while maintaining affordability.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Honorários Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulários Farmacêuticos como Assunto , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipolipemiantes/economia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Feminino , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/economia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
15.
Med Care ; 55(2): 191-198, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Value-based benefit design has been suggested as an effective approach to managing the high cost of pharmaceuticals in health insurance markets. Premera Blue Cross, a large regional health plan, implemented a value-based formulary (VBF) for pharmaceuticals in 2010 that explicitly used cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to inform medication copayments. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the VBF. DESIGN: Interrupted time series of employer-sponsored plans from 2006 to 2013. SUBJECTS: Intervention group: 5235 beneficiaries exposed to the VBF. CONTROL GROUP: 11,171 beneficiaries in plans without any changes in pharmacy benefits. INTERVENTION: The VBF-assigned medications with lower value (estimated by CEA) to higher copayment tiers and assigned medications with higher value to lower copayment tiers. MEASURES: Primary outcome was medication expenditures from member, health plan, and member plus health plan perspectives. Secondary outcomes were medication utilization, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, office visits, and nonmedication expenditures. RESULTS: In the intervention group after VBF implementation, member medication expenditures increased by $2 per member per month (PMPM) [95% confidence interval (CI), $1-$3] or 9%, whereas health plan medication expenditures decreased by $10 PMPM (CI, $18-$2) or 16%, resulting in a net decrease of $8 PMPM (CI, $15-$2) or 10%, which translates to a net savings of $1.1 million. Utilization of medications moved into lower copayment tiers increased by 1.95 days' supply (CI, 1.29-2.62) or 17%. Total medication utilization, health services utilization, and nonmedication expenditures did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Cost-sharing informed by CEA reduced overall medication expenditures without negatively impacting medication utilization, health services utilization, or nonmedication expenditures.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Honorários Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulários Farmacêuticos como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 21(4): 269-75, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25803760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Value-based insurance design attempts to align drug copayment tier with value rather than cost. Previous implementations of value-based insurance design have lowered copayments for drugs indicated for select "high value" conditions and have found modest improvements in medication adherence. However, these implementations have generally not resulted in cost savings to the health plan, suggesting a need for increased copayments for "low value" drugs. Further, previous implementations have assigned equal copayment reductions to all drugs within a therapeutic area without assessing the value of individual drugs. Aligning the individual drug's copayment to its specific value may yield greater clinical and economic benefits. In 2010, Premera Blue Cross, a large not-for-profit health plan in the Pacific Northwest, implemented a value-based drug formulary (VBF) that explicitly uses cost-effectiveness analyses after safety and efficacy reviews to estimate the value of each individual drug. Concurrently, Premera increased copayments for existing tiers. OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the design, implementation, and first-year outcomes of the VBF. METHODS: We compared observed pharmacy cost per member per month in the year following the VBF implementation with 2 comparator groups: (1) observed pharmacy costs in the year prior to implementation, and (2) expected costs if no changes were made to the pharmacy benefits. Expected costs were generated by applying autoregressive integrated moving averages to pharmacy costs over the previous 36 months. We used an interrupted time series analysis to assess drug use and adherence among individuals with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia compared with a group of members in plans that did not implement a VBF.  RESULTS: Pharmacy costs decreased by 3% compared with the 12 months prior and 11% compared with expected costs. There was no significant decline in medication use or adherence to treatments for patients with diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: The VBF and copayment changes enabled pharmacy plan cost savings without negatively affecting utilization in key disease states.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/economia , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/economia , Planos de Seguro Blue Cross Blue Shield/economia , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/métodos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/tendências , Aquisição Baseada em Valor/tendências
18.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 12(3): 231-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24664994

RESUMO

Our objective was to identify and characterize publicly available cases and related trends for performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs). We performed a review of PBRSAs over the past 20 years (1993-2013) using available databases and reports from colleagues and healthcare experts. These were categorized according to a previously published taxonomy of scheme types and assessed in terms of the underlying product and market attributes for each scheme. Macro-level trends were identified related to the timing of scheme adoption, countries involved, types of arrangements, and product and market factors. Our search yielded 148 arrangements. From this set, 65 arrangements included a coverage with an evidence development component, 20 included a conditional treatment continuation component, 54 included a performance-linked reimbursement component, and 42 included a financial utilization component. Each type of scheme addresses fundamental uncertainties that exist when products enter the market. The pace of adoption appears to be slowing, but new countries continue to implement PBRSAs. Over this 20-year period, there has been a consistent movement toward arrangements that minimize administrative burden. In conclusion, the pace of PBRSA adoption appears to be slowing but still has traction in many health systems. These remain a viable coverage and reimbursement mechanism for a wide range of medical products. The long-term viability and growth of these arrangements will rest in the ability of the parties to develop mutually beneficial arrangements that entail minimal administrative burden in their development and implementation.


Assuntos
Mecanismo de Reembolso , Reembolso de Incentivo , Participação no Risco Financeiro , Equipamentos e Provisões/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Mecanismo de Reembolso/tendências , Reembolso de Incentivo/tendências , Participação no Risco Financeiro/métodos , Participação no Risco Financeiro/tendências
19.
J Asthma ; 50(7): 783-90, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23638955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although interventions have been shown to alleviate symptoms in most patients suffering from asthma, only one-third of asthma patients have disease that is well-controlled. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether partly and uncontrolled asthmas are associated with increased costs for asthma-related healthcare utilization compared to well-controlled asthma and to determine whether these associations differed across racial groups. METHODS: We classified respondents from the Asthma Insights and Management survey into those with well-, partly and uncontrolled asthma and compared utilization of healthcare services and costs among these groups, as well as between whites and non-whites. RESULTS: Respondents categorized as having asthma that was not well-controlled reported lower income levels, higher rates of unemployment and more trouble paying for healthcare; similar results were found in analyses stratified by race. Patients whose asthma was partly or uncontrolled had greater use of asthma-related medications and medical services compared to patients whose asthma was well-controlled. Total unadjusted and adjusted costs were greater in patients whose asthma was classified as partly and uncontrolled. Similar results were found in analyses stratified on race. Across all levels of asthma control, non-whites had higher rates of utilization of emergency rooms and urgent care facilities and had greater rates of hospitalizations compared to whites. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that patients with asthma that is not well-controlled utilized more healthcare resources and had greater medical costs, despite lacking of health insurance which may suggest less access to care.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/etnologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Transplantation ; 95(6): 852-8, 2013 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23511212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplantation rates are very low for the broadly sensitized patient (panel reactive antibody [PRA]>80%; HS). Here, we examine the efficacy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of desensitization using high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab to improve transplantation rates in HS patients. METHODS: From July 2006 to December 2011, 207 HS (56 living donors/151 deceased donors) patients (donor-specific antibody positive, PRA>80%) were desensitized using IVIG and rituximab. After desensitization, responsive patients proceeded to transplantation with an acceptable crossmatch. Cost and outcomes of desensitization were compared with dialysis. RESULTS: Of the 207 treated patients, 146 (71%) were transplanted. At 48 months, patient and graft survival by Kaplan-Meier were 95% and 87.5%, respectively. The total 3-year cost for patients treated in the desensitization arm was $219,914 per patient compared with $238,667 per patient treated in the dialysis arm. Thus, each patient treated with desensitization is estimated to save the U.S. healthcare system $18,753 in 2011 USD. Overall, estimated patient survival at the end of 3 years was 96.6% for patients in the desensitization arm of the model (based on Cedars-Sinai survival rate) compared with 79.0% for an age, end-stage renal disease etiology, and PRA matched group of patients remaining on dialysis during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that desensitization with IVIG+rituximab is clinically and cost-effective, with both financial savings and an estimated 17.6% greater probability of 3-year survival associated with desensitization versus dialysis alone. However, the benefits of desensitization and transplantation are limited by organ availability and allocation policies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/economia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Idoso , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rituximab , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA