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1.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2819-2832, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359619

RESUMO

Our patented protease A-digested crude chalaza hydrolysates (CCH) show antioxidant abilities in vitro. The prophylactic effects of CCH on cognitive dysfunction and brain oxidative damages were investigated via a D-galactose (DG)-injected mouse model in this study. Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into the following: (1) CON, 0.1 mL 0.9% saline (subcutaneous injection [SC] on the back)+distilled water (oral gavage); (2) DG, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (Bio-Serv Co., Flemington, NJ, USA) (SC on the back)+distilled water (oral gavage); (3) DG_LCH, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 50 mg CCH/kg BW/day in 0.1 ml distilled water (oral gavage); (4) DG_MCH, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 100 mg CCH/kg BW/day (oral gavage); (5) DG_HCH, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 200 mg CCH/kg BW/day (oral gavage); (6) DG_AG, 100 mg/kg BW/day D-galactose (SC on the back) + 100 mg aminoguanidine hydrochloride/kg BW/day (oral gavage). The experiment lasted for 84 D. CCH, containing antioxidant-free amino acids and anserine, restored (P < 0.05) DG-injected memory injury in the Morris water maze test and attenuated the neuronal degenerations and nucleus shrinkages in the dentate gyrus area. CCH supplementation also reduced amyloid ß-peptide protein levels and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the brain of DG-injected mice, whereas the brain antioxidant capacity was reversed (P < 0.05) by supplementing CCH. Furthermore, AGE receptor (RAGE), NFκb, IL-6, and TNF-α gene expressions were downregulated (P < 0.05) by supplementing CCH. Therefore, CCH show prophylactic effects on the development of oxidative stress-induced cognitive dysfunction.

2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(5): 526-32, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) on intestinal flora in rats with stress gastric ulcer (SGU) , and to explore the mechanism of acupuncture promoting SGU recovery. METHODS: Thirty-one SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a control group (7 rats), a model control group (8 rats), an acupuncture group (8 rats) and a medication group (8 rats). The rats in the model group, acupuncture group and medication group were selected to applied the improved restraint water-immersion stress method to establish the SGU model. After modeling, the rats in the control group and model group were fixed and restrained for 20 min every day for a total of 5 days; the rats in the acupuncture group were intervented with acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36), once a day, 20 min each time, and twisting needle for 30 s every 5 min for a total of 5 days; the rats in the medication group were gavaged by solution of omeprazole enteric-coated tablet (200 mg/mL), 2 mL for each rat, once a day. Guth method was used to calculate the gastric mucosal damage index (GMDI), HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of gastric mucosa, and 16SrDNA identification was used to detect the structural abundance of intestinal flora. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the GMDI of rats in the model group was increased (P<0.01), the gastric mucosal pathological changes were significant, and the intestinal flora richness index Chao1, Observed species and diversity index Shannon were all decreased (P<0.05), the diversity index Simpson was increased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the GMDI of rats in the acupuncture group and medication group was reduced (P<0.01, P<0.05), the gastric mucosal damage degree was reduced, and the intestinal flora richness index Chao1, Observed species and diversity index Shannon were all increased (P<0.05) and the diversity index Simpson decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the GMDI of rats in the acupuncture group was reduced (P<0.01), the recovery of gastric mucosal injury was better than that of the medication group. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture can effectively improve gastric mucosal injury of SGU, and the mechanism may be related to increasing the diversity of intestinal flora and promoting the correction of the disordered intestinal flora.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397609

RESUMO

Cognitive decline is an important issue of global public health. Cognitive aging might begin at middle adulthood, the period particularly vulnerable to stress in lifespan. Essence of chicken (EOC) has consistently demonstrated its beneficial effects on various cognitive domains as nutritional supplementation. This study primarily aimed to examine the cognitive enhancement effects of ProBeptigen® (previously named CMI-168), hydrolyzed peptides extracted from EOC, in healthy middle-aged people under mild stress. Ninety healthy subjects were randomly assigned into the ProBeptigen® or placebo group for eight weeks. Neurocognitive assessment, event-related potentials (ERPs), and blood tests were conducted before, during, and after the treatment. The ProBeptigen® group outperformed placebo group on Logical Memory subtests of Wechsler Memory Scale-third edition (WMS-III) and Spatial Working Memory task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The anti-inflammatory effects of ProBeptigen® in humans were also confirmed, with progressively declining high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Regular dietary supplementation of ProBeptigen® is suggested to improve verbal short- and long-term memory as well as spatial working memory, and reduce inflammation in middle-aged healthy individuals with stress. The effects of ProBeptigen® on cognition warrant further investigation. (NCT03612752).

4.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417395

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) and metabolic reprogramming have been implicated in cancer development and progression. However, the link between TME, metabolism, and cancer progression in lung cancer is unclear. In the present study, we identified IMPAD1 from the conditioned medium of highly invasive CL1-5. High expression of IMPAD1 was associated with a poorer clinical phenotype in lung cancer patients, with reduced survival and increased lymph node metastasis. Knockdown of IMPAD1 significantly inhibited migration/invasion abilities and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of IMPAD1 and subsequent accumulation of AMP in cells increased the pAMPK, leading to Notch1 and HEY1 upregulation. As AMP is an ADORA1 agonist, treatment with ADORA1 inhibitor reduced the expression of pAMPK and HEY1 expression in IMPAD1-overexpressing cells. IMPAD1 caused mitochondria dysfunction by inhibiting mitochondrial Complex I activity, which reduced mitochondrial ROS levels and activated the AMPK-HEY1 pathway. Collectively this study supports the multipotent role of IMPAD1 in promotion of lung cancer metastasis by simultaneously increasing AMP levels, inhibition of Complex I activity to decrease ROS levels, thereby activating AMPK-Notch1-HEY1 signaling, and providing an alternative metabolic pathway in energy stress conditions.

5.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 67: 105164, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417625

RESUMO

In modern approaches for nanomaterials synthesis, ultrasonication plays an important role in providing the larger surface area and smaller crystalline size properties that are favorable to electrochemical techniques. Herein, we report the tin (IV) oxide on graphene oxide nanoparticles were synthesized (SnO2@GO NPs) by ultrasonic methodology (UZ SONOPULS HD 3400 Ultrasonic homogenizer) with the total power of 400 W and the (frequency of 20 kHz; 140 W/dm3). The formation of as-prepared SnO2@GO NPs and its surface morphology were scrutinized over XRD, XPS, TEM, and FESEM. Besides, the sonochemically prepared SnO2@GO NPs were employed for the determination of environmental hazardous mercury (Hg). As a result, the modified electrode acquired a very low-level detection limit of 1.2 nM with a wider range of 0.01-10.41-µM and 14.52-225.4-µM for the detection of Hg. Finally, the practical applicability of SnO2@GO NPs in spiked human blood serum and tuna fish samples shows appreciable found and recovery values. .

6.
Pain Med ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain (CP) may increase the risk for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs); however, this issue is still unclear in the Asian population. We conducted this study to delineate it. DESIGN: From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 17,614 participants (<65 years) with CP and matched them by age and sex at a 1:2 ratio to participants without CP, who made up the comparison cohort. Several causes of CP and its underlying comorbidities were also analyzed. OUTCOME MEASURE: A comparison of MACCE occurring in the two cohorts was performed via follow-up until 2015. RESULTS: The mean age (SD) was 50.2 (11.5) years and 50.4 (11.7) years in participants with and without CP, respectively. In both cohorts, the percentage of female participants was 55.5%. Common causes of CP were spinal disorders (23.9%), osteoarthritis (12.4%), headaches (11.0%), gout (10.2%), malignancy (6.2%), and osteoporosis (4.5%). After adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal diseases, hyperlipidemia, liver diseases, dementia, and depression, participants with CP had a higher risk for MACCE than those without CP (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3 - 1.4). After conducting subgroup analyses, an increased risk was also found for all-cause mortality (AHR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 - 1.8), acute myocardial infarction (AHR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0 - 1.4), and stroke (AHR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.3 - 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: CP is associated with increased occurrence of MACCE. Early detection and interventions for CP are suggested.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e19969, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384446

RESUMO

Although previous clinical trials demonstrated that ticagrelor could reduce cardiovascular events and mortality versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the real-world evidence of its clinical impacts on East Asian Diabetic population has rarely been investigated.Between November 2013 and June 2015, 1534 patients were recruited into the Acute Coronary Syndrome-Diabetes Mellitus Registry of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC ACS-DM registry). After propensity score matching, a total of 730 patients undergoing successful revascularization and discharged on ticagrelor (N = 365) or clopidogrel (N = 365) were analyzed. The primary and secondary endpoints were all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization, respectively. The all-cause death associated with ticagrelor vs clopidogrel was 3.6% vs 7.4% (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.34 [0.15-0.80]; P = .0138) at 24 months. The re-hospitalization rate at 24 months was 38.9% vs 39.2% (P = .3258).For diabetic patients with ACS, ticagrelor provided better survival benefit than clopidogrel without an increase of re-hospitalization in 24 months after successful percutaneous coronary intervention. This study in real-world circumstance provided valuable complementary data to externally validate platelet inhibition and patient outcomes (PLATO) finding especially in Asian diabetic population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Clopidogrel , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ticagrelor , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, and pre-operative biopsy plays an important role to determine its major subtypes. As proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS) in 2011, the predominant histological subtype of adenocarcinoma is an indicator of outcomes and recurrence rate. However, the value of CT-guided core biopsy in predicting the predominant subtype and detecting the presence of an aggressive subtype of adenocarcinoma, peripheral sub-solid nodule, has less been discussed. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 318 consecutive peripheral sub-solid nodules that underwent percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy and surgical resection, between October 2015 and December 2018 and were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with histological subtype. The subtyping results from biopsy and surgical pathology were compared to evaluate the concordance rate. RESULTS: The overall concordance rate between biopsy and surgical pathology in determining the predominant histological subtype was 64%. Better concordance was found in small tumors (≤ 2 cm), in predicting either predominant histology (χ2 = 7.091, P = 0.008) or high grade adenocarcinoma, micropapillary and/or solid subtype, MIP-SOL (χ2 = 22.301, P < 0.001). The analysis of ground glass opacity (GGO) component (C/T ratio) obtained significantly higher accuracy in the pure GGO group than in the other two groups in predicting predominant histology or high grade adenocarcinoma (χ2 = 17.560, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 61.938, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided core biopsies provide additional value in predicting the histological subtype of lung adenocarcinoma after surgical resection, especially in small tumors (≤ 2 cm) or an initially pure GGO group.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383865

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with dyslipidemia in mice that were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFD). Results showed that oral supplementation of common buckwheat significantly improved physiological indexes and biochemical parameters related to dyslipidemia and NAFLD in mice fed with HFD. Furthermore, the HFD-induced reductions in fecal short-chain fatty acids were reversed by common buckwheat intervention, which also increased the fecal bile acid (BA) abundance compared with HFD-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Liver metabolomics based on ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that common buckwheat supplementation made significant regulatory effects on the pentose phosphate pathway, starch and sucrose metabolism, primary BA biosynthesis, and so forth. The results of high-throughput sequencing revealed that common buckwheat supplementation significantly altered the structure of the intestinal microbiota in mice fed with HFD. The correlations between lipid metabolic parameters and intestinal microbial phylotypes were also revealed by the heatmap and network. Additionally, common buckwheat intervention regulated the mRNA expressions of genes responsible for liver lipid metabolism and BA homeostasis, thus promoting BA synthesis and excretion. These findings confirmed that common buckwheat has the outstanding ability of improving lipid metabolism and could be used as a potential functional food for the prevention of NAFLD and hyperlipidemia.

10.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sputum Gram stain is an inexpensive, rapid, and convenient laboratory method that predicts the bacterial pathogens in patients with pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this method in predicting sputum culture results for critically ill pediatric patients. METHODS: From June 2008 to June 2018, patients with pneumonia with an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube in place in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Changhua Christian Hospital were enrolled retrospectively. Sputum was collected from each patient via the artificial airway for Gram stain and culture evaluations of bacterial pathogens. Mixed culture results were excluded. A successful prediction was defined as a match of the sputum Gram stain and culture results. RESULTS: A total of 622 records were reviewed, of which 542 were analyzed. Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the three most common pathogens found. The overall prediction success rate of the sputum Gram stain was 59.23%. The sensitivity of the method in predicting gram-negative bacilli (GNB), gram-negative cocci (GNC), and gram-positive cocci (GPC) was 0.45, 0.67, and 0.61, respectively. Its specificity in predicting GNB, GNC, and GPC was 0.87, 0.98, and 0.87, respectively. Its positive likelihood ratio in predicting GNB, GNC, and GPC was 3.46, 33.50, and 4.69, respectively. The highest prediction success rate among all pathogens was for GNC. CONCLUSION: The sputum Gram stain had high specificity and relatively low sensitivity in predicting the bacterial pathogens in critically ill pediatric patients. Its high specificity in predicting sputum culture results means that clinicians can confidently use sputum Gram stain results to guide their antibiotic choice for treatment.

11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-6, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from those caused by common viruses. Early isolation and containment is challenging. Although screening all patients with respiratory symptoms for COVID-19 has been recommended, the practicality of such an effort has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Over a 6-week period during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, our institution introduced a "respiratory surveillance ward" (RSW) to segregate all patients with respiratory symptoms in designated areas, where appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) could be utilized until SARS-CoV-2 testing was done. Patients could be transferred when SARS-CoV-2 tests were negative on 2 consecutive occasions, 24 hours apart. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,178 patients were admitted to the RSWs. The mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.89 days (SD, 1.23). Among confirmed cases of pneumonia admitted to the RSW, 5 of 310 patients (1.61%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This finding was comparable to the pickup rate from our isolation ward. In total, 126 HCWs were potentially exposed to these cases; however, only 3 (2.38%) required quarantine because most used appropriate PPE. In addition, 13 inpatients overlapped with the index cases during their stay in the RSW; of these 13 exposed inpatients, 1 patient subsequently developed COVID-19 after exposure. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. However, this method was resource-intensive in terms of testing and bed capacity.

12.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation of paired box gene 1 (PAX1) and zinc-finger 582 (ZNF582) are promising cancer biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma detection. This study aims to investigate the correlation between PAX1 or ZNF582 methylation and the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 135 OSCC cases from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology were enrolled in this study. Tissue specimens were collected from the lesion site and corresponding adjacent normal site. The methylation level of these two genes was evaluated in primary and recurrent OSCC group. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of PAX1 or ZNF582 were observed in lesion sites among primary and recurrent OSCC cases. In the lesion site of primary cases, promoter methylation were observed in T3/T4 (PAX1: p=0.02; ZNF582: p=0.01), stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ (PAX1: p=0.03; ZNF582: p=0.01) as well as bone invasion cases (PAX1: p=0.02; ZNF582: p=0.047). In the subgroup analysis, the correlation between hypermethylation and OSCC severity remains significant with exposure to smoking/alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylated PAX1 and ZNF582 can sufficiently act as biomarkers to reflect the severity or progression of OSCC.

13.
J Food Prot ; 83(5): 874-880, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330935

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In April 2017, an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning causing illness in nine victims associated with consumption of milkfish surimi products (fish ball) occurred in Kaohsiung City, southern Taiwan. Of the two suspected frozen milkfish surimi samples, one sample contained 91.06 mg/100 g of histamine, levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Moreover, 28 frozen milkfish surimi samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine. One (3.6%) of 28 commercial surimi samples had histamine levels greater than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline for decomposition of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from suspected and commercial surimi samples were identified as prolific histamine formers, able to produce 98.4 to 121.8 mg/100 mL of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine. In addition, milkfish surimi was inoculated with Raoultella ornithinolytica at 5.0 log CFU/g and stored at 4, 15, 25, and 37°C to investigate bacterial growth and formation of histamine. The histamine contents quickly increased to more than 50 mg/100 g in samples stored at 37 and 25°C within 12 and 24 h, respectively, as well those stored at 15°C within 96 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Taiwan to demonstrate that milkfish surimi products could cause histamine intoxication.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331349

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, which relates to not only motor symptoms, but also cognitive, autonomic, and mood impairments. The literature suggests that pharmacological or surgical treatment has a limited effect on providing relief of the symptoms and also restricting its progression. Recently, research on non-pharmacological interventions for people living with PD (pwPD) that alleviate their motor and non-motor features has shown a new aspect in treating this complex disease. Numerous studies are supporting exercise intervention as being effective in both motor and non-motor facets of PD, such as physical functioning, strength, balance, gait speed, and cognitive impairment. Via the lens of the physical profession, this paper strives to provide another perspective for PD treatment by presenting exercise modes categorized by motor and non-motor PD symptoms, along with its effects and mechanisms. Acknowledging that there is no "one size fits all" exercise prescription for such a variable and progressive disease, this review is to outline tailored physical activities as a credible approach in treating pwPD, conceivably enhancing overall physical capacity, ameliorating the symptoms, reducing the risk of falls and injuries, and, eventually, elevating the quality of life. It also provides references and practical prescription applications for the clinician.

15.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334958

RESUMO

Cauda equina paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumours rarely encountered in neurosurgical practice. Large cauda equina paragangliomas with an intradural and extradural component, dense adhesion to nerve roots and high vascularity are surgically challenging and mandate meticulous operative dissection. The presence of extensive bony erosion can lead to spinal instability requiring solid instrumentation and fixation. We recommend resection of large cauda equina paragangliomas in a staged fashion with the aim of gross total resection and spinal stabilisation.

16.
Analyst ; 145(10): 3742-3748, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343290

RESUMO

A novel nucleic acid-based isothermal signal amplification strategy, named cross-boosting extension-nicking reaction (CBENR) is developed and successfully used for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of polynucleotide kinase (PNK) activity. Only two simple oligonucleotides (recognition substrate (RS) and TaqMan probe) are applied to construct the PNK-sensing platform. In the presence of PNK, the 3'-phosphate end of RS will be converted to the 3'-hydroxyl one, and then extended to a long poly-adenine (poly-A) sequence under the catalysis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). The poly-A sequence provides multiple binding sites for the TaqMan probe to form multiple DNA duplexes. Subsequently, ribonuclease HII (RNase HII) cuts the TaqMan probe into two parts at the pre-set uracil site, generating a fluorescence signal and providing new substrates for TdT elongation. The TdT-catalyzed substrate extension and RNase HII-catalyzed probe nicking are boosted by each other, resulting in persistent enlargement of these two reactions and thus giving ultrahigh signal amplification efficiency. Utilizing the CBENR-based PNK sensor, ultrasensitive detection of PNK activity was achieved with a detection limit as low as 3.0 × 10-6 U mL-1. Quantification of endogenous PNK activity at the single-cell level and the screening/evaluation of PNK inhibitors were also achieved.

17.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 123: 114-119, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze how many non-Cochrane systematic reviews (NCSRs) used Cochrane's risk of bias (RoB) tool, domains they used, and whether judgments and comments about RoB were in line with Cochrane Handbook. METHODS: This was a methodological (research-on-research) study. We retrieved NCSRs from PubMed, extracted information about methods used for RoB assessment, and if they used 2011 Cochrane RoB tool, we analyzed their RoB methods and compared them with Cochrane Handbook guidance. RESULTS: We included 508 NCSRs; 431 (85%) reported they analyzed RoB, and 269 (53%) used Cochrane RoB tool. Only 16 of those 269 (5.9%) reported both a judgment and a supporting comment in the Cochrane RoB table in the manuscript (N = 4) or in a supplementary file (N = 12). Fifteen reviews, with 158 included trials, used judgments low/high/unclear; 41% of analyzed available judgments were inadequate, either because judgment was not in line with comment or comment was missing. CONCLUSIONS: Most NCSRs use Cochrane RoB tool to assess RoB, but most of them reported it incompletely, with high prevalence of inadequate judgments. Authors, editors, and peer-reviewers should make an effort to improve completeness and adequacy of Cochrane RoB assessment in non-Cochrane reviews.

18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 39, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing countries exhibit a high disease burden from shigellosis. Owing to the different incidences in males and females, this study aims to analyze the features involved in the transmission of shigellosis among male (subscript m) and female (subscript f) individuals using a newly developed sex-based model. METHODS: The data of reported shigellosis cases were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention in Hubei Province from 2005 to 2017. A sex-based Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious/Asymptomatic-Recovered (SEIAR) model was applied to explore the dataset, and a sex-age-based SEIAR model was applied in 2010 to explore the sex- and age-specific transmissions. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2017, 130 770 shigellosis cases (including 73 981 male and 56 789 female cases) were reported in Hubei Province. The SEIAR model exhibited a significant fitting effect with the shigellosis data (P <  0.001). The median values of the shigellosis transmission were 2.3225 × 108 for SARmm (secondary attack rate from male to male), 2.5729 × 108 for SARmf, 2.7630 × 10-8 for SARfm, and 2.1061 × 10-8 for SARff. The top five mean values of the transmission relative rate in 2010 (where the subscript 1 was defined as male and age ≤ 5 years, 2 was male and age 6 to 59 years, 3 was male and age ≥ 60 years, 4 was female and age ≤ 5 years, 5 was female and age 6 to 59 years, and 6 was male and age ≥ 60 years) were 5.76 × 10-8 for ß61, 5.32 × 10-8 for ß31, 4.01 × 10-8 for ß34, 7.52 × 10-9 for ß62, and 6.04 × 10-9 for ß64. CONCLUSIONS: The transmissibility of shigellosis differed among male and female individuals. The transmissibility between the genders was higher than that within the genders, particularly female-to-male transmission. The most important route in children (age ≤ 5 years) was transmission from the elderly (age ≥ 60 years). Therefore, the greatest interventions should be applied in females and the elderly.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Disenteria Bacilar/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia in children. Although usually self-limited, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) may lead to complicated morbidity that can even be life-threatening. Upon MPP infection, alveolar macrophage becomes attracted and activated and will induce subsequent cytokine and chemokine reaction. Refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP) is manifested by clinical or radiological deterioration despite proper antibiotic therapy. RMPP is characterized with excessive inflammation and may need subsequent glucocorticoid treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the change of plasma chemokines in non-refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (NRMPP) and RMPP before and after antibiotic or methylprednisolone treatment. METHOD: A total of 42 children with MPP were enrolled in this study. Plasma specimens were collected at admission and one to two weeks after antibiotic or methylprednisolone treatment with declined fever. Plasma specimens were then indicated to chemokines detection. RESULTS: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia altered the chemokine profile through the observation of decreased plasma M1 related chemokines (CCL2, CCL8 and CXCL10) and increased M2 related chemokines (CCL17 and CCL22) after treatment.When the patients were divided into RMPP and NRMPP groups and the chemokines before treatment were compared, the RMPP group showed higher CXCL10 but lower CCL3 and CCL11 than the NRMPP group. CONCLUSION: Unique changes in macrophage related chemokines is observed in the course of MPP infection. NRMPP and RMPP infection in children showed distinct manifestation in chemokine profiles.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This was a randomized, open-label, controlled phase II clinical trial to investigate the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of intrarenal artery infusion of autologous peripheral-blood-derived CD34+ cells for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; ie, stage III or IV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 2016 and July 2018, 52 consecutive patients with CKD at stage III or IV were randomly allocated into a treatment group (TG; 2.5 × 107 cells for each intrarenal artery; n = 26) and a control group (CG; standardized pharmacotherapy only; n = 26). The primary endpoints included safety and change of creatinine level/creatinine clearance. The secondary endpoints were 12-month combined unfavorable clinical outcomes (defined as dialysis or death), improvement in proteinuria, and CD34+ cell-related adverse events. RESULTS: All patients were uneventfully discharged after CD34+ cell therapy. The baseline endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) populations did not differ between TG and CG (P > .5). Flow cytometric analysis showed increases in circulating EPC (ie, CD34+KDR+CD45dim / CD34+CD133+CD45dim /CD31+CD133+CD45dim /CD34+CD133+KDR+/CD133+) and hematopoietic stem cell (CD34+) populations after granulocyte-colony stimulating factor treatment (all P < .001). Besides, Matrigel assay of angiogenesis was also significantly enhanced (all P < .001). Renal-venous blood samplings (ie, at 0, 5, 10, and 30 minutes after CD34+ cell infusion) demonstrated significant progressive increases in EPC level (P for trend <.001) among the TG patients. One-year combined unfavorable clinical outcomes were significantly lower in TG than those in CG (0% [0] vs 13.3% [4], P = .038). By 12 months after CD34+ cell therapy, circulating creatinine level, ratio of urine protein to urine creatinine, and creatinine clearance showed no difference between TG and CG (all P > .1). CONCLUSION: CD34+ cell therapy was safe and improved 1-year outcome.

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