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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1051, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopy may be associated with disease severity and a poor prognosis of human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia in children. Our aim was to observe the clinical characteristics and pulmonary radiological changes in children with atopy and HAdV pneumonia in China. METHODS: Children hospitalised with HAdV pneumonia from June 2018 to December 2019 were analysed. All children were divided into atopic with HAdV, non-atopic with HAdV, and atopic without HAdV infection group. Each group was further divided into the mild and severe pneumonia groups according to disease severity. Standard treatment was initiated after admission, and regular follow-up evaluations were conducted at 1 month after discharge. Baseline and clinical characteristics and pulmonary radiological changes in children with and without atopy were evaluated. Risk factors associated with small airway lesions in patients with HAdV pneumonia were analysed. RESULTS: The eosinophil count in the atopic group was significantly higher than that in the non-atopic group (P < 0.05). Severe coughing, wheezing, and small airway lesions on chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) upon admission, after discharge and 1 month after discharge were significantly higher in the atopic group (with or without HAdV infection) than in the non-atopic group (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in the number of patients with wheezing and small airway lesions during hospitalisation and after discharge among the three groups (P < 0.05). The risks of small airway lesions in children with a family or personal history of asthma, severe infection, atopy, and HAdV infection were 2.1-, 2.7-, 1.9-, 2.1-, and 1.4-times higher than those in children without these characteristics, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Children with atopy and HAdV pneumonia may experience severe coughing in mild cases and wheezing in mild and severe cases. Children with atopy are more susceptible to the development of small airway lesions, recurrent wheezing after discharge and slower recovery of small airway lesions as observed on pulmonary imaging than non-atopic children after HAdV infection. A family or personal history of asthma, atopy, severe infection, and HAdV infection are independent risk factors associated with the development of small airway lesion as observed on chest HRCT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos , Adenovírus Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/complicações , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
2.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21264561

RESUMO

Single-molecule detection of pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 is key to combat infectious diseases outbreak and pandemic. Currently colorimetric sensing with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) provides simple readouts but suffers from intrinsic non-template amplification. Herein, we report that plasmonic sensing of LAMP amplicons via DNA hybridization allows highly specific and single-molecule detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Our work has two important advances. First, we develop gold and silver alloy (Au-Ag) nanoshells as plasmonic sensors that have 4-times stronger extinction in the visible wavelengths and give 20-times lower detection limit for oligonucleotides than Au nanoparticles. Second, we demonstrate that the diagnostic method allows cutting the complex LAMP amplicons into short repeats that are amendable for hybridization with oligonucleotide-functionalized nanoshells. This additional sequence identification eliminates the contamination from non-template amplification. The detection method is a simple and single-molecule diagnostic platform for virus testing at its early representation. Table of Content O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=200 HEIGHT=55 SRC="FIGDIR/small/21264561v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (20K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@f3b951org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@10b9520org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@16ba2e1org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@192a21b_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG

3.
Biomaterials ; 278: 121139, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624753

RESUMO

Peptide drug conjugate (PDC) has emerged as one of the new generations of targeted therapeutics for cancer, which owns the advantages of improved drug targetability and reduced adverse effects compared with traditional chemotherapy. However, the poor permeability of PDC drugs regarding tumor cells is an urgent problem to be solved. Herein, we design a PDC drug molecule, which is composed of three modules: targeting motif (RGD target), assembly motif (GNNNQNY) and cytotoxic payload (CPT molecule). This PDC in situ forms nanoclusters upon binding cellular receptor, resulting in improved PDC cell-entry efficiency and treatment efficacy. In addition, the PDC shows increased therapeutic efficacy and raises the maximum tolerance dose of the drug in breast and bladder xenografted mice models. This strategy leverages the assembly principle to promote penetration of peptide molecules into cells and increase intracellular drug bioavailability, which is of great significance for the development of PDC drugs in the future.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4274-4286, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467742

RESUMO

This study evaluated the outcome indicators of the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMOP) to provide a reference for the related research. Four Chinese databa-ses(CNKI, VIP, Wanfang and CBM) and three English databases(Cochrane Library, EMbase and PubMed) were searched syste-matically to screen RCTs of TCM in the treatment of PMOP according to the pre-set criteria, and the quality of the included trials was evaluated by the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. A total of 29 627 articles were initially retrieved, and finally, 43 articles were included, including 34 in Chinese and 9 in English. As revealed by the results, the outcome indicators of 43 RCTs were mainly divided into six categories, with biochemical indicators accounting for 54.59%, bone mineral density(BMD) for 26.57%, quality of life for 6.28%, fracture for 1.94%, safety for 5.31%(including adverse reactions or events) and others for 5.31%. Biochemical indicators showed the maximum occurrence, followed by BMD. Many problems were found in the selection of outcome indicators of the TCM RCTs in the treatment of PMOP, such as the confusion of primary and secondary outcome indicators, the lack of endpoint criteria and vital clinical outcome indicators substituted by intermediate indicators, inconsistent evaluation standard of syndrome curative efficacy and neglected blinding in the measurement of subjective outcome indicators. The problems also included importance given to the efficacy indicators instead of the adverse outcome indicators, unnormalized indicator name, large quantitative range of the indicators, unconventional application of TCM efficacy criteria, seldom used confidence interval, relative effect indicator and absolute effect indicator.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Densidade Óssea , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 909-915, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the correlation of electroencephalogram (EEG) background evolution with the degree of brain injury in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for 56 neonates with HIE who underwent continuous video electroencephalogram (cVEEG) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. According to clinical symptoms, they were divided into a mild group with 3 neonates, a moderate group with 36 neonates, and a severe group with 17 neonates. EEG background grading and MRI score were determined for each group to analyze the correlation of EEG background evolution with the degree of brain injury. RESULTS: Compared with the moderate group, the severe group had significantly lower gestational age and Apgar score at 5 minutes after birth, a significantly higher resuscitation score, significantly lower base excess in umbilical cord blood or blood gas within 1 hour, a significantly higher proportion of neonates on mechanical ventilation, and a significantly higher incidence rate of short-term adverse outcomes (P<0.05). For the neonates in the mild and moderate groups, MRI mainly showed no brain injury (67%, 2/3) and watershed injury (67%, 16/24) respectively, and EEG showed mild abnormality in 62% (13/21) of the neonates on the 3rd day after birth. For the neonates in the severe group, MRI mainly showed basal ganglia/thalamus + brainstem injury (24%, 4/17) and whole brain injury (71%, 12/17), and EEG showed moderate or severe abnormalities on the 3rd day after birth. EEG background grading was correlated with clinical grading, MRI score, and short-term outcome on days 1, 2, 3 and 7-14 after birth (P<0.01). The highest correlation coefficient between EEG grading and MRI score was observed on the 3rd day after birth (rs=0.751, P<0.001), and the highest correlation coefficients between EEG grading and clinical grading (rs=0.592, P=0.002) and between EEG grading and short-term outcome (rs=0.737, P<0.001) were observed 7-14 days after birth. Among the neonates with severe abnormal EEG, the neonates without brain electrical activity had the highest MRI score, followed by those with status epileptics and persistent low voltage (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a good correlation between EEG background grading and degree of brain injury in neonates with HIE, which can help to evaluate the degree and prognosis of brain injury in the early stage.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18815, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552154

RESUMO

Camels have hunger tolerance and can adapt to the severe environment of the desert. Through the comparison of insulin signalling pathway genes in different tissues in different eating periods (feeding, fasting and recovery feeding), it was found that IRS1, PIK3CB, PIK3R1 and SLC2A4 expression was significantly downregulated in the fore hump and hind hump during the fasting period. In addition, there was no difference in serum insulin levels among the three stages. However, the serum leptin and adiponectin levels decreased significantly during fasting. Additionally, insulin tolerance tests during the three stages showed that camels were insensitive to insulin during fasting. Further study of the serum metabolites showed that serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acid levels increased during the fasting period. Finally, analysis of microbial diversity in camel faeces at different stages showed that during the fasting period, the proportion of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria increased, while that of Bacteroides and the butyrate-producing bacterium Roseburia decreased. The results of this study show that fasting is accompanied by changes in the activation of insulin pathways in various camel tissues, normal insulin levels, and increased lipolysis and insulin resistance, which return to normal after eating.

7.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 83: 102253, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blast related deaths are often shrouded by diagnostic and medicolegal complexities requiring multidisciplinary expertise in order to gauge accurate identification of the victims and document scientific investigations comprehensively. In the advent of more sophisticated technology, anthropologic methods can now be applied into post mortem imaging interpretation. The traditional imaging roles of characterizing osseous fragmentation, detecting and localizing foreign bodies can be expanded to simulate and support physical anthropologic examination to assist in documentation for court proceedings. CASE PRESENTATION: An assemblage of unidentified, incomplete, highly fragmented skeletal remains were found scattered on a bare area of land in a forest. There was evidence of an explosion given the pattern of scattered evidentiary material of explosive and ballistic nature. Laboratory analysis of white powder found within the explosive material confirmed the presence of high impact C4-explosive trace containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramin [Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX)] & pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). It took meticulous multidisciplinary efforts to confirm the identity of the victim that was marred by the severe fragmentation and skeletalization of the remains. The initial radiologic interpretation focused more on identification of foreign bodies and supporting documentation of fragmentation. With the current availability of post computed tomography (PMCT) in our center, we reexamined the value and potential of PMXR and PMCT as an adjunctive tool for biological profiling. CONCLUSION: This was the first case of C4-blast related death reported in Malaysia. The multidisciplinary approach in efforts to identify the victim may serve as a guide in managing, coordinating and maximizing the expertise of different forensic specialists, with emphasis on anthropologic and radiologic collaboration.

8.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21263213

RESUMO

BackgroundUnderstanding risk factors for short- and long-term COVID-19 outcomes have implications for current guidelines and practice. We study whether early identified risk factors for COVID-19 persist one year later and through varying disease progression trajectories. MethodsThis was a retrospective study of 6,731 COVID-19 patients presenting to Michigan Medicine between March 10, 2020 and March 10, 2021. We describe disease progression trajectories from diagnosis to potential hospital admission, discharge, readmission, or death. Outcomes pertained to all patients: rate of medical encounters, hospitalization-free survival, and overall survival, and hospitalized patients: discharge versus in-hospital death and readmission. Risk factors included patient age, sex, race, body mass index, and 29 comorbidity conditions. ResultsYounger, non-Black patients utilized healthcare resources at higher rates, while older, male, and Black patients had higher rates of hospitalization and mortality. Diabetes with complications, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and blood loss anemia were risk factors for these outcomes. Diabetes with complications, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and blood loss were associated with lower discharge and higher inpatient mortality rates. ConclusionsThis study found differences in healthcare utilization and adverse COVID-19 outcomes, as well as differing risk factors for short- and long-term outcomes throughout disease progression. These findings may inform providers in emergency departments or critical care settings of treatment priorities, empower healthcare stakeholders with effective disease management strategies, and aid health policy makers in optimizing allocations of medical resources.

9.
Int J Sports Med ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416779

RESUMO

High-volume training followed by inadequate recovery may cause overtraining. This process may undermine the protective effect of regular exercise on the cardiovascular system and may increase the risk of pathological cardiac remodelling. We evaluated whether chronic overtraining changes cardiac-related microRNA profiles in the left and right ventricles. C57BL/6 mice were divided into the control, normal training, and overtrained by running without inclination, uphill running or downhill running groups. After an 8-week treadmill training protocol, the incremental load test and training volume results showed that the model had been successfully established. The qRT-PCR results showed increased cardiac miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, miR-206, miR-208b and miR-499 levels in the left ventricle of the downhill running group compared with the left ventricle of the control group. Similarly, compared with the control group, the downhill running induced increased expression of miR-21, miR-17-3p, and miR-29b in the left ventricle. Unlike the changes in the left ventricle, no difference in the expression of the tested miRNAs was observed in the right ventricle. Briefly, our results indicated that overtraining generally affects key miRNAs in the left ventricle (rather than the right ventricle) and that changes in individual miRNAs may cause either adaptive or maladaptive remodelling with overtraining.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1527, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this research, the factors that influence the self-precautionary behavior during the pandemic are explored with the combination of social support and a risk perception attitude framework. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among 429 members to collect information on demographic data, social support, perceptions of outbreak risk, health self-efficacy, and self-precautionary behaviors with the guide of the Social Support Scale, the COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale, the Health Self-Efficacy Scale and the Self-precautionary Behavior Scale. RESULTS: The research shows that among the three dimensions of social support, both objective support and support utilization negatively predict risk perception, while subjective support positively predicts health self-efficacy; health self-efficacy and risk perception significantly predict self-precautionary behavior; the relationship between risk perception and self-precautionary behavior is significantly moderated by health self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The combined influence of social capital and risk perception attitudinal frameworks on self-precautionary behavior is highlighted in this study, with the relationship between the public's risk perception, health self-efficacy, and self-precautionary behavior intentions examined against the background of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These findings contribute to understanding the impact of social capital factors on risk perception and health self-efficacy, which provides insight into the current status and influencing factors of the public's precautionary behavior and facilitates early intervention during a pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359227

RESUMO

Subcutaneous fat is a crucial trait for waterfowl, largely associated with meat quality and feed conversion rate. In this study, RNA-seq was used to identify differentially expressed genes of subcutaneous adipose tissue among three developmental stages (12, 35, and 66 weeks) in Muscovy duck. A total of 138 and 129 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between 35 and 12 weeks (wk), and 66 and 35 wk, respectively. Compared with 12 wk, subcutaneous fat tissue at 35 wk upregulated several genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis, including HSD17B7 and MSMO1, while it downregulated fatty acid beta-oxidation related genes, including ACOX1 and ACSL1. Notably, most of the DEGs (92.2%) were downregulated in 66 wk compared with 35 wk, consistent with the slower metabolism of aging duck. Protein network interaction and function analyses revealed GC, AHSG, FGG, and FGA were the key genes for duck subcutaneous fat from adult to old age. Additionally, the PPAR signaling pathway, commonly enriched between the two comparisons, might be the key pathway contributing to subcutaneous fat metabolism among differential developmental stages in Muscovy duck. These results provide several candidate genes and pathways potentially involved in duck subcutaneous fat deposition, expanding our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying subcutaneous fat deposition during development.

12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 252, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effects of emodin on the viability, proliferation and apoptosis of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxia and to explore the underling molecular mechanisms. METHODS: PASMCs were cultured in a hypoxic environment (1% oxygen) and then treated with emodin. Cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated using CCK-8 assay, EdU staining assay, western blot and Mito-tracker red CMXRos and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection assay. The microRNA (miRNA)/mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Based on transcriptomics and proteomics were used to identify potential signaling pathways. Luciferase reporter assay was utilized to examine the interaction between miR-244-5p and DEGS1. RESULTS: Emodin at 40 and 160 µM concentration-dependently suppressed cell viability, proliferation and migration, but enhanced cell apoptosis of PASMCs under hypoxia. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis revealed that emodin could attenuate the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling in PASMCs under hypoxia. In addition, delta 4-desaturase, sphingolipid 1 (DEGS1) was found to be a direct target of miR-244-5p. Emodin could significantly up-regulated miR-244-5p expression and down-regulated DEGS1 expression in PASMCs under hypoxia. Furthermore, emodin-mediated effects on cell viability, migration, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling activity of PASMCs under hypoxia were significantly attenuated by miR-244-5p knockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that emodin suppressed cell viability, proliferation and migration, promoted cell apoptosis of PASMCs under hypoxia via modulating miR-244-5p-mediated DEGS1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. MiR-244-5p/DEGS1 axis was initially investigated in this current study, which is expected to further the understanding of the etiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

13.
Autism Res ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415113

RESUMO

Autistic children show audiovisual speech integration deficits, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined how audiovisual speech integration deficits in autistic children could be affected by their looking patterns. We measured audiovisual speech integration in 26 autistic children and 26 typically developing (TD) children (4- to 7-year-old) employing the McGurk task (a videotaped speaker uttering phonemes with her eyes open or closed) and tracked their eye movements. We found that, compared with TD children, autistic children showed weaker audiovisual speech integration (i.e., the McGurk effect) in the open-eyes condition and similar audiovisual speech integration in the closed-eyes condition. Autistic children viewed the speaker's mouth less in non-McGurk trials than in McGurk trials in both conditions. Importantly, autistic children's weaker audiovisual speech integration could be predicted by their reduced mouth-looking time. The present study indicated that atypical face-viewing patterns could serve as one of the cognitive mechanisms of audiovisual speech integration deficits in autistic children. LAY SUMMARY: McGurk effect occurs when the visual part of a phoneme (e.g., "ga") and the auditory part of another phoneme (e.g., "ba") uttered by a speaker were integrated into a fused perception (e.g., "da"). The present study examined how McGurk effect in autistic children could be affected by their looking patterns for the speaker's face. We found that less looking time for the speaker's mouth in autistic children could predict weaker McGurk effect. As McGurk effect manifests audiovisual speech integration, our findings imply that we could improve audiovisual speech integration in autistic children by directing them to look at the speaker's mouth in future intervention.

14.
Neural Plast ; 2021: 5597139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394340

RESUMO

There is accumulating evidence showing that exercise therapy may play an active role in peripheral neuropathic pain (NP), but its mechanism is still unclear. Studies have found that microRNAs (miRNAs) may play a role in NP by regulating pain-related target genes. Therefore, we aimed to explore the changes of miRNA and mRNA of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after NP in response to exercise with transcriptome technology. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was established, and rats were randomly allocated into three groups, namely, the sham-operated, CCI, and CCI-exercised groups. L4-L6 DRG tissue was taken for RNA-sequencing, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined through bioinformatics analysis. Real-time PCR was used to confirm the accuracy. A total of 4 overlapping differentially expressed miRNAs and 186 overlapping differentially expressed mRNAs were identified in the two comparisons of the sham-operated group versus the CCI group and the CCI group versus the CCI-exercised group. Among these DEGs, miR-145-5p, miR-341, miR-300-5p, miR-653-5p, Atf3, Cacna2d1, Gal, and Ctss related to NP were validated by real-time PCR. DEGs between the CCI and CCI-exercised groups were enriched in HIF-1 signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway, and neurotrophin signaling pathway. This study provides an understanding of the adaptive mechanisms after exercise of NP, and these DEGs in DRG might play a role in NP by stimulating the enriched pathways.

15.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436355

RESUMO

Through interfacial polymerization (IP), a polyamide (PA) layer was synthesized on the top of a commercialized polysulfone substrate to form a thin-film composite (TFC) nanofiltration membrane. Graphene oxide (GO) was dosed during the IP process to modify the NF membrane, termed TFC-GO, to enhance oxidant resistance and membrane performance. TFC-GO exhibited increased surface hydrophilicity, water permeability, salt rejection, removal efficiency of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), and H2O2 resistance compared with TFC. When H2O2 exposure was 0-96,000 ppm-h, the surfaces of the TFC and TFC-GO membranes were damaged, and swelling was observed using scanning electron microscopy. However, the permeate flux of TFC-GO remained stable, with significantly higher NaCl, MgSO4, and PPCP rejection with increasing H2O2 exposure intensity than TFC, which exhibited a 3.5-fold flux increase with an approximate 50% decrease in salt and PPCP rejection. GO incorporated into a PA layer could react with oxidants to mitigate membrane surface damage and increase the negative charge on the membrane surface, resulting in the enhancement of the electrostatic repulsion of negatively charged PPCPs. This hypothesis was confirmed by the significant decrease in PPCP adsorption onto the surface of TFC-GO compared with TFC. Therefore, TFC-GO membranes exhibited superior water permeability, salt rejection, and PPCP rejection and satisfactory resistance to H2O2, indicating its great potential for practical applications.

16.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436360

RESUMO

In order to overcome the challenges of low permeate flux (Jp) and the accompanying reverse solute flux (JS) during the forward osmosis (FO) membrane separation process, we synthesized four hybrid materials of polyacid-based organic compounds and incorporated them into the selective polyamide (PA) layer to make novel thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) FO membranes. The Jp and JS of each membrane were evaluated and used along with membrane selectivity (Jp/JS) as indicators of membrane separation performance. The fabricated and modified membranes were also characterized for ridge and valley surface morphologies with increasing hydrophilicity and finger-shaped parallel channels in the PSf substrate. Moreover, two highly hydrophilic nanoparticles of graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide (TiO2) were introduced with the hybrid materials for PA modification, which can further enhance the Jp of the TFN membranes. The highest Jp of the TFN membranes achieved 12.1 L/m2-h using 0.1% curcumin-acetoguanamine @ cerium polyacid (CATCP) and 0.0175% GO. The characteristic peaks of the hybrid materials were detected on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, evidencing successful incorporation of the hybrid materials during membrane modification. Here, we present the novel TFN membranes using hybrid materials for separation applications. The reactions for synthesizing the hybrid materials and for incorporating them with PA layer are proposed.

17.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 9274964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394778

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on the anticipatory delay of core muscles in nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) patients. Methods: Forty participants with NSLBP were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group. The sEMG signals of deltoid, erector spines (ES), multifidus (MF), rectus abdominis (RA), and transversus abdominus/internal oblique muscles (TrA/IO) were recorded before and after the intervention in the weight-shifting task. The relative activation time of each muscle was calculated. Results: In the WBV group, the relative activation time of bilateral MF and bilateral TrA/IO was significantly reduced on shoulder flexion (right MF: P=0.014; left MF: P=0.011; right TrA/IO: P=0.008; left TrA/IO: P=0.026). As for shoulder abduction, except for the left TrA/IO and the left RA, the relative activation time of other muscles was significantly reduced (right ES: P=0.001; left ES: P < 0.001; right MF: P=0.001; left MF: P=0.009; right TrA/IO: P < 0.001; right RA: P=0.001). In the control group, there was no significant difference in the relative activation time of each muscle before and after the intervention (P > 0.05). Conclusions: WBV exercise can effectively alleviate the anticipatory delay of core muscles in NSLBP patients, but the long-term effects still need further study. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-13003708.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The adjuvant treatment of stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been studied in multiple clinical trials, but many questions remain to be addressed, such as efficacy, safety, identification of the optimal cell type, tractable route of delivery, transplant dosage, and transplant timing. The current meta-analysis aimed to explore the issues of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation in patients with AMI based on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and guide the design of subsequent clinical trials of MSCs therapy for AMI. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE databases were searched for relevant clinical trials from January 1, 2000, to January 23, 2021. Results from RCTs involving MSCs transplantation for the treatment of AMI were identified. According to the Cochrane systematic review method, the literature quality, including studies, was evaluated and valid data was extracted. RevMan 5.3 and Stata 15.1 software were used for Meta-analysis. RESULTS: After a literature search and detailed evaluation, 9 randomized controlled trials enrolling 460 patients were included in the quantitative analysis. Pooled analyses indicated that MSCs therapy was associated with a significantly greater improvement in overall left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and the effect was maintained for up to 24 months. No significant difference in favor of MSCs treatment in left ventricular (LV) volume and in the risk of rehospitalization as a result of heart failure (HF) was noted, compared with the controls. For transplantation dose, the LVEF of patients accepting a MSCs dose of 107-108 cells was significantly increased by 2.62% (95% CI 1.54 to 3.70; P < 0.00001; I2 =0%), but this increase was insignificant in the subgroup that accepted an MSCs dose of < 107 cells (1.65% in LVEF, 95% CI, 0.03 to 3.27; P =0.05; I2 =75%) or >108 cells (4.65% in LVEF, 95% CI, -4.55 to 13.48; P =0.32; I2 =95%), compared with the controls. For transplantation timing, a significant improvement of LVEF of 3.18% was achieved in the group of patients accepting a MSCs infusion within 2 to 14 days Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (95% CI, 2.89 to 3.47; P <0.00001; I2 = 0). There was no association between MSCs therapy and major adverse events. CONCLUSION: Results from our systematic review suggest that MSCs therapy for patients with AMI appears to be safe and might induce a significant increase in LVEF with a limited impact on LV volume and rehospitalization caused by HF. The effect was maintained for up to 24 months. MSCs dose of 107-108 cells was more likely to achieve better clinical endpoints than <107 or >108 cells. The optimal time window for cell transplantation might be within 2-14 days after PCI. This meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD 42021241104.

19.
Water Res ; 203: 117549, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419919

RESUMO

Odors and tastes have become universal problems related to drinking water quality. In addition to the typical odor problems caused by algae or microorganisms, the occurrence of odors derived from drinking water disinfection have attracted attention. The chlor(am)ination-derived odor substances have certain toxicity and odor-causing characteristics, and would enter the tap water through water distribution systems, directly affecting drinking water safety and customer experience. This study provided a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, detection, and control of odor substances derived from drinking water chlor(am)ination disinfection. The occurrence and formation mechanisms of several typical types of disinfection derived odor substances were summarized, including haloanisoles, N-chloroaldimines, iodotrihalomethanes, and halophenoles. They are mainly derived from specific precursors such as halophenols, anisoles, and amino acids species during the disinfection or distribution networks. In addition, the change of disinfectant during chlor(am)ination was also one of the causes of disinfection odors. Due to the extremely low odor threshold concentrations (OTCs) of these odor substances, the effective sample pre-enrichment for instrument identification and quantification are essential. The control strategies of odor problems mainly include adsorption, chemical oxidation, and combined processes such as ozonation and biological activated carbon processes (O3/BAC) and ultraviolet-based advanced oxidation processes (UV-AOPs). Finally, the challenges and possible future research directions in this research field were discussed and proposed.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Odorantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 315, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433803

RESUMO

The evolution of coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, makes broad-spectrum coronavirus preventional or therapeutical strategies highly sought after. Here we report a human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-targeting monoclonal antibody, 3E8, blocked the S1-subunits and pseudo-typed virus constructs from multiple coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 mutant variants (SARS-CoV-2-D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.1, and P.1), SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63, without markedly affecting the physiological activities of ACE2 or causing severe toxicity in ACE2 "knock-in" mice. 3E8 also blocked live SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in a prophylactic mouse model of COVID-19. Cryo-EM and "alanine walk" studies revealed the key binding residues on ACE2 interacting with the CDR3 domain of 3E8 heavy chain. Although full evaluation of safety in non-human primates is necessary before clinical development of 3E8, we provided a potentially potent and "broad-spectrum" management strategy against all coronaviruses that utilize ACE2 as entry receptors and disclosed an anti-coronavirus epitope on human ACE2.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Antivirais/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Vero
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