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1.
Pediatrics ; 133(2): e418-27, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24470645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Treatment adherence by adolescents is often poor, and their outcomes are worse than those of younger patients. We conducted a quality improvement initiative to improve asthma control and outcomes for high-risk adolescents treated in a primary care setting. METHODS: Interventions were guided by the Chronic Care Model and focused on standardized and evidence-based care, care coordination and active outreach, self-management support, and community connections. RESULTS: Patients with optimally well-controlled asthma increased from ∼10% to 30%. Patients receiving the evidence-based care bundle (condition/severity characterized in chart and, for patients with persistent asthma, an action plan and controller medications at the most recent visit) increased from 38% to at or near 100%. Patients receiving the required self-management bundle (patient self-assessment, stage-of-readiness tool, and personal action plan) increased from 0% to ∼90%. Patients and parents who were confident in their ability to manage their or their adolescent's asthma increased from 70% to ∼85%. Patient satisfaction and the mean proportion of patients with asthma-related emergency department visits or hospitalizations remained stable at desirable levels. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing interventions focused on standardized and evidence-based care, self-management support, care coordination and active outreach, linkage to community resources, and enhanced follow-up for patients with chronically not-well-controlled asthma resulted in sustained improvement in asthma control in adolescent patients. Additional interventions are likely needed for patients with chronically poor asthma control.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Adolescente , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Populações Vulneráveis
2.
Pediatr Transplant ; 17(7): 605-11, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23902630

RESUMO

Data from 997 pediatric LT recipients were used to model demographic and medical variables as predictors of lower levels of HRQOL. Data were collected through SPLIT FOG project. Patients were between 2 and 18 yr of age and survived LT by at least 12 months. Parents and children (age ≥ 8 yr) completed PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core and CF Scales at one time point. Demographic and medical variables were obtained from SPLIT. HRQOL scores were categorized as "poor" based on lower 25% of scores for each measure. Logistic regression models were generated. Single-parent households (OR 1.94, CI 1.13-3.33, p = 0.017), anti-seizure medications (OR 3.99, CI 1.26-12.70, p = 0.019), and number of days hospitalized (OR 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06, p = 0.0067) were associated with lower self-reported HRQOL. Parent data identified increasing age at transplant, age 5-12 yr at survey, hospitalization >21 days at LT, re-operations, diabetes, and growth failure at LT as additional predictors of generic HRQOL. Male gender, single-parent households, higher bilirubin levels at LT, and use of anti-seizure medication predicted lower cognitive function scores. HRQOL following pediatric LT is related to medical and demographic variables.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Falência Hepática/etnologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pais , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Asthma ; 49(4): 409-15, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22715868

RESUMO

Objective. Many adolescents with asthma use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for asthma symptom management. The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal differences in psychosocial health outcomes between high and low CAM users among urban adolescents with asthma. Methods. Adolescents (Time 1: N = 151, Time 2: N = 131) completed self-report measures regarding the use of 10 CAM modalities, mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following two clinic visits 1 year apart as part of a larger observational study. Multivariable regression analyses using backward elimination examined relationships between CAM use at Time 1 and outcomes at Time 1 and Time 2, controlling for key covariates and, in longitudinal analyses, Time 1 functioning. Results. Participants (M(age) = 15.8, SD = 1.85) were primarily African-American (n = 129 [85%]) and female (n = 91 [60%]) adolescents with asthma. High and low CAM users differed significantly in terms of several psychosocial health outcomes, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In cross-sectional multivariable analyses, greater frequency of praying was associated with better psychosocial HRQoL (R(2) = 0.22). No longitudinal relationships remained significant in multivariable analyses. Conclusions. Specific CAM techniques are differentially associated with psychosocial outcomes, indicating the importance of examining CAM modalities individually. Greater frequency of praying was cross-sectionally associated with better psychosocial HRQoL. When controlling for key covariates, CAM use was not associated with psychosocial outcomes over time. Further research should examine the effects of CAM use in controlled research settings.


Assuntos
Asma/psicologia , Asma/terapia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Saúde Mental , População Urbana , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Religião , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Med Care ; 50(8): 654-61, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22525614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physician work intensity, although a major factor in determining the payment for medical services, may potentially affect patient health outcomes including quality of care and patient safety, and has implications for the redesign of medical practice to improve health care delivery. However, to date, there has been minimal research regarding the relationship between physician work intensity and either patient outcomes or the organization and management of medical practices. A theoretical model on physician work intensity will provide useful guidance to such inquiries. OBJECTIVE: To describe an initial conceptual model to facilitate further investigations of physician work intensity. RESEARCH DESIGN: A conceptual model of physician work intensity is described using as its theoretical base human performance science relating to work intensity. For each of the theoretical components, we present relevant empirical evidence derived from a review of the current literature. RESULTS: The proposed model specifies that the level of work intensity experienced by a physician is a consequence of the physician performing the set of tasks (ie, demands) relating to a medical service. It is conceptualized that each medical service has an inherent level of intensity that is experienced by a physician as a function of factors relating to the physician, patient, and medical practice environment. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed conceptual model provides guidance to researchers as to the factors to consider in studies of how physician work intensity impacts patient health outcomes and how work intensity may be affected by proposed policies and approaches to health care delivery.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Médicos , Carga de Trabalho , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Administração da Prática Médica/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 51(2): 114-21, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22019792

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of a text messaging system that allowed teenagers with asthma to generate and control medical reminders sent to their mobile phones. METHODS: The 12 teens in the study group were able to create their own reminder text messages, add or change reminders, and determine when and how often the messages were sent to their cell phone. RESULTS: In total, 18 of the 21 unique messages created were reminders to take medication. No teen made changes to their original text messages or delivery schedule on their own. They gave high ratings on the usefulness, acceptability, and ease of use of the text messaging system. Self-reported asthma control at baseline was similar for both the study and comparison groups and did not change significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Allowing teens to control the timing and content of reminder text messages may support self-management of chronic disease.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Sistemas de Alerta , Autocuidado/métodos , Mensagem de Texto , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Relig Health ; 51(1): 118-31, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20924680

RESUMO

Predictors of multiple dimensions of spirituality/religiosity (S/R) and adolescents' preferences for having S/R (e.g., prayer) addressed in hypothetical medical settings were assessed in a sample of urban adolescents with asthma. Of the 151 adolescents (mean age = 15.8, 60% female, 85% African-American), 81% said that they were religious and spiritual, 58% attended religious services in the past month, and 49% prayed daily. In multivariable models, African-American race/ethnicity and having a religious preference were associated with higher levels of S/R (R (2) = 0.07-0.25, P < .05). Adolescents' preferences for including S/R in the medical setting increased with the severity of the clinical situation (P < .05).


Assuntos
Asma/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , População Urbana , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
J Asthma ; 48(5): 531-8, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21504264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Up to 80% of adolescents with asthma have used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for symptom management. However, little is known about patient characteristics associated with CAM factors other than use. Previous studies recommend provider-patient discussion of CAM use, although few adolescents with asthma disclose their CAM use to their providers. To inform clinical interactions, this study examined prevalence and predictors of CAM use, consideration of use, disclosure of use, and perceived efficacy of use, in urban adolescents with asthma. METHODS: Adolescents with asthma (N = 151) recruited from a children's hospital completed questionnaires addressing demographic and clinical variables and 10 CAM modalities. Response frequencies to four questions assessing CAM use, consideration of use, disclosure, and perceived efficacy were calculated for each modality. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined characteristics associated with responses to each question for the two most commonly used CAM modalities. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 15.8 (SD = 1.8), 60% were female and 85% were African-American. Seventy-one percent reported using CAM for symptom management in the past month. Relaxation (64%) and prayer (61%) were the most frequently reported modalities and were perceived to be the most efficacious. Adolescents most commonly reported considering using relaxation (85%) and prayer (80%) for future symptom management. Participants were most likely to disclose their use of yoga (59%) and diet (57%), and least likely to disclose prayer (33%) and guided imagery (36%) to providers. In multivariable analyses, older adolescents (OR = 1.27, p < .05) and African-Americans (OR = 2.76, p < .05) were more likely to use relaxation. Adolescents with more frequent asthma symptoms (OR = 0.98, p < .05) were more likely to use prayer. African-Americans were more likely to report using prayer (OR = 3.47, p < .05) and consider using prayer (OR = 7.98, p < .01) in the future for symptom management. CONCLUSIONS: Many urban adolescents used and would consider using CAM, specifically relaxation and prayer, for asthma symptom management. African-Americans, older adolescents, and those with more frequent symptoms were more likely to use and/or consider using CAM. Providers caring for urban adolescents with asthma should discuss CAM with patients, particularly those identified as likely to use CAM. Future studies should examine relationships between CAM use and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/psicologia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Ohio , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , População Urbana
8.
J Pediatr ; 158(6): 1028-1030.e1, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21392791

RESUMO

We investigated the concordance between adolescents' perceived and impairment-related asthma control. Based on self-reported medication use, symptoms, and activity limitations, most overestimated their impairment-related control (73.8%). Providers should ask detailed, structured questions to get the most comprehensive picture of a patient's impairment-related control so they can ultimately improve disease outcomes.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Autoavaliação , Adolescente , Medicina do Adolescente/métodos , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Percepção , Autocuidado , Meio Social
9.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings ; 17(4): 349-56, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21086026

RESUMO

Twenty to 40% of adolescents with asthma experience significant symptoms of anxiety. This study examined the mediational role of illness perceptions in the relationship between anxiety and asthma symptoms in adolescents. One hundred fifty-one urban adolescents (ages 11-18) with asthma completed measures of illness perceptions, and anxiety and asthma symptoms. Using the Baron and Kenny approach and Sobel tests, we examined whether illness perceptions mediated the anxiety-asthma symptom relationship. Three illness perceptions significantly mediated the relationship between anxiety and asthma symptoms, z = 1.97-2.13, p < .05; adjusted R(2) = 0.42-0.51, p < .05. Greater anxiety symptoms were associated with perceptions that asthma negatively impacted one's life and emotions and was difficult to control. These negative illness perceptions were, in turn, related to greater asthma symptoms. Illness perceptions helped explain the anxiety-asthma symptoms link in adolescents. Results suggest that targeting illness perceptions in adolescents with asthma and anxiety may help reduce asthma symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Asma/psicologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 16(3): 501-6, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19705417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mind-body complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities (e.g., relaxation or meditation) for symptom management have not been well studied in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purposes of this study were to: 1) determine the prevalence of 5 types of mind-body CAM use, and consideration of use for symptom management; 2) assess characteristics associated with regular mind-body CAM use; and 3) examine whether regular and/or considered mind-body CAM use are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Sixty-seven adolescents with IBD ages 12-19 recruited from a children's hospital completed a questionnaire on CAM use and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Logistic regression models were estimated for regular and considered CAM use. RESULTS: Participants mean (SD) age was 15.5 (2.1) years; 37 (55%) were female; 53 (79%) were white; and 20 (30%) had moderate disease severity. Adolescents used prayer (62%), relaxation (40%), and imagery (21%) once/day to once/week for symptom management. In multivariate analyses, females were more likely to use relaxation (odds ratio [OR] = 4.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25-15.29, c statistic = 0.73). Younger adolescents were more likely to regularly use (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.42-0.95, c statistic = 0.72) or consider using (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00, c statistic = 0.64) meditation. Adolescents with more severe disease (OR = 4.17, 95% CI = 1.07-16.29, c statistic = 0.83) were more willing to consider using relaxation in the future. Adolescents with worse HRQOL were more willing to consider using prayer and meditation for future symptom management (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents with IBD either currently use or would consider using mind-body CAM for symptom management.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Terapias Mente-Corpo/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Imagens (Psicoterapia) , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Meditação , Análise Multivariada , Psicologia do Adolescente , Terapia de Relaxamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ioga
11.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 31(5): 313-8, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19415008

RESUMO

Religious/spiritual (R/S) coping has been associated with health outcomes in chronically ill adults; however, little is known about how adolescents use R/S to cope with a chronic illness such as sickle cell disease (SCD). Using a mixed method approach (quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews), we examined R/S coping, spirituality, and health-related quality of life in 48 adolescents with SCD and 42 parents of adolescents with SCD. Adolescents reported high rates of religious attendance and belief in God, prayed often, and had high levels of spirituality (eg, finding meaning/peace in their lives and deriving comfort from faith). Thirty-five percent of adolescents reported praying once or more a day for symptom management. The most common positive R/S coping strategies used by adolescents were: "Asked forgiveness for my sins" (73% of surveys) and "Sought God's love and care" (73% of surveys). Most parents used R/S coping strategies to cope with their child's illness. R/S coping was not significantly associated with HRQOL (P=NS). R/S coping, particularly prayer, was relevant for adolescents with SCD and their parents. Future studies should assess adolescents' preferences for discussing R/S in the medical setting and whether R/S coping is related to HRQOL in larger samples.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Religião e Medicina , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Criança , Doença Crônica , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Adolesc Health ; 44(5): 485-92, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19380097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to describe spiritual well-being (existential and religious well-being) in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) versus healthy peers; 2) to examine associations of spiritual well-being with mental health outcomes (emotional functioning and depressive symptoms); and 3) to assess the differential impact of existential versus religious well-being on mental health. METHODS: A total of 155 adolescents aged 11-19 years from a children's hospital and a university hospital filled out questionnaires including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Covariates in multivariable models included demographics, disease status, and interactions. RESULTS: Participants' mean (SD) age was 15.1 (2.0) years; 80 (52%) were male; and 121 (78%) were of white ethnicity. Levels of existential and religious well-being were similar between adolescents with IBD and healthy peers. In multivariable analyses, existential well-being was associated with mental health (partial R(2) change = .08-.11, p < .01) above and beyond other characteristics (total R(2) = .23, p < .01). Presence of disease moderated both the relationship between existential well-being and emotional functioning and that between religious well-being and depressive symptoms: that is, the relationships were stronger in adolescents with IBD as compared with healthy peers. Religious well-being was only marginally significantly associated with mental health after controlling for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Although both healthy adolescents and those with IBD had high levels of spiritual well-being, having IBD moderated the relationship between spiritual well-being and mental health. Meaning/purpose was related to mental health more than was connectedness to the sacred.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ohio , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Pediatr ; 154(4): 527-34, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19028387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine for differences in and predictors of health value/utility scores in adolescents with or without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). STUDY DESIGN: Adolescents with IBD and healthy control subjects were interviewed in an academic health center. We collected sociodemographic data and measured health status, personal, family, and social characteristics, and spiritual well-being. We assessed time tradeoff (TTO) and standard gamble (SG) utility scores for current health. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses with utility scores used as outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients with IBD and 88 healthy control subjects 11 to 19 years of age participated. Among subjects with IBD, mean (SD) TTO scores were 0.92 (0.17), and mean (SD) SG scores were 0.97 (0.07). Among healthy control subjects, mean (SD) TTO scores were 0.99 (0.03) and mean (SD) SG scores were 0.98 (0.03). TTO scores were significantly lower (P= .001), and SG scores trended lower (P= .065) in patients with IBD when compared with healthy control subjects. In multivariable analyses controlling for IBD status, poorer emotional functioning and spiritual well-being were associated with lower TTO (R(2)=0.17) and lower SG (R(2)=0.22) scores. CONCLUSION: Direct utility assessment in adolescents with or without IBD is feasible and may be used to assess outcomes. Adolescents with IBD value their health state highly, although less so than healthy control subjects. Emotional functioning and spiritual well-being appear to influence utility scores most strongly.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Ohio , Espiritualidade
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 7: 9, 2007 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17474998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stress associated with residency training may place house officers at risk for poorer health. We sought to determine the level of self-reported health among resident physicians and to ascertain factors that are associated with their reported health. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to house officers in 4 residency programs at a large Midwestern medical center. Self-rated health was determined by using a health rating scale (ranging from 0 = death to 100 = perfect health) and a Likert scale (ranging from "poor" health to "excellent" health). Independent variables included demographics, residency program type, post-graduate year level, current rotation, depressive symptoms, religious affiliation, religiosity, religious coping, and spirituality. RESULTS: We collected data from 227 subjects (92% response rate). The overall mean (SD) health rating score was 87 (10; range, 40-100), with only 4 (2%) subjects reporting a score of 100; on the Likert scale, only 88 (39%) reported excellent health. Lower health rating scores were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with internal medicine residency program, post-graduate year level, depressive symptoms, and poorer spiritual well-being. In multivariable analyses, lower health rating scores were associated with internal medicine residency program, depressive symptoms, and poorer spiritual well-being. CONCLUSION: Residents' self-rated health was poorer than might be expected in a cohort of relatively young physicians and was related to program type, depressive symptoms, and spiritual well-being. Future studies should examine whether treating depressive symptoms and attending to spiritual needs can improve the overall health and well-being of primary care house officers.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Ohio/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia
15.
J Gen Intern Med ; 21 Suppl 5: S21-7, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17083496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been linked to immune function and mortality in patients with chronic illnesses. Factors such as poorer spiritual well-being has been linked to increased risk for depression and other mood disorders in patients with HIV. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how specific dimensions of religion, spirituality, and other factors relate to depressive symptoms in a contemporary, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS. DESIGN: Patients were recruited from 4 medical centers in 3 cities in 2002 to 2003, and trained interviewers administered the questionnaires. The level of depressive symptoms was measured with the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD-10) Scale. Independent variables included socio-demographics, clinical information, 8 dimensions of health status and concerns, symptoms, social support, risk attitudes, self-esteem, spirituality, religious affiliation, religiosity, and religious coping. We examined the bivariate and multivariable associations of religiosity, spirituality, and depressive symptoms. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We collected data from 450 subjects. Their mean (SD) age was 43.8 (8.4) years; 387 (86.0%) were male; 204 (45.3%) were white; and their mean CD4 count was 420.5 (301.0). Two hundred forty-one (53.6%) fit the criteria for significant depressive symptoms (CESD-10 score > or = 10). In multivariable analyses, having greater health worries, less comfort with how one contracted HIV, more HIV-related symptoms, less social support, and lower spiritual well-being was associated with significant depressive symptoms (P<.05). CONCLUSION: A majority of patients with HIV reported having significant depressive symptoms. Poorer health status and perceptions, less social support, and lower spiritual well-being were related to significant depressive symptoms, while personal religiosity and having a religious affiliation was not associated when controlling for other factors. Helping to address the spiritual needs of patients in the medical or community setting may be one way to decrease depressive symptoms in patients with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Causalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 21 Suppl 5: S39-47, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17083499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between patients receiving care in Veterans Administration (VA) settings (veterans) and non-VA settings (nonveterans), and to explore determinants of HRQoL and change in HRQoL over time in subjects living with HIV/AIDS. SUBJECTS: One hundred veterans and 350 nonveterans with HIV/AIDS from 2 VA and 2 university-based sites in 3 cities interviewed in 2002 to 2003 and again 12 to 18 months later. METHODS: We assessed health status (functional status and symptom bother), health ratings, and health values (time tradeoff [TTO] and standard gamble [SG] utilities). We also explored bivariate and multivariable associations of HRQoL measures with a number of demographic, clinical, spiritual/religious, and psychosocial characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with nonveterans, the veteran population was older (47.7 vs 42.0 years) and consisted of a higher proportion of males (97% vs 83%), of participants with a history of injection drug use (23% vs 15%), and of subjects with unstable housing situations (14% vs 6%; P<.05 for all comparisons). On scales ranging from 0 (worst) to 100 (best), veterans reported significantly poorer overall function (mean [SD]; 65.9 [17.2] vs 71.9 [16.8]); lower rating scale scores (67.6 [21.7] vs 73.5 [21.0]), lower TTO values (75.7 [37.4] vs 89.0 [23.2]), and lower SG values (75.0 [35.8] vs 83.2 [28.3]) than nonveterans (P<.05 for all comparisons); however, in multivariable models, veteran status was only a significant determinant of SG and TTO values at baseline. Among other determinants that were associated with multiple HRQoL outcomes in baseline and follow-up multivariable analyses were: symptom bother, overall function, religiosity/spirituality, depressive symptoms, and financial worries. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans reported significantly poorer HRQoL than nonveterans, but when controlling for other factors, veteran status was only a significant determinant of TTO and SG health values at baseline. Correlates of HRQoL such as symptom bother, spirituality/religiosity, and depressive symptoms could be fruitful potential targets for interventions to improve HRQoL in patients with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Religião e Psicologia , Autoimagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 21 Suppl 5: S56-61, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17083502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Utility assessment involves assigning values to experienced or unfamiliar health states. Pivotal to utility assessment, then, is how one conceptualizes health states such as "current health" and "perfect health." The purpose of this study was to ascertain how patients with HIV think about and value health and health states. METHODS: We conducted open-ended in-depth interviews with 32 patients with HIV infection purposefully sampled from a multicenter study of quality of life in HIV. After undergoing computer-assisted utility assessment using the rating scale, time tradeoff, and standard gamble methods, patients were asked how they thought about the utility tasks and about the terms "current health" and "perfect health." RESULTS: Patients understood the health valuation tasks but conceptualized health states in different ways. Many patients believed that "perfect health" was a mythical health state, and some questioned whether it was even desirable. "Current health" was variably interpreted as the status quo; deteriorating over time; or potentially improving with the hope of a cure. CONCLUSION: Patients with HIV infection vary in the way they conceptualize health states central to utility assessment, such as perfect health and current health. Better understanding of these issues could make important methodologic and policy-level contributions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Assunção de Riscos , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Terminologia como Assunto
18.
Genet Med ; 8(6): 346-53, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16778596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal disorder due to mutations in the GLA gene. Manifestations of the disease are documented in hemizygous males. Recent studies have indicated that women with GLA mutations may report symptoms. The impact on their health-related quality of life is unclear. This study compares the quality of life of obligate heterozygotes to a historical healthy control population and to populations with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: The RAND-36 and Fabry-disease specific questions were administered to study participants. Study subjects were obligate heterozygotes for mutations in GLA. Mean scores in each of the subscales from the RAND-36 were compared between study subjects and previously published data from the Women's Health Initiative and studies on multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: Comparisons between 202 study participants and the Women's Health Initiative indicated that all eight subscale scores of the RAND-36 were significantly lower for women with Fabry disease (P < 0.0001). The mean scores of the study participants more closely resembled the mean scores of the participants in the multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis studies. CONCLUSION: Study participants reported clinically important effects on health-related quality of life. It is critical to develop management protocols for this population.


Assuntos
Doença de Fabry/diagnóstico , Doença de Fabry/genética , Heterozigoto , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , População/genética , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , alfa-Galactosidase/genética
19.
Qual Life Res ; 15(3): 503-14, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16547789

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess how patients with HIV who are enrolled in a clinical trials cohort rate their health and to compare their ratings with those of patients with HIV from 2 other cohorts: the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), and Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 320 (ACTG 320). METHODS: We analyzed baseline information for the 1649 subjects enrolled in the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) study prior to March 2002 who had self-rated health data available. We compared those results with results from 2 other groups: HCSUS, the only nationally representative sample of people in care for HIV in the U.S., which conducted baseline interviews in 1996 and 1997, and ACTG 320, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing a 3-drug antiretroviral regimen with a 2-drug combination, which enrolled subjects in the same general time frame as HCSUS. We used t tests, Pearson correlations, and linear regression to determine factors associated with self-rated health and z scores to compare results between cohorts. RESULTS: The mean (SD) rating scale value on a 0-100 scale for ALLRT participants was 79.8 (16.8). Values were significantly lower for subjects who were older, had a history of injection drug use, had lower CD4 cell counts, or were beginning salvage antiretroviral therapy. Subjects in ALLRT reported significantly better self-rated health at baseline than those in HCSUS or ACTG 320 (11-12% higher rating scale values in ALLRT; p<0.05). When cohort differences were accounted for through regression and stratification, the differences in scores between subjects in ALLRT and HCSUS increased and the differences in scores between subjects in ALLRT and ACTG 320 diminished. CONCLUSIONS: Self-rated health varied significantly by age, CD4 count, injection drug use history, and salvage therapy status. Differences in self-rated health for clinical trials and non-clinical trials samples appear to be substantial and should be considered when applying trial results to clinical populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrevelação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Ambul Pediatr ; 6(2): 84-90, 2006 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16530144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The arduous nature of residency training places house officers at risk for depression. We sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pediatric (PED), internal medicine (IM), family medicine (FM), and combined internal medicine-pediatric (IMPED) house staff, and spiritual/religious factors that are associated with prevalence of depressive symptoms. METHODS: PED, IM, FM, and IMPED residents at a major teaching program were asked to complete a questionnaire during their In-Training Examination. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Independent variables included demographics, residency program type, postgraduate level, current rotation, health status, religious affiliation, religiosity, religious coping, and spirituality. RESULTS: We collected data from 227 subjects. Their mean (SD) age was 28.7 (3.8) years; 131 (58%) were women; 167 (74%) were white; and 112 (49%) were PED, 62 (27%) were IM, 27 (12%) were FM, and 26 (12%) were IMPED residents. Fifty-seven house officers (25%) met the criteria for having significant depressive symptoms. Having depressive symptoms was significantly associated (P< .05) with residency program type, inpatient rotation status, poorer health status, poorer religious coping, and worse spiritual well-being. In multivariable analyses, having significant depressive symptoms was associated with program type, poorer religious coping, greater spiritual support seeking, and worse spiritual well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are prevalent among house officers and are associated with certain residency program types and with residents' spiritual and religious characteristics. Identifying residents with depressive symptoms and potentially attending to their spiritual needs may improve their well-being.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inabilitação do Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Religião , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Intervalos de Confiança , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Interna/educação , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Pediatria/educação , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
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