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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(14): 145713, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860878

RESUMO

Seed-catalysed growth has been proved to be an ideal method to selectively tune the crystal structure of III-V nanowires along its growth axis. However, few results on relevant nitride NWs have been reported. In this study, we demonstrate the growth of epitaxial kinked wurtzite (WZ)/zinc-blende (ZB) heterostructure GaN NW arrays under the oxygen rich condition using hydride vapour-liquid-solid vapour phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE). The typical GaN crystal includes WZ and ZB phases throughout the whole NW structure. A detailed structural analysis indicates that a stacking faults free zone was occasionally observed near the NW tips and in the relatively long kinked 〈11-23〉 directions segments (>200 nm). Furthermore, some NWs (<5%) develop phase boundaries, resulting in kinking and crystal phase evolution. A layer-by-layer growth mode was proposed to explain the crystal phase evolution along the phase boundaries. This study provides new insights into the controlled growth of wurtzite (WZ)/zinc-blende (ZB) heterostructure GaN NW.

2.
Opt Express ; 27(25): 36405-36413, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873420

RESUMO

A suspended WO3-gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure photodetector integrated with a micro-heater is micro-fabricated and characterized for ultraviolet photo detection. The transient optical characteristics of the photodetector at different temperatures are studied. The 2DEG-based photodetector shows a recovery (170 s) time under 240 nm illumination at 150 ℃. The measured spectral response of WO3-gate AlGaN/GaN heterostructure shows a high response in deep ultraviolet range. Responsivity at 240 nm wavelength is 4600 A/W at 0.5 V bias. These characteristics support the feasibility of a high accuracy deep UV detector based on the suspended AlGaN/GaN heterostructure integrated with a micro-heater.

3.
Opt Lett ; 44(17): 4155-4158, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465351

RESUMO

With the penetration of semiconductor lighting, GaN-based white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color-rendering index (CRI) and simultaneous high luminous efficiency (LE) are required, especially for high-quality indoor lighting. Here, by adopting metal nanoparticles (Ag and Au NPs) into hybridized color conversion material composed of broadband LuAG:Ce phosphor and narrowband CdSe/ZnS red quantum dots, we have fabricated AgAu-WLEDs with simultaneously increased LE (12% increment at 40 A/cm2) and CRI (maximum of 94.5), and decreased correlated color temperature (CCT, from CCT=6000 K to = 4800 K), compared with WLEDs without metal NPs. This improved performance of WLEDs is ascribed to increased color conversion efficiency brought from localized surface plasmon resonance and thus a strong resonant light scattering effect from the incorporated metal NPs. We believe the approach reported in this work will find its application in GaN WLEDs, thus advancing the development of high-efficiency and quality semiconductor lighting.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800107

RESUMO

Alcohol-induced chronic liver disease (ALD) is becoming the most common liver disease in the world. However, there are no effective, universally accepted therapies for ALD. The etiology of ALD remains blurry so far. Historical evidence has demonstrated a link between the liver and gut microbiota. But it is difficult to distinguish the effect of gut microbiota changes caused by alcohol consumption in humans since the microbiota change detected in humans is complicated by diet and environmental factors. Due to the genetic, physiological, metabolic, and behavioral similarities to humans, the rhesus monkey provides excellent translational validity in preclinical studies, and the diet and environmental conditions can be controlled well in rhesus monkey. In our study, we explored the relationship between ALD and the gut microbiome in the rhesus monkeys with alcoholic liver steatosis. Our results showed that there was a change of the bacterial community structure in monkeys with ALD. Differences of the relative abundances of gut microbiota at phylum, order, family, genus, and species levels were observed between control monkeys and monkeys with ALD, and different pathways enriched in the monkeys with ALD were identified by metagenomic function analysis. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia tended to increase whereas Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria decreased in the fecal microbiota of ALD group compared to the control group. Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus significantly decreased in ALD monkeys compared with normal monkeys, Streptococcus was lower in the ALD group compared with the control group. The non-human primate model of ALD will be useful for exploration of the microbiome markers as diagnosis and potentially prognosis for ALD. The ALD model will benefit the development of new therapeutic procedures for treating ALD and provide safety and efficacy evaluation for clinical application.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 30(4): 045604, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485254

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate the growth of horizontal GaN nanowires (NWs) on silicon (111) by a surface-directed vapor-liquid-solid growth. The influence of the Au/Ni catalysts migration and coalescence on the growth of the NWs has been systematically studied. 2D root-like branched NWs were gown spontaneously through catalyst migration. Furthermore, a novel phenomenon that a catalyst particle is embedded in a horizontal NW was observed and attributed the destruction of growth steady state due to the catalysts coalescence. The transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence measurement demonstrated that the horizontal NWs exhibit single crystalline structures and good optical properties. Our work sheds light on the horizontal NWs growth and should facilitate the development of highly integrated III-V nanodevices on silicon.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518146

RESUMO

Van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) has drawn continuous attention, as it is unlimited by lattice-mismatch between epitaxial layers and substrates. Previous reports on the vdWE of III-nitride thin film were mainly based on two-dimensional (2D) materials by plasma pretreatment or pre-doping of other hexagonal materials. However, it is still a huge challenge for single-crystalline thin film on 2D materials without any other extra treatment or interlayer. Here, we grew high-quality single-crystalline AlN thin film on sapphire substrate with an intrinsic WS2 overlayer (WS2/sapphire) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, which had surface roughness and defect density similar to that grown on conventional sapphire substrates. Moreover, an AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diode structure on WS2/sapphire was demonstrated. The electroluminescence (EL) performance exhibited strong emissions with a single peak at 283 nm. The wavelength of the single peak only showed a faint peak-position shift with increasing current to 80 mA, which further indicated the high quality and low stress of the AlN thin film. This work provides a promising solution for further deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting electrodes (LEDs) development on 2D materials, as well as other unconventional substrates.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(12)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486245

RESUMO

High density of defects and stress owing to the lattice and thermal mismatch between nitride materials and heterogeneous substrates have always been important problems and limit the development of nitride materials. In this paper, AlGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown directly on a single-layer graphene-covered Si (111) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without a metal catalyst. The nanorods was nucleated by AlGaN nucleation islands with a 35% Al composition, and included n-AlGaN, 6 period of AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and p-AlGaN. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) showed that the nanorods were vertically aligned and had an accordant orientation along the [0001] direction. The structure of AlGaN nanorod LEDs was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Raman measurements of graphene before and after MOCVD growth revealed the graphene could withstand the high temperature and ammonia atmosphere in MOCVD. Photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterized an emission at ~325 nm and demonstrated the low defects density in AlGaN nanorod LEDs.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(38): 11935-11941, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175921

RESUMO

We study the roles of graphene acting as a buffer layer for growth of an AlN film on a sapphire substrate. Graphene can reduce the density of AlN nuclei but increase the growth rate for an individual nucleus at the initial growth stage. This can lead to the reduction of threading dislocations evolved at the coalescence boundaries. The graphene interlayer also weakens the interaction between AlN and sapphire and accommodates their large mismatch in the lattice and thermal expansion coefficients; thus, the compressive strain in AlN and the tensile strain in sapphire are largely relaxed. The effective relaxation of strain further leads to a low density of defects in the AlN films. These findings reveal the roles of graphene in III-nitride growth and offer valuable insights into the efficient applications of graphene in the light-emitting diode industry.

9.
Sleep Med ; 45: 25-32, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of trazodone compared with placebo in patients with insomnia. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched and relevant reports were hand-screened to identify eligible trials. Only randomized placebo-controlled trials were included. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and the odds ratios (OR) were estimated using a random-effect model. Primary efficacy outcomes included sleep efficiency (SE%) and self-reported sleep quality (SQ). Secondary efficacy outcomes included sleep latency (SL), total sleep time (TST), the number of awakenings (NAs), waking time after sleep onset (WASO). Tolerability outcome was measured by the number of patients who discontinued for adverse events and acceptability outcome was measured by the number of patients who discontinued for all causes. RESULTS: Seven trials involving 429 patients were included. There was no significant improvement for trazodone in SE% (SMD = 0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.19 to 0.38, P = 0.53) with a non-significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.59). However, patients receiving trazodone perceived better SQ than those receiving the placebo (SMD = -0.41, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.00, P = 0.05) with a non-significantly moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 65%, P = 0.06). As to secondary efficacy outcomes, we only found a significant reduction for trazodone in NAs (SMD = -0.51, 95%CI -0.97 to -0.05) compared to the placebo, with non-significant differences found in SL, TST, or WASO between trazodone and placebo. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the outcome of tolerability or acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: Trazodone was effective in sleep maintenance by decreasing the number of early awakenings and it could significantly improve perceived sleep quality, although there were no significant improvements in sleep efficiency or other objective measures. Trazodone however, presented good tolerance in the short-term treatment of insomnia.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Trazodona/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Autorrelato
10.
Nanoscale ; 10(13): 5888-5896, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521388

RESUMO

Recently, horizontal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention due to their increased compatibility with NW-based integrated nanoelectronic and nanophotonic systems. However, it still remains challenging to synthesize horizontal NWs efficiently. Here we introduce a novel method towards controllable growth of horizontal GaN NWs using HVPE with an Au/Ni thin film as the catalyst. By simply flipping the substrate, horizontal GaN NWs with various growth directions and cross sections have been obtained on a sapphire substrate with various facet orientations. Benefiting from the high decomposition frequency of GaCl precursors, the growth rate for the horizontal NWs is as fast as 400 µ h-1. Our results show that the facing orientation of the loaded substrate affects the flow of the local precursor, which determines the growth mode of the GaN NWs, i.e., no matter whether the substrate is facing downward or upwards. Photoluminescence measurements of the horizontal NWs show a finite blue shift of the band edge-related emission. It indicates the presence of compressed stress and is confirmed by the geometrical phase analysis (GPA) further. Our work opens up a new route and sheds light on the horizontal GaN NWs and will advance the development of horizontal NW-based nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices and systems.

11.
Int J Surg ; 49: 32-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to compare the influence of different calibrating bougie sizes on clinical outcomes in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) for patients with obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the key words: "laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy", "bougie size", "calibration", "obesity", and "obese" for searches of electronic databases up to October 2017. Clinical characteristics such as, the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL), overall complications, gastrointestinal leaks, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were pooled by meta-analysis. Stata 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) was used to perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Data were extracted from 11 original studies matching our inclusion criteria. In our review, the group of patients who had operations with thinner bougies had a greater %EWL (SMD 0.23, 95% CI 0.14-0.33, P < .001) than the group where larger diameters were used. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the incidence of overall complications (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.73-1.37, P = .978), postoperative gastrointestinal leaks (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.24, P = .554), and GERD (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.37-1.59, P = .476) between the two groups. A robust result could not be made about remission of comorbidities using differing diameter bougies due to insufficient data. CONCLUSIONS: Use of thinner diameter bougies in LSG was more effective in enabling weight loss and did not increase the risk of overall complications, gastrointestinal leaks or GERD compared with larger diameter bougies.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Calibragem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Gastrectomia/instrumentação , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
12.
Nanoscale ; 9(21): 7021-7026, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537630

RESUMO

We report here a new approach of Talbot effect based colloidal photolithography for fabricating nanostructure light emitting diodes (LEDs). By employing a rigid metal nanohole array template (RDT) as the diffraction grating and a polysiloxane-based spin on dielectric (SOD) as the thickness-controllable spacer layer, various InGaN/GaN nanostructure LEDs have been fabricated. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) simulations have been conducted to verify the proposed approach. Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) have been performed to investigate the optical properties of the obtained nanostructure LEDs. Our report shows significance in fabricating two dimensional (2D) functional nanostructures and understanding the optical properties of various nanostructure InGaN/GaN LEDs.

13.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 13(49): 180-187, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28216904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gentiana crassicaulis () is an important traditional Chinese herb. Like other herbs, its chemical compounds vary greatly by the environmental and genetic factors, as a result, the quality is always different even from the same region, and therefore, the quality evaluation is necessary for its safety and effective use. In this study, a comprehensive method including HPLC quantitative analysis and fingerprints was developed to evaluate the quality of Cujingqinjiao and to classify the samples collected from Lijiang City of Yunnan province. A total of 30 common peaks including four identified peaks, were found, and were involved for further characterization and quality control of Cujingqinjiao. Twenty-one batches of samples from Lijiang City of Yunnan Province were evaluated by similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) according to the characteristic of common peaks. RESULTS: The obtained data showed good stability and repeatability of the chromatographic fingerprint, similarity values were all more than 0.90. This study demonstrated that a combination of the chromatographic quantitative analysis and fingerprint offered an efficient way to quality consistency evaluation of Cujingqinjiao. Consistent results were obtained to show that samples from a same origin could be successfully classified into two groups. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the combinative method was reliable, simple and sensitive for fingerprint analysis, moreover, for quality control and pattern recognition of Cujingqinjiao. SUMMARY: HPLC quantitative analysis and fingerprints was developed to evaluate the quality of Gentiana crassicaulisSimilarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were employed to analysis the chromatographic dataset.The results of multi-components quantitation analysis, similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were consistent.All samples could be classified into two groups, which could to some extent reflect the quality differences of theses samples. Abbreviations used: SA: Similarity analysis, HCA: Hierarchical cluster analysis, PCA :Principal component Analysis, FA :Factor analysis.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(41): e5068, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27741122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propylthiouracil is the most common drug used to treat hyperthyroidism. However, this drug could cause a severe disease, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), which was usually misdiagnosed. METHODS: We reported a 60-year-old woman of propylthiouracil-induced AAV manifested as blood coagulation disorders. The patient was admitted because of hyperthyroidism and leukopenia. At the time of hospitalization, she suffered from dry cough, erythema and knee joints ache, and gradually became febrile. And then BP decreased and PLT was reduced with coagulation disorders. ANCA: c-ANCA positive (1:100), p-ANCA positive (1:320), MPO-IgG positive, PR3-IgG positive, GBM-IgG negative. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein increased markedly. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed that scattered spots, patch and ground-glass opacity. RESULTS: Finally, we made a terminal diagnosis of PTU-induced AAV possibly. After drug withdrawal and use of steroid, the patient recovered well and then accepted RAI therapy. As the patient was given imipenem-cilastatin before the reduction of PLT and coagulation disorders, we considered that the hematologic disorders might be caused by antibiotics or a clinical presentation of the vasculitis itself. CONCLUSION: Drug-induced vasculitis is relatively good prognosis, but early diagnosis and timely withdrawal of associated drugs are the key to the treatment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Propiltiouracila/efeitos adversos , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Antimetabólitos/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doença de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Vasculite/sangue , Vasculite/induzido quimicamente
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35217, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734917

RESUMO

We have presented broadband full-color monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by self-assembled InGaN quantum dots (QDs) using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The electroluminescence spectra of the InGaN QDs LEDs are extremely broad span from 410 nm to 720 nm with a line-width of 164 nm, covering entire visible wavelength range. A color temperature of 3370 K and a color rendering index of 69.3 have been achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements reveal a strong carriers localization effect of the InGaN QDs layer by obvious blue-shift of emission peak from 50 K to 300 K. The broadband luminescence spectrum is believed to be attributed to the injected carriers captured by the different localized states of InGaN QDs with various sizes, shapes and indium compositions, leading to a full visible color emission. The successful realization of our broadband InGaN QDs LEDs provide a convenient and practical method for the fabrication of GaN-based monolithic full-color LEDs in wafer scale.

16.
Obes Surg ; 26(12): 3023-3030, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27714526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review was performed to compare the effectiveness and safety of SG in the obese elderly patients with the young ones. METHODS: Cohort studies that compared outcomes among old and young patients who had undergone SG were included. Summary odds ratios were estimated using a random effect model. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. Old patients had a worse outcome in percentage of excess weight loss than the young ones (SMD -0.39, 95 % CI -0.55 to -0.24). No significant differences were recorded in resolution of co-morbidities: type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR 1.60, 95 % CI 0.84-3.05), hypertension (OR 1.05, 95 % CI 0.65-1.68), dyslipidemia (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 0.68-2.80), OSAS (OR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.30-1.34), or postoperative complications (OR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.51-1.55) between the elderly and the young who had undergone SG. CONCLUSIONS: SG was effective for weight loss and resolution of co-morbidities with low complication rate in the obese elderly patients.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32033, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550805

RESUMO

A contact-free diagnostic technique for examining position of the impurity energy level of p-type dopants in nitride semiconductors was proposed based on photoluminescence thermal quenching. The Mg ionization energy was extracted by the phenomenological rate-equation model we developed. The diagnostic technique and analysis model reported here are priorities for the design of highly effective p-doping of nitrides and could also be used to explain the abnormal and seldom analyzed low characteristic temperature T0 (about 100 K) of thermal quenching in p-type nitrides systems. An In-Mg co-doped GaN system is given as an example to prove the validity of our methods. Furthermore, a hole concentration as high as 1.94 × 10(18) cm(-3) was achieved through In-Mg co-doping, which is nearly one order of magnitude higher than typically obtained in our lab.

19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 19537, 2016 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26777294

RESUMO

In this work, a new strategy for achieving efficient p-type doping in high bandgap nitride semiconductors to overcome the fundamental issue of high activation energy has been proposed and investigated theoretically, and demonstrated experimentally. Specifically, in an AlxGa(1-x)N/GaN superlattice structure, by modulation doping of Mg in the AlxGa(1-x)N barriers, high concentration of holes are generated throughout the material. A hole concentration as high as 1.1 × 10(18) cm(-3) has been achieved, which is about one order of magnitude higher than that typically achievable by direct doping GaN. Results from first-principle calculations indicate that the coupling and hybridization between Mg 2p impurity and the host N 2p orbitals are main reasons for the generation of resonant states in the GaN wells, which further results in the high hole concentration. We expect this approach to be equally applicable for other high bandgap materials where efficient p-type doing is difficult. Furthermore, a two-carrier-species Hall-effect model is proposed to delineate and discriminate the characteristics of the bulk and 2D hole, which usually coexist in superlattice-like doping systems. The model reported here can also be used to explain the abnormal freeze-in effect observed in many previous reports.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(2): 1176-83, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699194

RESUMO

Graphene transparent conductive electrode (TCE) applications in nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) are still limited by the large contact resistance and interface barrier between graphene and p-GaN. We propose a hybrid tunnel junction (TJ)-graphene TCE approach for nitride lateral LEDs theoretically and experimentally. Through simulation using commercial advanced physical models of semiconductor devices (APSYS), we found that low tunnel resistance can be achieved in the n(+)-GaN/u-InGaN/p(+)-GaN TJ, which has a lower tunneling barrier and an enhanced electric field due to the polarization effect. Graphene TCEs and hybrid graphene-TJ TCEs are then modeled. The designed hybrid TJ-graphene TCEs show sufficient current diffusion length (Ls), low introduced series resistance, and high transmittance. The assembled TJ LED with the triple-layer graphene (TLG) TCEs show comparable optoelectrical performance (3.99 V@20 mA, LOP = 10.8 mW) with the reference LED with ITO TCEs (3.36 V@20 mA, LOP = 12.6 mW). The experimental results further prove that the TJ-graphene structure can be successfully incorporated as TCEs for lateral nitride LEDs.

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