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1.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481487

RESUMO

Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), its cardiometabolic benefits are questionable. Our aim was to explore whether the combination of a weight-loss Mediterranean diet/lifestyle intervention with OSA standard care leads to greater cardiometabolic improvements compared with standard care alone. We randomly assigned 187 adult, overweight, polysomnography-diagnosed moderate-to-severe OSA patients to a standard care group (SCG, n = 65), a Mediterranean diet group (MDG, n = 62) or a Mediterranean lifestyle group (MLG, n = 60). All three groups were prescribed with CPAP. Additionally, the SCG only received brief written healthy lifestyle advice, while intervention arms were subjected to a six-month weight-loss behavioral intervention based on the Mediterranean diet. The MLG also received guidance for improving physical activity and sleep habits. Glucose metabolism indices, blood lipids, liver enzymes and blood pressure improved only in intervention arms, and were significantly lower compared to the SCG post-intervention (all p < 0.05). The age-, sex-, baseline- and CPAP use-adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) of metabolic syndrome was 0.58 (0.34-0.99) for the MDG and 0.30 (0.17-0.52) for the MLG compared to the SCG. The MLG additionally presented a lower relative risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the MDG (0.52 (0.30-0.89)). After further adjustment for body-weight change, a lower relative risk of metabolic syndrome was still evident for the MLG compared to the SCG. In conclusion, although standard care alone does not improve OSA patients' cardiometabolic profile, its combination with a weight-loss Mediterranean diet/lifestyle intervention leads to significant cardiometabolic benefits.

2.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(6): 1042-1053, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lifestyle changes have been investigated as a therapeutic choice in regard to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity, data exploring associations between apnea and hypopnea indices and dietary habits are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate possible relationships between apnea and hypopnea indices and red meat intake in a cohort of Greek patients with mild or moderate to severe OSA evaluated by polysomnography. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from November 2014 through July 2018. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The sample consisted of 243 patients (21 to 70 years old) who were recently diagnosed with OSA, by overnight attended polysomnography in the Sleep Disorders Center of "Evangelismos" Hospital, Athens Medical School (Greece). The patients included were free of other chronic diseases and had not changed their dietary habits for at least 6 months before evaluation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on participants' dietary intake, food group consumption, physical activity, smoking, sleep habits, and anthropometric measures were collected. Dietary intake was evaluated by food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was also evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Score. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: General linear models were used to examine the relation between red meat intake and sleep parameters, while adjusting for potential confounders. Multiple logistic regression was also applied to estimate the association between red meat intake and the likelihood of severe OSA. RESULTS: Higher intakes of total red meat and unprocessed red meat were associated with higher values of apnea and hypopnea indices, after controlling for age, sex, waist circumference, socioeconomic parameters, smoking, physical activity, adequacy of nighttime sleep, and intake of foods or food components in the Mediterranean diet other than red meat (P trend for increasing quartiles of intake ≤0.02). Compared with patients in the lowest quartile of energy-adjusted total red meat intake (≤0.59 servings/day per 1,000 kcal), patients in the highest quartile (≥1.18 servings/day) had three times higher likelihood of having severe OSA (odds ratio: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.17 to 8.14). CONCLUSIONS: The results provide evidence of a positive association between total red meat and unprocessed red meat intake with apnea or hypopnea indices and suggest that red meat consumption is associated with OSA severity.

3.
Front Nutr ; 6: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681787

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this observational study was to examine the incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in a 246-km continuous ultra-marathon. Methods: Over 2 years, 63 male finishers of the annual Spartathlon ultra-marathon foot race from Athens to Sparta, Greece were included in the data analysis. A blood sample was drawn from an antecubital vein the day before the race as well as within 15 min post-race and analyzed for sodium concentration. During the second year of data collection, blood was also drawn at the 93-km checkpoint (n = 29). Height and weight were measured pre and post-race. Results: Mean race time of all subjects was 33 ± 3 h with a range of 23.5 and 36.0 h. Of the 63 finishers recruited, nine began the race with values indicative of mild hyponatremia. Seven runners were classified as hyponatremic at the 93-km checkpoint, three of whom had sodium levels of severe hyponatremia. After the race, 41 total finishers (65%) developed either mild (n = 27, 43%) or severe hyponatremia (n = 14, 22%). Mean change in bodyweight percentage and serum sodium from pre-race to post-race was -3.6 ± 2.7% (-2.5 ± 1.9 kg) and -6.6 ± 5.6 mmol·L-1, respectively. Pre-race serum sodium level was not a significant predictor of post-race serum sodium levels (ß = 0.08, R 2 = 0.07, P = 0.698), however, there was a significant negative association between change in bodyweight percentage and post-race serum sodium concentration (ß = -0.79, R 2 = 0.29, P = 0.011). Conclusion: The incidence of EAH of 52 and 65%, when excluding or including these individuals with pre-race hyponatremia, was the highest reported in current literature.

4.
Hum Reprod ; 33(3): 494-502, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390148

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) associated with better IVF performance in women attempting fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Greater adherence to the MedDiet, defined using the validated Mediterranean diet score (MedDietScore), was associated with a higher likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth among non-obese women <35 years of age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Diet impacts fertility and certain nutrients and food groups appear to have a greater effect on reproductive health, but there are relatively few published data on the role of dietary patterns, and the MedDiet in particular, on assisted reproductive performance. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This prospective cohort study included 244 non-obese women (22-41 years of age; BMI < 30 kg/m2) who underwent a first IVF treatment in an Assisted Conception Unit in Athens, Greece, between November 2013 and September 2016. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of habitual dietary intake and lifestyle on fertility outcomes. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Diet was assessed before the IVF treatment via a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed through the MedDietScore (range: 0-55), with higher scores indicating greater adherence. Intermediate outcomes (oocyte yield, fertilization rate and embryo quality measures) and clinical endpoints (implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth) were abstracted from electronic medical records. Associations between MedDietScore and IVF outcomes were analysed using generalized linear models adjusting for age, ovarian stimulation protocol, BMI, physical activity, anxiety levels, infertility diagnosis, caloric intake and supplements use. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: No association of MedDietScore with any of the intermediate outcomes or with implantation was found. However, compared with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore (≥36, n = 86), women in the lowest tertile (≤30, n = 79) had significantly lower rates of clinical pregnancy (29.1 vs 50.0%, P = 0.01) and live birth (26.6 vs 48.8%, P = 0.01). The multivariable-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for clinical pregnancy comparing women in the lowest with women in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore was 0.35 (0.16-0.78; P-trend=0.01), and for live birth it was 0.32 (0.14-0.71; P-trend = 0.01). These associations were significantly modified by women's age (P-interaction <0.01 for both outcomes). MedDietScore was positively related to clinical pregnancy and live birth among women <35 years old (P ≤ 0.01) but not among women ≥35 years. Among women <35 years, a beneficial 5-point increase in the MedDietScore was associated with ~2.7 times higher likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our finding cannot be generalized to the whole reproductive population nor to obese women nor to women attending infertility clinics around the world. In addition, due to the observational study design, causal inference is limited. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The results suggest that diet modifications and greater compliance to the Mediterranean diet may help increase the chances of a successful pregnancy and delivering a live baby for women undergoing IVF treatment. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was partially supported by a grand from Harokopio University (KE321). All authors declare no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03050944.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Fertilização In Vitro , Infertilidade/terapia , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Indução da Ovulação , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Reprod ; 32(1): 215-222, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27994040

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) associated with better semen quality in men of subfertile couples attempting fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Greater adherence to the MedDiet, as assessed through the validated Mediterranean diet score (MedDietScore), was significantly associated with higher sperm concentration, total sperm count and sperm motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A-posteriori dietary pattern approaches have revealed that dietary patterns characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish and low intake of meat are associated with better semen quality. Yet, whether adherence to the MedDiet is associated with better semen profile remains largely unexplored. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION: This was a cross-sectional study of 225 men from couples attending a fertility clinic in Athens, Greece, recruited between November 2013 and May 2016. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of habitual dietary intake and lifestyle on fertility outcomes. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Men aged 26-55 years, 51.1% overweight or obese, 20.9% smokers, with complete dietary data were analyzed. Diet was assessed via a food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the MedDiet was assessed through the MedDietScore (range: 0-55; higher scores indicating greater adherence to MedDiet). Semen quality was evaluated according to World Health Organization 2010 guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between tertiles of the MedDietScore and the likelihood of having abnormal semen parameters, after adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Compared to men in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore (≥37, N = 66), a higher percentage of men in the lowest tertile of the score (≤30, N = 76) exhibited below the WHO reference values for sperm concentration (47.4% vs 16.7%, P < 0.001), total sperm count (55.3% vs 22.7%, P < 0.001), total motility (65.8% vs 31.8%, P < 0.001), progressive motility (84.2 vs 62.1%, P = 0.011) and sperm morphology (50.0 vs 28.8%, P = 0.023). In the multivariable adjusted models, men in the lowest tertile of the MedDietScore had ~2.6 times higher likelihood of having abnormal sperm concentration, total sperm count and motility, compared to men in the highest tertile of the score. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The main limitation of the study stems from its cross-sectional nature, limiting our ability to determine causality. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The results suggest that greater compliance to the MedDiet may help improve semen quality. Whether this translates into differences in male fertility remains to be elucidated. Our findings are consistent with previous studies showing that dietary patterns with some of the characteristics of the MedDiet, i.e. rich in fruit, vegetables, legumes and whole grains, are associated with better measures of semen quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: No funding was obtained. The authors have no competing interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: n/a.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Mediterrânea , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/citologia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 136(4): 880-93, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24947433

RESUMO

ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to GC risk in a European population. The authors conducted an investigation of 32 variants at ABO and FUT1-7 loci and GC risk in a case-control study of 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the EPIC cohort (the EPIC-Eurgast study). Four variants (including rs505922) in ABO, and allelic blood group A (AO+AA, odds ratio=1.84, 95%CI=1.20-2.80) were associated with diffuse-type GC; however, conditional models with other ABO variants indicated that the associations were largely due to allelic blood group A. One variant in FUT5 was also associated with diffuse-type GC, and four variants (and haplotypes) in FUT2 (Se), FUT3 (Le) and FUT6 with intestinal-type GC. Further, one variant in ABO, two in FUT3 and two in FUT6 were associated with H. pylori infection status in controls, and two of these (in FUT3 and FUT6) were weakly associated with intestinal-type GC risk. None of the individual variants surpassed a Bonferroni corrected p-value cutoff of 0.0016; however, after a gene-based permutation test, two loci [FUT3(Le)/FUT5/FUT6 and FUT2(Se)] were significantly associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type GC, respectively. Replication and functional studies are therefore recommended to clarify the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(11): 2447-54, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a possible predictor for cancer at various organ sites. The hypothesis originally motivating many of these studies was that shorter telomeres would be associated with an increase in cancer risk; the results of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, however, and suggested positive, negative, or null associations. Two studies have addressed the association of LTL in relation to pancreatic cancer risk and the results are contrasting. METHODS: We measured LTL in a prospective study of 331 pancreatic cancer cases and 331 controls in the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). RESULTS: We observed that the mean LTL was higher in cases (0.59 ± 0.20) than in controls (0.57 ± 0.17), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.07), and a basic logistic regression model showed no association of LTL with pancreas cancer risk. When adjusting for levels of HbA1c and C-peptide, however, there was a weakly positive association between longer LTL and pancreatic cancer risk [OR, 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.27]. Additional analyses by cubic spline regression suggested a possible nonlinear relationship between LTL and pancreatic cancer risk (P = 0.022), with a statistically nonsignificant increase in risk at very low LTL, as well as a significant increase at high LTL. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results from our study do not support LTL as a uniform and strong predictor of pancreatic cancer. IMPACT: The results of this article can provide insights into telomere dynamics and highlight the complex relationship between LTL and pancreatic cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Telômero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nutrients ; 6(4): 1406-23, 2014 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24714352

RESUMO

The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Cooperação do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Cancer ; 135(9): 2065-76, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24643999

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in a wide range of biological processes including tumorigenesis. Deregulation of miRNA pathways has been associated with cancer but the contribution of their genetic variability to this disorder is poorly known. We analyzed the genetic association of gastric cancer (GC) and its anatomical and histological subtypes, with 133 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging 15 isolated miRNAs and 24 miRNA clusters potentially involved in cancer, in 365 GC cases and 1,284 matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Various SNPs were associated with GC under the log-additive model. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs passed the gene-based permutation test when analyzed according to GC subtypes: three tagSNPs of the miR-29a/miR-29b-1 cluster were associated with diffuse subtype (minimum p-value = 1.7 × 10(-4) ; odds ratio, OR = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.30-2.28), two tagSNPs of the miR-25/miR-93/miR-106b cluster were associated with cardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.38 × 10(-3) ; OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.86) and one tagSNP of the miR-363/miR-92a-2/miR-19b-2/miR-20b/miR-18b/miR-106a cluster was associated with noncardia GC (minimum p-value = 5.40 × 10(-3) ; OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.78). Some functionally validated target genes of these miRNAs are implicated in cancer-related processes such as methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3B), cell cycle (E2F1, CDKN1A, CDKN1C), apoptosis (BCL2L11, MCL1), angiogenesis (VEGFA) and progression (PIK3R1, MYCN). Furthermore, we identified genetic interactions between variants tagging these miRNAs and variants in their validated target genes. Deregulation of the expression of these miRNAs in GC also supports our findings, altogether suggesting for the fist time that genetic variation in MIR29, MIR25, MIR93 and MIR106b may have a critical role in genetic susceptibility to GC and could contribute to the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
BMJ Open ; 4(2): e004387, 2014 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24500614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-'environment' joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: The general Greek population of the EPIC study. PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. RESULTS: The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Genótipo , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
11.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 90(2): 96-107, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22210160

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in identifying new pathways and candidate genes that confer susceptibility to osteoporosis. There is evidence that adipogenesis and osteogenesis may be related, including a common bone marrow progenitor cell for both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1) and Perilipin 4 (PLIN4) are members of the PATS family of genes and are involved in lipolysis of intracellular lipid deposits. A previous study reported gender-specific associations between one polymorphism of PLIN1 and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Japanese population. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in PLIN1 and PLIN4 would be associated with bone measures in adult Caucasian participants of the Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS). We genotyped 1,206 male and 1,445 female participants of the FOS for four single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in PLIN1 and seven SNPs in PLIN4 and tested for associations with measures of BMD, bone ultrasound, hip geometry, and height. We found several gender-specific significant associations with the measured traits. The association of PLIN4 SNP rs8887, G>A with height in females trended toward significance after simulation testing (adjusted P = 0.07) and remained significant after simulation testing in the combined-sex model (adjusted P = 0.033). In a large study sample of men and women, we found a significant association between one SNP in PLIN4 and height but not with bone traits, suggesting that PATS family genes are not important in the regulation of bone. Identification of genes that influence human height may lead to a better understanding of the processes involved in growth and development.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Absorciometria de Fóton , Estatura/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perilipina-1 , Perilipina-4
12.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 22(2): 106-12, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21178771

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last year, huge progress has been made using SNP arrays to identify genes associated with lipid traits. RECENT FINDINGS: The single genome-wide association studies (GWASs) may have reached a limit in identifying novel genes, but there has been tremendous progress from collaborative consortia examining pooled data from GWASs, often employing SNP imputation. For example, the Global Lipid Consortium reported that 56 of the 95 lipid-associated loci were novel to the pooled analysis from over 100 000 individuals. Complementary to this, a gene-centric approach, such as the 50K IBC HumanCVD chip, which provides deep coverage of approximately 2100 genes, has had success in ascertaining independently acting variants and helped us to move a step closer to identify functional variants. Yet irrespective of the platform used, for each trait, the percentage variance explained by these genes remains in the order of approximately 10-12% and it is still unclear to what extent rare mutations, identified by resequencing or exome sequencing approaches, or gene × gene and gene × environment studies, might boost this. SUMMARY: GWAS-identified novel lipid-related loci highlight new pathways in lipid metabolism and may provide innovative drug targets. Furthermore, the use of lipid gene scores, over and above a single lipid measure, may have clinical utility.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lipoproteínas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Variação Genética , Humanos
13.
Nurs Stand ; 24(18): 35-40, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20162920

RESUMO

Many countries have experienced a pronounced shift towards later childbearing in recent years. Having children later in life has become a characteristic of contemporary fertility in affluent societies. Childbearing, particularly at a younger age, has been shown consistently to reduce the risk of breast cancer in the long term. Breast cancer constitutes the most common cancer in women and is an important public health concern worldwide. Early age at full-term pregnancy lowers the risk of breast cancer in women, whereas in older women first full-term pregnancy appears to increase the risk. Lactation seems to be relatively important in reducing the risk and abortion is associated neither with increased nor reduced risk. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the protective effects of parity. These include an altered systemic hormonal environment and an altered mammary cell fate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Idade Materna , Gravidez/fisiologia , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
14.
Nutrition ; 26(10): 969-74, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20097536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of folate-fortified foods (ready-to-eat [RTE] breakfast cereals or fruit-juice drinks) on the relation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview. A total of 186 sixth-grade students participated from randomly selected primary schools in Volos, Greece. Fasting plasma tHcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured. The MTHFR genotypes were determined. Anthropometric data were collected and dietary intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls. Participants were characterized as non-consumers of RTE breakfast cereals or fruit-juice drinks if there was no report of any such food during the 24-h recall interviews; all other children were classified as consumers. RESULTS: Geometric means for plasma tHcy were higher, whereas plasma folate was lower in non-consumers compared with consumers. The sample was divided by consumption status (yes or no) to explore the significance of each polymorphism depending on consumption status. The association between the genotype and tHcy was restricted to non-consumers (P<0.05). Specifically, only in children who did not consume RTE breakfast cereals or fruit-juice drinks did the TT genotype carriers exhibit higher tHcy concentrations when compared with C-allele carriers (P<0.05). In contrast, in consumers, circulating tHcy was similar regardless of genotype. CONCLUSION: These observational findings support a beneficial effect of RTE breakfast cereals and fruit-juice drinks on lowering plasma tHcy and improving folate status in children. Also, consumption of folate-fortified foods modulates the association of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism with tHcy, suggesting that habitual consumption of folate-fortified foods is a practical approach in providing consistent protection to those children who may benefit the most, i.e., carriers of the TT genotype.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácido Fólico/genética , Homocisteína/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Complexo Vitamínico B/genética , Bebidas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Frutas , Genótipo , Grécia , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 161(6): 845-52, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19755407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explored potential associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ; +45T>G, rs2241766 and +276G>T, rs1501299) with circulating total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, insulin resistance (IR), and markers of obesity in a healthy Greek female population. DESIGN AND METHODS: The two SNPs were genotyped in 349 women without diabetes (mean age: 47.0+/-12.1 years, mean body mass index: 28.9+/-5.6 kg/m(2)). Total and HMW adiponectin concentrations, body composition variables, IR parameters, and plasma lipid levels were determined. RESULTS: In single SNP analysis adjusting for several potential confounders, SNP +276G>T was associated with higher fasting insulin levels (P=0.01) and higher homeostasis model assessment index for IR (HOMA-IR; P=0.009), and SNP +45T>G was associated with lower insulin levels and HOMA-IR (P=0.05 and P=0.07 respectively). No association with total or HMW adiponectin, plasma lipid levels, and body composition variables was observed; however, haplotype analysis revealed that subjects homozygous for the most common +45T/+276G haplotype had lower total adiponectin levels than did noncarriers of this haplotype (P=0.02). The observed differences in HOMA-IR were very significant among women with a higher body fat (BF) percentage (>or= the population median of 41%; all P

Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Nutrition ; 25(2): 165-71, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18849146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A holistic dietary approach, examining the effect of dietary patterns in terms of chronic disease prevention and treatment, continuously gains more attention and may elucidate the association between diet and bone health. In the present study we examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet or other dietary patterns has any significant impact on indices of bone mass. METHODS: Two hundred twenty adult Greek women were recruited. Lumbar spine bone mineral density and total body bone mineral content were determined by using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Food intake was assessed using 3-d food records and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a Mediterranean diet score. Principal components analysis was used for the identification of participants' dietary patterns. RESULTS: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet was not found to have any significant effect on indices of bone mass. Principal components analysis identified 10 dietary patterns explaining 80% of the variance in food intake. A pattern characterized by high consumption of fish and olive oil and low intake of red meat was positively associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (P = 0.017) and total body bone mineral content (P = 0.048), after controlling for several confounders. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not associated with indices of bone mass in a sample of adult women, whereas adherence to a dietary pattern close to the Mediterranean diet, i.e., high consumption of fish and olive oil and low red meat intake, was positively related to bone mass, suggesting potential bone-preserving properties of this pattern throughout adult life.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Marinhos , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Carne , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 89(1): 391-9, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19056598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Variation in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) genes has been associated with fasting plasma triacylglycerol. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the combined effects of the GCKR rs780094C-->T, APOA5 -1131T-->C, and APOA5 56C-->G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on fasting triacylglycerol in several independent populations and the response to a high-fat meal and fenofibrate interventions. DESIGN: We used a cross-sectional design to investigate the association with fasting triacylglycerol in 8 populations from America, Asia, and Europe (n = 7,730 men and women) and 2 intervention studies in US whites (n = 1,061) to examine postprandial triacylglycerol after a high-fat meal and the response to fenofibrate. We defined 3 combined genotype groups: 1) protective (homozygous for the wild-type allele for all 3 SNPs); 2) intermediate (any mixed genotype not included in groups 1 and 3); and 3) risk (carriers of the variant alleles at both genes). RESULTS: Subjects within the risk group had significantly higher fasting triacylglycerol and a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than did subjects in the protective group across all populations. Moreover, subjects in the risk group had a greater postprandial triacylglycerol response to a high-fat meal and greater fenofibrate-induced reduction of fasting triacylglycerol than did the other groups, especially among persons with hypertriglyceridemia. Subjects with the intermediate genotype had intermediate values (P for trend <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SNPs in GCKR and APOA5 have an additive effect on both fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol and contribute to the interindividual variability in response to fenofibrate treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Apolipoproteínas A/genética , Hipertrigliceridemia/genética , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-V , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Nutr ; 138(10): 1852-8, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18806092

RESUMO

Perilipin (PLIN) is the major protein surrounding lipid droplets in adipocytes and regulates adipocyte metabolism by modulating the interaction between lipases and triacylglycerol stores. Associations between PLIN gene polymorphisms and obesity risk have been described, but interactions with dietary macronutrients require further attention. We examined whether dietary macronutrients (e.g. carbohydrates and fats) modulated the associations of the common PLIN 11482G > A (rs894160) single nucleotide polymorphism with obesity. We studied a population-based sample of Caribbean-origin Hispanics (n = 920, aged 45-74 y) living in the Boston area. Obesity measures (waist and hip circumference, BMI) did not differ between GG subjects and carriers of the A allele (GA and AA). In multivariate linear regression models, we found a significant interaction between complex carbohydrate intake as a continuous variable and PLIN 11482 G > A genotype for waist circumference (P = 0.002). By dichotomizing complex carbohydrate intake, we found significantly different effects across PLIN 11482G > A genotypes. When complex carbohydrate intake was <144 g/d, waist circumference was larger in PLIN 11482G > A carriers (P = 0.024). Conversely, when complex carbohydrate intake was >/=144 g/d, waist and hip circumferences were less in PLIN 11482G > A carriers (P < 0.05). These interactions were not found for simple sugars or total carbohydrates. We identified a significant gene-diet interaction associated with obesity at the PLIN locus. In subjects with higher complex carbohydrate intake, the minor allele was protective against obesity, whereas in subjects with lower carbohydrate intake, the minor allele was associated with increased obesity. These interactions may be relevant to dietary management of obesity.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Hispano-Americanos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Região do Caribe , Proteínas de Transporte , Estudos de Coortes , DNA/sangue , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Perilipina-1
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 159(4): R5-10, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18593824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed in all subjects. Fasting blood samples were taken; HMW and total adiponectin concentrations were measured. Food intake was evaluated using 3-day food records. The frequency of consumption of several food groups was approximately quantified in terms of number of servings per day. Furthermore, dietary intakes of betaine, choline, and free choline were estimated. RESULTS: Women in the highest HMW adiponectin tertile had higher fruit intake compared with those with lower levels, after adjusting for potential confounders (P=0.04). On the contrary, dietary betaine and choline intakes were not different among HMW adiponectin tertiles. In linear models, fruit consumption, controlling for biological and lifestyle variables, was significantly related to HMW adiponectin (partial r=0.15, P=0.04), but the association with total adiponectin did not reach statistical significance (partial r=0.11, P=0.12). A significant negative correlation between total adiponectin and refined cereals was also observed (partial r=-0.16, P=0.03). DISCUSSION: This is the first study that evaluates associations between dietary factors and HMW adiponectin levels. The associations found are moderate and indicate that, after multivariate adjustment, fruit consumption is related to HMW adiponectin in both linear and nonlinear models.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Frutas , Avaliação Nutricional , Adiponectina/sangue , Adiponectina/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Colina/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peso Molecular , Dinâmica não Linear
20.
Metabolism ; 57(6): 824-30, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18502266

RESUMO

In light of the potential beneficial effects of adiponectin on insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk, it is becoming increasingly important to identify all modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, that may affect circulating adiponectin concentrations. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between dietary patterns and plasma adiponectin levels using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. Two hundred twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed in all subjects. Blood samples were taken, and adiponectin concentrations were measured. Food intake was evaluated by 3-day food diaries, and PCA was used for the identification of the participants' dietary patterns. The PCA identified 10 dietary components explaining 82% of the total variance in food intake. Bivariate correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and dietary components revealed a positive significant association only with the first component that was characterized by high intake of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products as well as low intake of refined cereals (P = .04). This association remained unchanged after controlling for potential confounders (standardized beta coefficient = 0.18, P = .03). A dietary pattern characteristic of consumption of alcoholic beverages was found to be marginally related to adiponectin levels in the multivariate model (standardized beta coefficient = 0.14, P = .10). Our data indicate that a dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products is modestly positively associated with adiponectin concentrations.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Laticínios , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão
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