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1.
Ultrasound J ; 12(1): 38, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between ultrasonographic and infrared pupillary assessments in critically ill patients, including neurocritically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Montevideo, Uruguay. PATIENTS: Twenty-six adults patients with age 18 or older admitted to the intensive care unit with and without neurologic pathology. A total of 212 pupillary measures were made between ultrasonographic pupillary assessment (UPA) and infrared pupillary assessment (IPA). INTERVENTIONS: This was a study that utilized non-invasive (minimal risk) ultrasonographic and infrared pupillary assessment in patients admitted to the ICU. Time between UPA and IPA in a single patient was consistently less than 3 min. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There was a strong positive association between UPA and IPA (right eye [OD]: r = de 0.926, p-value < 0.001; left eye [OS], r = 0.965, p-value < 0.001), also observed in the group of neurocritically ill patients (OD: r = 0.935, p-value < 0.001; OS: r = de 0.965, p-value < 0.001). Taking IPA as reference measure, the percent error for all subjects was 2.77% and 2.15% for OD and OS, respectively, and for neurocritically ill patients it was 3.21% and 2.44% for OD and OS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic pupillary assessment is strongly correlated with infrared pupillary assessment in critically ill patients, including neurocritically ill patients. Ultrasonographic pupillary assessment is a quick, feasible, non-invasive method that allows accurate pupillary assessment, particularly neurologic function, in patients in whom a more precise measurement of the pupil is required or eye opening is not possible (e.g., periorbital edema due to traumatic brain injury).

2.
Ultrasound J ; 11(1): 24, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a tool in increasing use, but there is still a lack of basics for its routine use and evidence of its impact in intensive care. OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of POCUS on resource utilization, diagnostic accuracy, and clinical management in medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: Prospective, controlled study, in two polyvalent ICUs. The patients were randomly assigned to POCUS or control group. INTERVENTIONS: POCUS patients received systematic ultrasound examination of optic nerve, lung/pleura, heart, abdomen, and venous system, performed at the bedside by trained intensivists. Control patients were treated by critical care specialists who do not perform ultrasound in their clinical practice. RESULTS: We included 80 patients, 40 per group. There were no significant differences in age, sex, APACHE II score, or admission diagnosis. POCUS group used fewer resources per patient in the first 5 days of hospitalization: chest radiography (2.6 ± 2.0 vs 4.1 ± 3.5, P = 0.01), additional ultrasound evaluations performed by a radiology specialist (0.6 ± 0.7 vs 1.1 ± 0.7, P = 0.002), and computed tomography studies (0.5 ± 0.6 vs 0.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.007). Time to perform any requested ultrasound evaluation after ICU admission was 2.1 ± 1.6 h versus 7.7 ± 6.7 h (P = 0.001). Systematic ultrasound evaluation led to better characterization of ICU admission diagnosis in 14 (35%) patients and change in clinical management in 24 (60%). POCUS group had lower fluid balance at 48 and 96 h after admission (P = 0.01) and spent less time mechanically ventilated (5.1 ± 5.7 days vs 8.8 ± 9.4, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic application of POCUS may decrease utilization of conventional diagnostic imaging resources and time of mechanical ventilation, and facilitate meticulous intravenous fluid administration in critically ill patients during the first week of stay in the ICU. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03608202.

4.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 31(1): 53-57, mar. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-768040

RESUMO

La miocarditis es una enfermedad inflamatoria del músculo cardíaco, es una causa importante en todo el mundo de miocardiopatía dilatada. La infección viral es también una importante causa de miocarditis, y el espectro de los virus que causan la miocarditis ha cambiado en las últimas dos décadas. Su manifestación clínica principal, aunque no exclusiva, es un cuadro de insuficiencia cardíaca aguda. Presentamos el caso de una paciente cursando un cuadro de filiación cardiovascular, caracterizado por dolor torácico, falla cardíaca y arritmias malignas, en que se realizó diagnóstico de miocarditis con evolución fulminante. Se realizó monitoreo hemodinámico avanzado y medidas de soporte circulatorio mecánico con malos resultados clínicos...


Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle, and globally, it is an important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Viral infection is also an important cause of myocarditis, and the range of virus causing myocarditis has changed in the last two decades. Acute heart failure is its main clinical manifestation, although it is not exclusive.The study presents a patient under a cardiovascular condition characterized by thoracic pain, heart failure and malignant arrhythmias. Myocarditis was diagnosed and evolution was fulminant. Advanced hemodynamic monitoring was performed and mechanical circulatory support measures were taken, clinical results being bad...


A miocardite é uma enfermidade inflamatória do músculo cardíaca sendo, em todo o mundo, uma causa importante de cardiomiopatia dilatada. A infecção viral também é uma causa importante de miocardite, e o espectro dos vírus que a causa mudou nas últimas duas décadas. Sua manifestação clínica principal, embora não exclusiva, é um quadro de insuficiência cardíaca aguda.Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente com um quadro cardiovascular, caracterizado por dor torácica, falha cardíaca e arritmias malignas, com diagnóstico de miocardite de evolução fulminante. Fez-se monitoramento hemodinâmico avançado e foram realizadas medidas de suporte circulatório mecânico com resultados clínicos ruins...


Assuntos
Humanos , Choque Cardiogênico , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Miocardite
5.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 30(4): 261-5, dic. 2014.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-746746

RESUMO

El hematoma retrofaríngeo de causa traumática es una entidad clínica muy poco frecuente. Por la proximidad con la vía aérea superior y por tratarse de una lesión ocupante de espacio a nivel de los planos profundos del cuello, la misma puede producir la rápida instalación de una insuficiencia respiratoria aguda de tipo obstructivo. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 72 años, que sufre un siniestro de tránsito, moto contra moto, como conductor sin casco. Es asistido en la vía pública por unidad de emergencia móvil prehospitalaria (UEMPH), que constata: traumatismo encéfalo-craneano (TEC) sin pérdida de conocimiento. Se otorga el alta a domicilio desde el lugar del accidente. Reconsulta en domicilio por cuadro de dificultad respiratoria de rápida instalación y edema de cuello. Valorado nuevamente por UEMPH en domicilio, se constata: polipnea, estridor, disfonía. Se realiza traslado en ambulancia a emergencia del Hospital de Clínicas donde se realiza intubación orotraqueal (IOT), asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM) y con diagnóstico tomográfico de hematoma retrofaríngeo ingresa a la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). En la evolución se realizó traqueostomía quirúrgica (TQTq) y tratamiento conservador con buena evolución. El hematoma retrofaríngeo traumático es una entidad poco frecuente de gravedad potencial o real que debe conocerse para no demorar su diagnóstico. Una vez que la vía aérea se encuentra asegurada, se presentan dos opciones: drenaje del hematoma u observación clínica. La opción quirúrgica no ha mostrado ventajas respecto al tratamiento conservador.


Retropharyngeal edema caused by trauma is a rather unusual clinical entity. Given its close proximity to the upper airway and being a lesion that occupies space in the deep planes of the neck it may result in a fast installation of acute respiratory distress.The study presents the case of a male patient of 72 years old who suffered a car accident, where two motorbikes took part, and he was not wearing a helmet. He was seen in the site by the mobile emergency services who found: traumatic brain injury (TBI) with no unconsciousness. He was released to go home. The patient consulted again from his domicile for difficulties in breathing of rapid installation and neck swelling. He was assessed by emergency services in his domicile which found: polypnea, stridor and dysphonia. He was sent to the Emergency Unit at the Clinicas University Hospital in an ambulance where orotracheal intubation was performed, he received mechanical ventilation. The scan diagnosis was retropharyngeal edema and he was admitted in the ICU. Upon evolution a surgical tracheostomy was performed and a conservative treatment resulted in a favorable evolution. Traumatic retropharyngeal edema is rather an unusual condition with a potential or real severity that needs to be known to avoid delaying diagnosis. Once the airway is ensured two options are possible: draining the area or clinical observation. The surgical option has evidenced no advantages when compared to a conservative treatment.


O hematoma retrofaríngeo de origem traumática é uma entidade clínica muito pouco frequente. Por sua proximidade com a via aérea superior e por ser uma lesão que ocupa espaço na área dos planos profundos do pescoço, pode produzir rapidamente uma insuficiência respiratória aguda de tipo obstrutivo.Apresentamos o caso de um paciente de sexo masculino, de 72 anos, que teve um acidente de trânsito, motocicleta contra motocicleta, no qual era condutor e estava sem capacete. Foi atendido na via pública por uma unidade de emergência móvel pré-hospitalar (UEMPH), que constatou: traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) sem perda de consciência. No lugar do acidente recebeu alta. Consultou novamente no domicilio por quadro de dificuldade respiratória de instalação rápida e edema de pescoço. Avaliado novamente por uma UEMPH no domicilio, foi constatada: polipneia, estridor, disfonia. Foi transferido em uma ambulância ao pronto-socorro do Hospital das Clínicas aonde foi submetido a intubação orotraqueal (IOT), assistência respiratória mecânica (ARM); com diagnóstico tomográfico de hematoma retrofaríngeo foi internado na unidade de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Foram realizados uma traqueostomia cirúrgica (TQTc) e tratamento conservador com boa evolução. O hematoma retrofaríngeo traumático é uma entidade pouco frequente, com gravidade potencial ou real e que deve ser conhecido para evitar demora no seu diagnóstico. Quando a via aérea estiver assegurada, existem duas opções: drenagem do hematoma ou observaçao clínica. A alternativa cirúrgica não tem apresentado vantagens com relação ao tratamento conservador.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Hematoma/complicações , Lesões do Pescoço
6.
Rev. chil. med. intensiv ; 29(2): 131-137, 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-836035

RESUMO

El golpe de calor es una entidad poco frecuente y subdiagnosticada. La elevación de la temperatura corporal es la que desencadena las disfunciones metabólicas que pueden incluso llevar a la muerte. Se presenta el caso de un militar que se encontraba realizando ejercicios de infantería, durante el mes de septiembre, en días donde se produjeron condiciones climáticas extremas y desarrolla un cuadro de Disfunción Orgánica Múltiple (DOM) primaria; fue llevado al Servicio de Emergencia del Hospital de Fray Bentos, Río Negro. La evolución inicial se caracterizó por deterioro de la función neurológica, respiratoria, necesidad de ventilación mecánica, falla renal aguda y disfunción hematológica; se establecieron los diagnósticos de golpe de calor, injuria renal, rabomiólisis, insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y coagulación intravascular diseminada (CID). A pesar del tratamiento y manejo de sostén tiene una mala evolución, falleciendo a las 48 horas del ingreso. El caso nos recuerda que la exposición a condiciones de calor por arriba de la temperatura corporal, deteriora los mecanismos de control de calor corporal y metabólico. Es necesario un diagnóstico rápido y un manejo de sostén para conseguir una evolución satisfactoria.


A heat stroke is a very rare and under diagnosed entity. The rise in the body’s temperature is the element that triggers the metabolic dysfunctions that can even lead to death. A case of a soldier is presented; this soldier was training, doing his infantry exercises routine, during September, in days were extreme climate situations were happening, installing a case of primary Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MOD) syndrome. The soldier was taken to the Emergency Service in Fray Bentos’ Hospital, in Rio Negro. The initial evolution was clumsy and slowly, and the neurologic and breathing functions were worsening, with acute renal failure, and also hematological dysfunction. In addition to this, the patient was in need of mechanic ventilation. The diagnosis of temperature shock, acute renal injury, Rhabdomyolysis, acute respiratory failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were established. Supportive care was given to the patient, with an un satisfactory development, leading to death 48 hours after the hospital admission. This case reminds us that, the exposure to weather conditions that are over the body temperature interferes in the metabolism and the body’s mechanisms for controlling heat. A quick diagnosis and supportive care are needed in order to achieve a satisfactory evolution.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Golpe de Calor/complicações , Golpe de Calor/diagnóstico , Golpe de Calor/terapia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Coma , Diagnóstico Diferencial
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