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1.
Eur Heart J ; 43(23): 2212-2220, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325102

RESUMO

AIMS: In GALACTIC-HF, the cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil compared with placebo reduced the risk of heart failure events or cardiovascular death in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We explored the influence of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) on the effectiveness of omecamtiv mecarbil. METHODS AND RESULTS: GALACTIC-HF enrolled patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, and elevated natriuretic peptides. We assessed whether the presence or absence of AFF, a pre-specified subgroup, modified the treatment effect for the primary and secondary outcomes, and additionally explored effect modification in patients who were or were not receiving digoxin. Patients with AFF (n = 2245, 27%) were older, more likely to be randomized as an inpatient, less likely to have a history of ischaemic aetiology or myocardial infarction, had a worse NYHA class, worse quality of life, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. The treatment effect of omecamtiv mecarbil was modified by baseline AFF (interaction P = 0.012), with patients without AFF at baseline deriving greater benefit. The worsening of the treatment effect by baseline AFF was significantly more pronounced in digoxin users than in non-users (interaction P = 0.007); there was minimal evidence of effect modification in those patients not using digoxin (P = 0.47) or in digoxin users not in AFF. CONCLUSION: Patients in AFF at baseline were less likely to benefit from omecamtiv mecarbil than patients without AFF, although the attenuation of the treatment effect was disproportionally concentrated in patients with AFF who were also receiving digoxin.Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02929329.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Ureia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Flutter Atrial , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico , Ureia/efeitos adversos , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Função Ventricular Esquerda
2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 24(3): 497-509, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918855

RESUMO

AIM: There is an association between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and insulin resistance, but less is known about the diabetic continuum, and in particular about pre-diabetes, in HFpEF. We examined characteristics and outcomes of participants with diabetes or pre-diabetes in PARAGON-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged ≥50 years with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45%, structural heart disease and elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were eligible. Patients were classified according to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c): (i) normal HbA1c, <6.0%; (ii) pre-diabetes, 6.0%-6.4%; (iii) diabetes, ≥6.5% or history of diabetes. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death and total heart failure hospitalizations (HFH). Of 4796 patients, 50% had diabetes and 18% had pre-diabetes. Compared to patients with normal HbA1c, patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes more often were obese, had a history of myocardial infarction and had lower Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores, while patients with diabetes had more clinical evidence of congestion, but similar NT-proBNP concentrations. The risks of the primary composite outcome (rate ratio [RR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.88), total HFH (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.39-2.02) and CV death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.71) were higher among patients with diabetes, compared to those with normal HbA1c. Patients with pre-diabetes had a higher risk (which was intermediate between that of patients with diabetes and those with normal HbA1c) of the primary outcome (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.60) and HFH (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.77), but not of CV death (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.75-1.40). Patients with diabetes treated with insulin had worse outcomes than those not, and those with 'lean diabetes' had similar mortality rates to those with a higher body mass index, but lower rates of HFH. CONCLUSION: Pre-diabetes is common in patients with HFpEF and is associated with worse clinical status and greater risk of HFH. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01920711.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Estado Pré-Diabético , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
3.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(12): e008597, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction comprise a heterogeneous group including some with mildly reduced EF. We hypothesized that mode of death differs by EF in ambulatory patients with HF and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. METHODS: PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction) compared clinical outcomes in 4796 patients with chronic HF and EF ≥45% randomly assigned to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. We examined the mode of death in relation to baseline EF in logistic regression models and the effect of randomized treatment on cause-specific death in Cox regression models. Nonlinear relationships with continuous EF were modelled using quadratic and cubic terms. RESULTS: Of 691 deaths during the trial, 416 (60%) were ascribed to cardiovascular, 220 (32%) to noncardiovascular, and 55 (8%) to unknown causes. Of cardiovascular deaths, 154 (37%) were due to sudden death, 118 (28%) were due to HF, 35 (8%) to stroke, 27 (6%) to myocardial infarction, and 82 (20%) to other cardiovascular causes. Rates of all-cause, cardiovascular, and sudden death were higher in those with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (all P<0.001), while rates of non-cardiovascular death were greater in patients with higher EF. Sacubitril/valsartan did not reduce overall death, cardiovascular death, or sudden death compared with valsartan, irrespective of baseline EF (all P for interaction >0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HF and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction enrolled in PARAGON-HF, the proportion of cardiovascular and sudden death were higher in those with lower left ventricular EF, and the proportion of noncardiovascular death rose with EF. Regardless of EF, sacubitril/valsartan did not reduce death from any cause compared with valsartan. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Eur Heart J ; 42(36): 3741-3752, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392331

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) frequently have difficult-to-control hypertension. We examined the effect of neprilysin inhibition on 'apparent resistant hypertension' in patients with HFpEF in the PARAGON-HF trial, which compared the effect of sacubitril-valsartan with valsartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post hoc analysis, patients were categorized according to systolic blood pressure at the end of the valsartan run-in (n = 4795). 'Apparent resistant hypertension' was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (≥135 mmHg if diabetes) despite treatment with valsartan, a calcium channel blocker, and a diuretic. 'Apparent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)-resistant' hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (≥135 mmHg if diabetes) despite the above treatments and an MRA. The primary outcome in the PARAGON-HF trial was a composite of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes. We examined clinical endpoints and the safety of sacubitril-valsartan according to the hypertension category. We also examined reductions in blood pressure from the end of valsartan run-in to Weeks 4 and 16 after randomization. Overall, 731 patients (15.2%) had apparent resistant hypertension and 135 (2.8%) had apparent MRA-resistant hypertension. The rate of the primary outcome was higher in patients with apparent resistant hypertension [17.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 15.6-19.1 per 100 person-years] compared to those with a controlled systolic blood pressure (13.4; 12.7-14.3 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted rate ratio of 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57). The reduction in systolic blood pressure at Weeks 4 and 16, respectively, was greater with sacubitril-valsartan vs. valsartan in patients with apparent resistant hypertension [-4.8 (-7.0 to -2.5) and 3.9 (-6.6 to -1.3) mmHg] and apparent MRA-resistant hypertension [-8.8 (-14.0 to -3.5) and -6.3 (-12.5 to -0.1) mmHg]. The proportion of patients with apparent resistant hypertension achieving a controlled systolic blood pressure by Week 16 was 47.9% in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 34.3% in the valsartan group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.78, 95% CI 1.30-2.43]. In patients with apparent MRA-resistant hypertension, the respective proportions were 43.6% vs. 28.4% (adjusted OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.18-5.89). CONCLUSION: Sacubitril-valsartan may be useful in treating apparent resistant hypertension in patients with HFpEF, even in those who continue to have an elevated blood pressure despite treatment with at least four antihypertensive drug classes, including an MRA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PARAGON-HF: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01920711.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Neprilisina , Volume Sistólico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Valsartana/uso terapêutico
5.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 40(4): 341-350, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350838

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of high-calorie feeding and aerobic exercise on skeletal and cardiac muscle citrate synthase (CS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I), and -II (CPT-II) mRNA expressions were evaluated. Genetically non-obese rats were grouped as normal-high calorie and sedentary-exercising. Gastrocnemius-soleus and heart muscles' CS, CPT-I, and CPT-II expressions and skeletal muscles' histopathological characteristics were evaluated. High-fat diet had increased body weight by 10% and aerobic exercise did not make any difference. Skeletal muscle CS expression was increased significantly in normal-calorie exercising group. Exercise and high-fat diet did not change CPT-I and CPT-II expressions in both heart and skeletal muscle. Histopathological evaluations demonstrated increased cytoplasmic lipid droplets in high-calorie fed sedentary rats, and exercise had reduced lipid droplets in skeletal muscle. Also, both mitochondria and nuclei distribution were impaired in high-calorie groups. In conclusion, aerobic exercise without food restriction was not enough to make significant changes in fat transportation mechanism into skeletal and heart muscle.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Citrato (si)-Sintase , Miocárdio , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos
6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(2): 105-116, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selective cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil has been shown to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. Its effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 8256 patients (inpatients and outpatients) with symptomatic chronic heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less to receive omecamtiv mecarbil (using pharmacokinetic-guided doses of 25 mg, 37.5 mg, or 50 mg twice daily) or placebo, in addition to standard heart-failure therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of a first heart-failure event (hospitalization or urgent visit for heart failure) or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: During a median of 21.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 1523 of 4120 patients (37.0%) in the omecamtiv mecarbil group and in 1607 of 4112 patients (39.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 0.99; P = 0.03). A total of 808 patients (19.6%) and 798 patients (19.4%), respectively, died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.11). There was no significant difference between groups in the change from baseline on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score. At week 24, the change from baseline for the median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level was 10% lower in the omecamtiv mecarbil group than in the placebo group; the median cardiac troponin I level was 4 ng per liter higher. The frequency of cardiac ischemic and ventricular arrhythmia events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection, those who received omecamtiv mecarbil had a lower incidence of a composite of a heart-failure event or death from cardiovascular causes than those who received placebo. (Funded by Amgen and others; GALACTIC-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02929329; EudraCT number, 2016-002299-28.).


Assuntos
Miosinas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Miosinas Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico , Ureia/efeitos adversos , Ureia/farmacologia , Ureia/uso terapêutico
7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(11): 2160-2171, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985088

RESUMO

AIMS: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is being tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC-HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC-HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥II, ejection fraction ≤35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for heart failure or history of hospitalization/emergency department visit for heart failure within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic-guided dosing: 25, 37.5, or 50 mg bid). A total of 8256 patients [male (79%), non-white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean ejection fraction 27%, ischaemic aetiology in 54%, NYHA class II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide 1971 pg/mL. Heart failure therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary heart failure trials. GALACTIC-HF randomized patients representative of recent heart failure registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril/valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). CONCLUSIONS: GALACTIC-HF enrolled a well-treated, high-risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(8): 1298-1314, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347648

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome is a precipitant of acute heart failure in a substantial proportion of cases, and the presence of both conditions is associated with a higher risk of short-term mortality compared to acute coronary syndrome alone. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of acute heart failure can be challenging. Patients may present with atypical or absent chest pain, electrocardiograms can be confounded by pre-existing abnormalities, and cardiac biomarkers are frequently elevated in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, independently of acute coronary syndrome. It is important to distinguish transient or limited myocardial injury from primary myocardial infarction due to vascular events in patients presenting with acute heart failure. This paper outlines various clinical scenarios to help differentiate between these conditions and aims to provide clinicians with tools to aid in the recognition of acute coronary syndrome as a cause of acute heart failure. Interpretation of electrocardiogram and biomarker findings, and imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up are described. Guidelines recommend an immediate invasive strategy for patients with acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome, regardless of electrocardiographic or biomarker findings. Pharmacological management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure should follow guidelines for each of these syndromes, with priority given to time-sensitive therapies for both. Studies conducted specifically in patients with the combination of acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure are needed to better define the management of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito , Eletrocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos
9.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(2): e006541, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide) are widely used to aid diagnosis, assess the effect of therapy, and predict outcomes in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. However, little is known about how these 2 peptides compare in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, especially with contemporary assays. Both peptides were measured at screening in the PARADIGM-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure). METHODS: Eligibility criteria in PARADIGM-HF included New York Heart Association functional class II to IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, and elevated natriuretic peptides: BNP ≥150 pg/mL or NT-proBNP ≥600 pg/mL (for patients with HF hospitalization within 12 months, BNP ≥100 pg/mL or NT-proBNP ≥400 pg/mL). BNP and NT-proBNP were measured simultaneously at screening and only patients who fulfilled entry criteria for both natriuretic peptides were included in the present analysis. The BNP/NT-proBNP criteria were not different for patients in atrial fibrillation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 was a key exclusion criterion. RESULTS: The median baseline concentration of NT-proBNP was 2067 (Q1, Q3: 1217-4003) and BNP 318 (Q1, Q3: 207-559), and the ratio, calculated from the raw data, was ≈6.25:1. This ratio varied considerably according to rhythm (atrial fibrillation 8.03:1; no atrial fibrillation 5.75:1) and with age, renal function, and body mass index but not with left ventricular ejection fraction. Each peptide was similarly predictive of death (all-cause, cardiovascular, sudden and pump failure) and heart failure hospitalization, for example, cardiovascular death: BNP hazard ratio, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.33-1.49) per 1 SD increase, P<0.0001; NT-proBNP, 1.45 (1.36-1.54); P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of NT-proBNP to BNP in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction appears to be greater than generally appreciated, differs between patients with and without atrial fibrillation, and increases substantially with increasing age and decreasing renal function. These findings are important for comparison of natriuretic peptide concentrations in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(1): 92-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863522

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess age- and sex-related differences in management and 1-year risk for all-cause mortality and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 16 354 patients included in the European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry, 9428 chronic HF patients were analysed [median age: 66 years; 28.5% women; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 37%]. Rates of use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) were high (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: 85.7%, 88.7% and 58.8%, respectively). Crude GDMT utilization rates were lower in women than in men (all differences: P ≤ 0.001), and GDMT use became lower with ageing in both sexes, at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT prescription; however, age >75 years was a significant predictor of GDMT underutilization. Rates of all-cause mortality were lower in women than in men (7.1% vs. 8.7%; P = 0.015), as were rates of all-cause hospitalization (21.9% vs. 27.3%; P < 0.001) and there were no differences in causes of death. All-cause mortality and all-cause hospitalization increased with greater age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality (restricted to patients with LVEF ≤45%). Mortality risk was significantly lower in patients of younger age, compared to patients aged >75 years. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decline in GDMT use with advanced age in both sexes. Sex was not an independent predictor of GDMT or adverse outcomes. However, age >75 years independently predicted lower GDMT use and higher all-cause mortality in patients with LVEF ≤45%.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
11.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683969

RESUMO

Both acute and advanced heart failure are an increasing threat in term of survival, quality of life and socio-economical burdens. Paradoxically, the use of successful treatments for chronic heart failure can prolong life but-per definition-causes the rise in age of patients experiencing acute decompensations, since nothing at the moment helps avoiding an acute or final stage in the elderly population. To complicate the picture, acute heart failure syndromes are a collection of symptoms, signs and markers, with different aetiologies and different courses, also due to overlapping morbidities and to the plethora of chronic medications. The palette of cardio- and vasoactive drugs used in the hospitalization phase to stabilize the patient's hemodynamic is scarce and even scarcer is the evidence for the agents commonly used in the practice (e.g. catecholamines). The pipeline in this field is poor and the clinical development chronically unsuccessful. Recent set backs in expected clinical trials for new agents in acute heart failure (AHF) (omecamtiv, serelaxine, ularitide) left a field desolately empty, where only few drugs have been approved for clinical use, for example, levosimendan and nesiritide. In this consensus opinion paper, experts from 26 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, U.K. and Ukraine) analyse the situation in details also by help of artificial intelligence applied to bibliographic searches, try to distil some lesson-learned to avoid that future projects would make the same mistakes as in the past and recommend how to lead a successful development project in this field in dire need of new agents.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(9): 097601, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524450

RESUMO

Complex systems, which consist of a large number of interacting constituents, often exhibit universal behavior near a phase transition. A slowdown of certain dynamical observables is one such recurring feature found in a vast array of contexts. This phenomenon, known as critical slowing-down, is well studied mostly in thermodynamic phase transitions. However, it is less understood in highly nonequilibrium settings, where the time it takes to traverse the phase boundary becomes comparable to the timescale of dynamical fluctuations. Using transient optical spectroscopy and femtosecond electron diffraction, we studied a photoinduced transition of a model charge-density-wave (CDW) compound LaTe_{3}. We observed that it takes the longest time to suppress the order parameter at the threshold photoexcitation density, where the CDW transiently vanishes. This finding can be captured by generalizing the time-dependent Landau theory to a system far from equilibrium. The experimental observation and theoretical understanding of dynamical slowing-down may offer insight into other general principles behind nonequilibrium phase transitions in many-body systems.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
14.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(7): e004962, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the baseline characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction enrolled in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF) comparing sacubitril/valsartan to valsartan in reducing morbidity and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, and baseline therapies, of 4822 patients randomized in PARAGON-HF, grouped by factors that influence criteria for study inclusion. We further compared baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in PARAGON-HF with those patients enrolled in other recent trials of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Among patients enrolled from various regions (16% Asia-Pacific, 37% Central Europe, 7% Latin America, 12% North America, 28% Western Europe), the mean age of patients enrolled in PARAGON-HF was 72.7±8.4 years, 52% of patients were female, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 57.5%, similar to other trials of HFpEF. Most patients were in New York Heart Association class II, and 38% had ≥1 hospitalizations for heart failure within the previous 9 months. Diabetes mellitus (43%) and chronic kidney disease (47%) were more prevalent than in previous trials of HFpEF. Many patients were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (85%), ß-blockers (80%), calcium channel blockers (36%), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (24%). As specified in the protocol, virtually all patients were on diuretics, had elevated plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (median, 911 pg/mL; interquartile range, 464-1610), and structural heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: PARAGON-HF represents a contemporary group of patients with HFpEF with similar age and sex distribution compared with prior HFpEF trials but higher prevalence of comorbidities. These findings provide insights into the impact of inclusion criteria on, and regional variation in, HFpEF patient characteristics. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01920711.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 39(4): 299-311, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446477

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes increased morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. With recent advancements in technology, alternative treatment methods have begun to be investigated in the world. This study aims to evaluate the effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on vascular complications and contractile activities of aortic rings along with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunit expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP ) in aortas of controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats. Controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic adult male Wistar rats were exposed to PMF for a period of 6 weeks according to the PMF application protocol (1 h/day; intensity: 1.5 mT; consecutive frequency: 1, 10, 20, and 40 Hz). After PMF exposure, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured. Then, thoracic aorta tissue was extracted for relaxation-contraction and Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 expression experiments. Blood plasma glucose levels, body weight, and aortic ring contraction percentage decreased in controlled-diabetic rats but increased in non-controlled diabetic rats. PMF therapy repressed Kir6.1 mRNA expression in non-controlled diabetic rats but not in controlled diabetic rats. Conversely, Kir6.2 mRNA expressions were repressed both in controlled diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats by PMF. Our findings suggest that the positive therapeutic effects of PMF may act through (KATP ) subunits and may frequently occur in insulin-free conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:299-311, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Canais KATP/metabolismo , Campos Magnéticos , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Canais KATP/genética , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Ther Apher Dial ; 22(2): 109-117, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205940

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nitric oxide has a critical role in both endothelial dysfunction and the atherosclerosis process. We aimed to investigate the relationships between serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), LOX-1, and Apelin-13 levels, which are known to act over nitric oxide with endothelial dysfunction and cardiac morphology as well as with each other in hemodialysis patients. The study comprised a total of 120 patients (53 females and 67 males) receiving hemodialysis three times a week for at least 6 months and an age-gender matched control group (55 females and 58 males). Serum ADMA, LOX-1, and Apelin-13 levels were measured using the ELISA technique. Echocardiography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring by the Holter and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement was performed on all of the included subjects. The associations between serum ADMA, LOX-1, and Apelin-13 levels with CIMT, echocardiographic parameters [left ventricular mass (LVM) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)], and inflammatory markers [high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR)] were evaluated by correlation analysis. Serum ADMA, Apelin-13, and LOX-1 levels were significantly higher in the hemodialysis group than the controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). CIMT, hsCRP, and NLR levels were also significantly higher in the hemodialysis group (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were observed among the serum ADMA, Apelin-13, and LOX-1 levels. Moreover, notably positive correlations were found between these three biochemical markers and LVM, LVMI, hsCRP, and CIMT. Serum ADMA, Apelin-13, and LOX-1 levels can be indicators not only for the inflammatory process but also for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Inflamação/sangue , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Diálise Renal , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/sangue , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 18(9): 1193-202, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27170530

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the tolerability of initiating/uptitrating sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) from 50 to 200 mg twice daily (target dose) over 3 and 6 weeks in heart failure (HF) patients (ejection fraction ≤35%). METHODS AND RESULTS: A 5-day open-label run-in (sacubitril/valsartan 50 mg twice daily) preceded an 11-week, double-blind, randomization period [100 mg twice daily for 2 weeks followed by 200 mg twice daily ('condensed' regimen) vs. 50 mg twice daily for 2 weeks, 100 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 200 mg twice daily ('conservative' regimen)]. Patients were stratified by pre-study dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB; low-dose stratum included ACEI/ARB-naïve patients). Of 540 patients entering run-in, 498 (92%) were randomized and 429 (86.1% of randomized) completed the study. Pre-defined tolerability criteria were hypotension, renal dysfunction and hyperkalaemia; and adjudicated angioedema, which occurred in ('condensed' vs. 'conservative') 9.7% vs. 8.4% (P = 0.570), 7.3% vs. 7.6% (P = 0.990), 7.7% vs. 4.4% (P = 0.114), and 0.0% vs. 0.8% of patients, respectively. Corresponding proportions for pre-defined systolic blood pressure <95 mmHg, serum potassium >5.5 mmol/L, and serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dL were 8.9% vs. 5.2% (P = 0.102), 7.3% vs. 4.0% (P = 0.097), and 0.4% vs. 0%, respectively. In total, 378 (76%) patients achieved and maintained sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg twice daily without dose interruption/down-titration over 12 weeks (77.8% vs. 84.3% for 'condensed' vs. 'conservative'; P = 0.078). Rates by ACEI/ARB pre-study dose stratification were 82.6% vs. 83.8% (P = 0.783) for high-dose/'condensed' vs. high-dose/'conservative' and 84.9% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.030) for low-dose/'conservative' vs. low-dose/'condensed'. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation/uptitration of sacubitril/valsartan from 50 to 200 mg twice daily over 3 or 6 weeks had a tolerability profile in line with other HF treatments. More gradual initiation/uptitration maximized attainment of target dose in the low-dose ACEI/ARB group.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tetrazóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Compostos de Bifenilo , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Valsartana
18.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 36(2): 178-82, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26071589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Local estrogen production in the brain regulates critical functions including neuronal development, gonadotropin secretion and sexual behavior. In the mouse brain, a 36 kb distal promoter (l.f) regulates the Cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis. In vitro, promoter l.f interacts with estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) to mediate Cyp19a1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cell lines. The in vivo mechanisms that control mammalian brain aromatase expression during fetal and adult development, however, are not thoroughly understood. Our aim was to elucidate the basis of the in vivo connection between Esr1 and Cyp19a1. METHODS: Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational days 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21 and the brain tissues of the fetuses were harvested along with five newborns at the age of postnatal day 2. Esr1KO (female) were also sacrificed and their hypothalamus were excised out. Then both fetuses and adults RNA were isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified employing primers specific for Esr1 and Cyp19a1 with Real time PCR. RESULTS: In the fetal mouse brain, Cyp19a1 mRNA levels are inversely correlated with estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) mRNA levels in a temporal manner. Moreover, Cyp19a1 mRNA levels increased in the hypothalamus of estrogen receptor-alpha knockout female mice (Esr1KO). CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings might indicate that Esr1 has crucial roles in the in vivo regulation of aromatase expression in the brain during fetal and adult life.


Assuntos
Aromatase/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aromatase/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Feto , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
19.
Europace ; 17(6): 855-63, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25733550

RESUMO

AIMS: Statin pretreatment in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is understood to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF). However, this is based on observational and limited randomized trial evidence, resulting in uncertainty about any genuine anti-arrhythmic benefits of these agents in this setting. We therefore aimed to quantify precisely the association between statin pretreatment and postoperative AF among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: A detailed search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases (1st January 1996 to 31st July 2012) was conducted, followed by a review of the reference lists of published studies and correspondence with trial investigators to obtain individual-participant data for meta-analysis. Evidence was combined across prospective, randomized clinical trials that compared the risk of postoperative AF among individuals randomized to statin pretreatment or placebo/control medication before elective cardiac surgery. Postoperative AF was defined as episodes of AF lasting ≥5 min. Overall, 1105 participants from 11 trials were included; of them, 552 received statin therapy preoperatively. Postoperative AF occurred in 19% of these participants when compared with 36% of those not treated with statins (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.54, P < 0.00001, using a random-effects model). Atrial fibrillation prevention by statin pretreatment was consistent across different subgroups. CONCLUSION: Short-term statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of postoperative AF among patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 27(6): 581-90, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929366

RESUMO

Renal dysfunction is common in clinical settings in which cardiac function is compromised such as heart failure, cardiac surgery or sepsis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer and potassium channel opener used in the treatment of acute heart failure. This review describes the effects of the inodilator levosimendan on renal function. A panel of 25 scientists and clinicians from 15 European countries (Austria, Finland, France, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) convened and reached a consensus on the current interpretation of the renal effects of levosimendan described both in non-clinical research and in clinical study reports. Most reports on the effect of levosimendan indicate an improvement of renal function in heart failure, sepsis and cardiac surgery settings. However, caution should be applied as study designs differed from randomized, controlled studies to uncontrolled ones. Importantly, in the largest HF study (REVIVE I and II) no significant changes in the renal function were detected. As it regards the mechanism of action, the opening of mitochondrial KATP channels by levosimendan is involved through a preconditioning effect. There is a strong rationale for randomized controlled trials seeking beneficial renal effects of levosimendan. As an example, a study is shortly to commence to assess the role of levosimendan for the prevention of acute organ dysfunction in sepsis (LeoPARDS).


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Simendana
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