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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811391

RESUMO

The rising incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is a global concern. Changes in regional climate, due to urbanization and global greenhouse gas concentrations, may affect the ecology of mosquitoes and mosquito-transmitted pathogens. The effects of changes in climate on mosquito population dynamics are complex but critical and urgent for implementing more effective public health policies. This study quantified the impact of urbanization and global climate change on the population of the mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the Pearl River Delta region in southern China-an area that has undergone substantial urbanization and is expected to experience changes in climate. This study employed a mechanistic model to simulate mosquito population dynamics under various greenhouse gas emission and land-cover change scenarios based on climate data provided by a state-of-the-art regional climate model. Our results show a 12.6% decrease in the annual mosquito population in newly urbanized areas and a 5.9% increase in the annual mosquito population in existing urban areas. Furthermore, changing climate conditions are projected to cause a 15-17% reduction in the total annual mosquito population; however, the change will not be uniform throughout the year. Peak months exhibit a reduction in population, whereas non-peak months show a significant increase. These findings suggest mosquito control strategies may need to be adjusted to respond to the impacts of urbanization and climate change on mosquito population dynamics to maximize effectiveness. Region specific, quantitative analyses of environmental impacts on mosquito-borne disease ecology, like this study, are needed to provide policy makers with a scientific reference to guide the formation of effective transmission intervention strategies.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194186, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125097

RESUMO

Importance: Breastfeeding and exposure to ambient air pollutants have been found to be independently associated with respiratory health in children; however, previous studies have not examined the association of breastfeeding as a potential moderator of the association. Objective: To assess associations of breastfeeding and air pollution with lung function in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using a cross-sectional study design, children were recruited from 62 elementary and middle schools located in 7 Chinese cities from April 1, 2012, to October 31, 2013. Data analyses were conducted from November 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. Exposures: Long-term concentrations of airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 1 µm or less (PM1), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5), airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide were estimated using a spatial statistical model matched to children's geocoded home addresses, and concentrations of PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were measured by local air monitoring stations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breastfeeding was defined as maternal report of having mainly breastfed for longer than 3 months. Lung function was measured using portable electronic spirometers. Using previously published predicted spirometric values for children in Northeast China as the reference, lung impairment was defined as forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 85%, forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration less than 85%, peak expiratory flow less than 75%, or maximum midexpiratory flow less than 75%. Results: Participants included 6740 children (mean [SD] age, 11.6 [2.1] years; 3382 boys [50.2%]). There were 4751 children (70.5%) who were breastfed. Mean (SD) particulate matter concentrations ranged from 46.8 (6.5) µg/m3 for PM1 to 95.6 (9.8) µg/m3 for PM10. The prevalence of lung function impairment ranged from 6.8% for peak expiratory flow to 11.3% for FVC. After controlling for age, sex, and other covariates, 1-interquartile range greater concentration of pollutants was associated with higher adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for lung function impairment by FVC among children who were not breastfed compared with those who were (PM1: AOR, 2.71 [95% CI, 2.02-3.63] vs 1.20 [95% CI, 0.97-1.48]; PM2.5: AOR, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.79-2.88] vs 1.26 [95% CI, 1.04-1.51]; and PM10: AOR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.58-2.37] vs 1.46 [95% CI, 1.23-1.73]). Younger age (<12 years) was associated with lower lung function impairment among the children who had been breastfed. In children from elementary schools, 1-interquartile range greater concentration of pollutants was associated with higher AORs for lung function impairment by FVC among children who had not been breastfed compared with those who had (PM1: AOR, 6.43 [95% CI, 3.97-10.44] vs 1.89 [95% CI, 1.28-2.80]; PM2.5: AOR, 3.83 [95% CI, 2.63-5.58] vs 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12-2.01]; and PM10: AOR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.90-3.57] vs 1.52 [95% CI, 1.19-1.95]). Results from linear regression models also showed associations of air pollution with worse lung function among children who were not breastfed compared with their counterparts who were breastfed, especially for FVC (PM1: ß, -240.46 [95% CI, -288.71 to -192.21] vs -38.21 [95% CI, -69.27 to -7.16] mL) and forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (PM1: ß, -201.37 [95% CI, -242.08 to -160.65] vs -30.30 [95% CI, -57.66 to -2.94] mL). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, breastfeeding was associated with lower risk of lung function impairment among children in China exposed to air pollution, particularly among younger children.

4.
Environ Int ; 124: 130-138, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641256

RESUMO

Previous investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with overweight/obesity are mixed. Moreover, little information has been reported about the association between isomers of PFASs with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or overweight. To address this shortcoming in the literature, we conducted a study involving 1612 Chinese adults (1204 men and 408 women), ages 22-96 years old, from Shenyang, China, to analyze serum isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other PFASs. Height, weight and WC were measured by a standardized protocol of WHO. Results indicated that increased serum concentrations of all (both branched and linear) isomers of PFASs were associated with a higher prevalence of overweight, and these associations were more pronounced in women. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from logistic regression analyses among women were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.99) for linear PFOS isomers, 1.33 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.77) for branched PFOS isomers, 1.39 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.81) for 3 + 4 + 5m PFOS, 1.54 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.21) for linear PFOA isomers, and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.51) for branched PFOA isomers, respectively. Associations with increased WC were yielded a similar pattern. Linear regression models also showed positive associations between PFASs and BMI or WC. In conclusion, this study suggests that PFASs and their isomers are positively associated with overweight or increased WC, and the associations are stronger in women. Furthermore, PFOA and its isomers displayed the most robust obesogenic associations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Environ Res ; 170: 252-259, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597289

RESUMO

No evidence exists concerning the association between blood pressure and ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), a major component of PM2.5 (≤ 2.5 µm) particles, and potentially causing more hazardous health effects than PM2.5. We aimed to examine the associations of blood pressure in adults with both PM1 and PM2.5 in China. In 2009, we randomly selected 24,845 participants aged 18-74 years from 33 communities in China. Using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer, we measured blood pressure. Long-term exposure (2006-08) to PM1 and PM2.5 were estimated using a spatial statistical model. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and blood pressure and hypertension prevalence, controlling for multiple covariates. A 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1 was significantly associated with an increase of 0.57 (95% CI 0.31-0.83) mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.19 (95% CI 0.03-0.35) mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and a 5% (OR=1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) increase in odds for hypertension. Similar associations were detected for PM2.5. Furthermore, PM1-2.5 showed no association with blood pressure or hypertension. In summary, both PM1 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with elevated blood pressure levels and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. In addition, most of the pro-hypertensive effects of PM2.5 may come from PM1. Further longitudinal designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Material Particulado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Int ; 123: 310-317, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557810

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in developing countries. Moreover, few studies assessed the role of the PM1 (≤1.0 µm) size fraction and CVD. We investigated the associations between PM1 and PM2.5 and CVD prevalence in Chinese adults. METHODS: In 2009, we randomly recruited 24,845 adults at the age of 18-74 years from 33 communities in Northeastern China. CVD status was determined by self-report of doctor-diagnosed CVD. Three-year (2006-08) average concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were assigned using a satellite-based exposure. We used spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and CVD prevalence, adjusting for multiple covariates. Stratified and interaction analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to ambient PM1 levels was associated a 12% higher odds for having CVD (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.05-1.20). Compared to PM1, association between PM2.5 and CVD was lower (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.01-1.11). No significant association was observed for PM1-2.5 (1-2.5 µm) size fraction (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.85-1.13). Stratified analyses showed greater effect estimates in men and the elder. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PM1 exposure was positively related to CVD, especially in men and the elder. In addition, PM1 may play a greater role than PM2.5 in associations with CVD. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Int ; 119: 485-492, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the lipidemic effects of air pollution, particularly in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the associations of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with lipid levels and dyslipidemias in China. METHODS: In 2009, a total of 15,477 participants aged 18-74 years were recruited from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study conducted in three Northeastern China cities. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured in participants' blood specimens. Three year (2006-08) average air pollution concentrations were assessed using data from 33 communities (particles with diameters ≤1.0 µm (PM1) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) were predicted using a spatial statistical model) or 11 air monitoring stations (particles with diameters ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3)). Associations were evaluated by two-level logistic and generalized linear regression models. RESULTS: We detected many significant associations between exposure to air pollutants (especially for PM1 and PM2.5) and blood lipid levels. Most of the associations suggested deleterious effects on blood lipid markers (e.g., a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1 was associated with 1.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.0), 2.9% (95% CI: -3.3, 9.3), and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.6, 3.9) higher levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, respectively, but 1.4% (95% CI: -1.8, -0.9) lower HDL-C levels), although beneficial associations were found for O3. In analysis with dyslipidemias, all the observed associations suggested deleterious lipidemic effects of air pollutants, and no significant beneficial association was observed for O3. Stratified analyses showed that the associations were stronger in overweight or obese participants; sex and age modified the associations, but the pattern of effects was mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient air pollution was associated with both altered lipid profiles and dyslipidemias, especially among overweight or obese participants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso/sangue , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sleep ; 41(9)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939357

RESUMO

Study Objectives: There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of air pollution on sleep disorders, particularly in children. The aim of this study is to investigate this association in Chinese children. Methods: During 2012-2013, 59754 children aged 2-17 years were randomly selected from 27 districts in seven northeastern Chinese cities. All participants' sleep was evaluated with the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Four year average concentrations of pollutants were calculated for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) from a spatial statistical model, and ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) from monitoring stations. To examine the effects, two-level regression analysis was used, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed that sleep disorder was generally associated with all air pollutants, with the highest odds among PM1 exposure for male (odds ratio [OR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.36-1.76) and female (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.30-1.72) children. The overall strongest association with sleep disorder symptom was exposure to PM1 and Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.30-1.58). PM1 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with all sleep disorder symptoms in females (ORs ranged for PM1 from 1.19 to 1.49; and PM2.5 1.18 to 1.44). The association between air pollutants and total sleep score was generally greater in female than in male children. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that exposure to air pollutants increases the odds of sleep disorder in children and point to the need to make reducing exposure to air pollutants a public health priority.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Distribuição Aleatória , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 132-141, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127869

RESUMO

Trans-boundary air pollution (TAP) is a crucial factor affecting air quality, and its contribution may vary over time and differ under various atmospheric conditions. This study firstly applies an integrated statistical scheme to estimate the contributions of TAP and local sources to air pollutants in a city, and then investigate the influences of tropical cyclones (TC) on TAP. Hong Kong is chosen as an example because of its significant and special TAP characteristics. This study focuses on four major air pollutants, namely, respirable and fine suspended particulates (RSP/PM10 and FSP/PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), from 2002 to 2013. Our results show that, on average, TAP is the major contributor of the annual RSP, FSP, SO2, and NO2 in Hong Kong. We estimate that when a TC is approaching, the increase in pollutant concentration in Hong Kong is mainly due to the increase in TAP contribution by the strengthened northerly wind at higher level of atmosphere (≥900hPa). These changes are accompanied by decreases in precipitation and increases in northerly/north-easterly wind, which may prolong the lifetime of pollutants, enhancing pollutant transport from mainland China to Hong Kong.

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