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1.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 2139-2145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: External counter-pulsation (ECP) generates sheer stress thereby improving endothelial function and anginal symptoms in coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction is also involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the use of ECP at different doses in improving endothelial function and glycaemic markers in T2DM. METHODS: This prospective study involved 46 subjects with T2DM randomly assigned to receive 35 sessions of ECP at different regimens (0.5 h versus 1 h) and duration (7 versus 12 weeks). Endothelial function was evaluated by reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) via peripheral arterial tonometry at the start, midpoint and end of study. Other secondary outcomes included fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid profile, weight and vibration sense. RESULTS: There was no change in RHI across all 3 regimens of ECP individually or collectively at the end of the study (ΔRHI +0.01%, p = 0.458). Glycaemic markers also remained unchanged at endpoint. Subgroup analysis showed an improvement in RHI (ΔRHI +20.6%, p = 0.0178) in subjects with more severe endothelial dysfunction at baseline. CONCLUSION: ECP did not show a beneficial effect on endothelial function or glycemic control in this South-East Asian population with T2DM at any of the three regimens. This may partly be explained by less severe endothelial dysfunction and less insulin resistance in our population at baseline.

2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(11): 3969-3978, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300748

RESUMO

The inputs of carbon dioxide from anthropogenic activities to ocean through the sea-air interface exchange disturbs the balance of seawater carbonate system, resulting in ocean acidification (OA). OA affects the physical and chemical properties of both seawater and marine pollutants, which significantly regulates the physiological processes of planktonic algae living on the surface of ocean. As the main primary producers, the physiological function and processes of marine algae play an important role in marine ecosystem. We reviewed the underlying mechanisms of OA on the three key physiological processes of photosynthetic carbon fixation, calcification and nitrogen fixation of marine microalgae. OA could alter environmental factors (e.g., solar radiation, temperature, nutrient elements) and typical marine contaminants (e.g., organic contaminants, heavy metals, microplastics). We further summarized the effects of these factors on the regulation of physiological processes of microalgae. Finally, current research status and prospects for future research were addressed. This review provided important information for better understanding the potential impacts of OA on marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Plásticos , Água do Mar
3.
Cell Rep ; 33(10): 108455, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296648

RESUMO

The ever-increasing therapeutic and pharmaceutical demand for liver cells calls for systems that enable mass production of hepatic cells. Here we describe a large-scale suspension system that uses human endoderm stem cells (hEnSCs) as precursors to generate functional and transplantable hepatocytes (E-heps) or cholangiocytes (E-chos). hEnSC-derived hepatic populations are characterized by single-cell transcriptomic analyses and compared with hESC-derived counterparts, in-vitro-maintained or -expanded primary hepatocytes and adult cells, which reveals that hepatic differentiation of hEnSCs recapitulates in vivo development and that the heterogeneities of the resultant populations can be manipulated by regulating the EGF and MAPK signaling pathways. Functional assessments demonstrate that E-heps and E-chos possess properties comparable with adult counterparts and that, when transplanted intraperitoneally, encapsulated E-heps were able to rescue rats with acute liver failure. Our study lays the foundation for cell-based therapeutic agents and in vitro applications for liver diseases.

4.
Eng Life Sci ; 20(12): 571-579, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304230

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) in cartilage tissues following articular cartilage injury and to determine its effects on the biological function of chondrocytes. A total of 25 necrotic cartilage tissue samples and 25 normal tissue samples were collected from patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis at our hospital from December 2015 to December 2018. The mRNA expression levels of Bcl-xL, caspase-3, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the normal and necrotic tissues were examined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and their protein expression levels were detected via western blotting. The expression levels of Bcl-xL, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) were significantly lower but those of caspase-3, MMP-3, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) levels were markedly higher in necrotic cartilage tissues than in normal tissues. Following cell transfection, the expression levels of Bcl-xL, IGF-1, and BMP were remarkably higher but those of caspase-3, MMP-3, IL-1ß, and CKLF1 were notably lower in the Si-Bcl-xL group than in the NC group. The Si-Bcl-xL group showed significantly lower cell growth and noticeably higher apoptosis rate than the NC group (normal control group). The expression of Bcl-xL is reduced following articular cartilage injury, and this reduction promotes the proliferation and inhibits the apoptosis of chondrocytes. Therefore, Bcl-xL could serve as a relevant molecular target in the clinical practice of osteoarthritis and other diseases causing cartilage damage.

5.
Clin Diabetes Endocrinol ; 6(1): 21, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. Individuals with DM are more likely to be hospitalised and stay longer than those without DM. Inpatient hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, which are associated with adverse outcomes, are common, but can be prevented through hospital quality improvement programs. METHODS: We designed a multi-faceted intervention program with the aim of reducing inpatient hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. This was implemented over seven phases between September 2013 to January 2016, and covered all the non-critical care wards in a tertiary hospital. The program represented a pragmatic approach that leveraged on existing resources and infrastructure within the hospital. We calculated glucometric outcomes in June to August 2016 and compared them with those in June to August 2013 to assess the overall effectiveness of the program. We used regression models with generalised estimating equations to adjust for potential confounders and account for correlations of repeated outcomes within patients and admissions. RESULTS: We observed significant reductions in patient-days affected by hypoglycemia (any glucose reading < 4 mmol/L: OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.83, p <  0.001), and hyperglycemia (any glucose reading > 14 mmol/L: OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.99, p = 0.041). Similar findings were observed for admission-level hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Further analyses suggested that these reductions started to occur four to 6 months post-implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Our program was associated with sustained improvements in clinically relevant outcomes. Our described intervention could be feasibly implemented by other secondary and tertiary care hospitals by leveraging on existing infrastructure and work force.

6.
Opt Lett ; 45(24): 6715-6718, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325877

RESUMO

A single-longitudinal-mode crystalline Raman laser in the 1.7 µm wave band was reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The YVO4 Raman laser, which was intracavity-pumped by an actively Q-switched 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser, demonstrated the cascaded Stokes oscillation at 1715 nm. By inserting an etalon in the fundamental resonator, linewidth narrowing and power scaling of the second-Stokes laser were realized based on the spatial-hole-burning-free Raman gain. With an optimal pulse repetition frequency of 4 kHz, the maximum single-longitudinal-mode average output power of 1.8 W was acquired with the spectrum linewidth of ∼340MHz. Further increasing the incident pump power, the second-Stokes laser transitioned to multimode regime, and the maximum average output power reached 2.7 W with the peak power as high as ∼380kW.

7.
J Craniofac Surg ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Suitable tissue-engineered scaffolds to replace human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are well developed clinically as the development of tissue engineering. As water-soluble polymer compound, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been wildly used as the materials to replace ACL. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered ACL by the copolymerization of PVA and collagen (PVA/COL). METHODS: PVA and COL were copolymerized at a mass ratio of 3:1. The pore size and porosity of the scaffold were observed by electron microscope. The maximum tensile strength of the scaffold was determined by electronic tension machine. The cytotoxicity of the scaffold was evaluated by MTT assay. The morphology of ACL cells cultured on the surface of the scaffold was observed by inverted microscope. The degradation of the scaffold was recorded in the rabbit model. RESULTS: The average pore size of the polymer scaffold was 100 to 150 µm and the porosity was about 90%. The maximum tensile strength of the scaffold material was 8.10 ±â€Š0.28 MPa. PVA/COL could promote the proliferation ability of 3T3 cells. ACL cells were successfully cultured on the surface of PVA/COL scaffold, with natural growth rate, differentiation, and proliferation. Twenty-four weeks after the plantation of scaffold, obvious degradations were observed in vivo. CONCLUSION: The model of in-vitro tissue-engineered ACL was successfully established by PVA/COL scaffolds.

8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 107132, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223465

RESUMO

Shionone is a triterpenoid component derived from the herbal medicine Aster tataricus, and it has been reported to possess marked anti-inflammatory properties. The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in cystitis, and the effect of Shionone on NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis remains unclear. In this study, we established an interstitial cystitis (IC) rat model and SV-HUC-1 cell model with CYP or LPS + ATP treatment to mimic inflammation response and induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Shionone treatment significantly attenuated the bladder wet weight, score of edema and hemorrhage, enhanced the viability of SV-HUC-1 cell, decreased the rate of pyroptosis. Moreover, Shionone reduced the expression of NF-κB, NLRP3, ASC, Pro-caspase-1, Caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N at the mRNA and protein levels both in rat and SV-HUC-1 cell model, demonstrating NLRP3 inflammasome pathway was blocked and pyroptosis degree was reduced. These results indicated that Shionone could alleviate interstitial cystitis in Rat model and enhancing the viability of SV-HUC-1 cells via NF-κB/NLRP3/GSDMD-N pathway, which illustrated that Shionone could be used as a drug candidate for the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

9.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143524

RESUMO

Senile osteoporosis (OP) is often concomitant with decreased autophagic activity. OPTN (optineurin), a macroautophagy/autophagy (hereinafter referred to as autophagy) receptor, is found to play a pivotal role in selective autophagy, coupling autophagy with bone metabolism. However, its role in osteogenesis is still mysterious. Herein, we identified Optn as a critical molecule of cell fate decision for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), whose expression decreased in aged mice. Aged mice revealed osteoporotic bone loss, elevated senescence of MSCs, decreased osteogenesis, and enhanced adipogenesis, as well as optn- / - mice. Importantly, restoring Optn by transplanting wild-type MSCs to optn- / - mice or infecting optn- / - mice with Optn-containing lentivirus rescued bone loss. The introduction of a loss-of-function mutant of OptnK193R failed to reestablish a bone-fat balance. We further identified FABP3 (fatty acid binding protein 3, muscle and heart) as a novel selective autophagy substrate of OPTN. FABP3 promoted adipogenesis and inhibited osteogenesis of MSCs. Knockdown of FABP3 alleviated bone loss in optn- / - mice and aged mice. Our study revealed that reduced OPTN expression during aging might lead to OP due to a lack of FABP3 degradation via selective autophagy. FABP3 accumulation impaired osteogenesis of MSCs, leading to the occurrence of OP. Thus, reactivating OPTN or inhibiting FABP3 would open a new avenue to treat senile OP. Abbreviations: ADIPOQ: adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing; ALPL: alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney; BGLAP/OC/osteocalcin: bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein; BFR/BS: bone formation rate/bone surface; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CDKN1A/p21: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CDKN2A/p16: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A; CDKN2B/p15: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B; CEBPA: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha; COL1A1: collagen, type I, alpha 1; Ct. BV/TV: cortical bone volume fraction; Ct. Th: cortical thickness; Es. Pm: endocortical perimeter; FABP4/Ap2: fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte; H2AX: H2A.X variant histone; HE: hematoxylin and eosin; MAP1LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAR: mineral apposition rate; MSCs: bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; NBR1: NBR1, autophagy cargo receptor; OP: osteoporosis; OPTN: optineurin; PDB: Paget disease of bone; PPARG: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; Ps. Pm: periosteal perimeter; qRT-PCR: quantitative real-time PCR; γH2AX: Phosphorylation of the Serine residue of H2AX; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RUNX2: runt related transcription factor 2; SA-GLB1: senescence-associated (SA)-GLB1 (galactosidase, beta 1); SP7/Osx/Osterix: Sp7 transcription factor 7; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TAX1BP1: Tax1 (human T cell leukemia virus type I) binding protein 1; Tb. BV/TV: trabecular bone volume fraction; Tb. N: trabecular number; Tb. Sp: trabecular separation; Tb. Th: trabecular thickness; µCT: micro computed tomography.

10.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206069

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are attracting more and more interest in regenerative medicine due to their unique properties; however 2D biomimetic calcium mineral has not yet been developed and demonstrated application for bone tissue engineering. Here we described a novel calcium phosphate material with a 2D nanostructure that was synthesized using collagen and sodium alginate as the template. In vitro performance of the nanocrystalline material was evaluated, and we found that 2D CaP nanoparticles (NPs) enhanced the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) through a macrophage-mediated signal pathway, when co-cultured with RAW 264.7 cells, rather than direct NP/stem cell interaction. A 2D topology structured surface was constructed by encapsulating the CaP nanomaterials in a gelatin hydrogel, which was demonstrated to be able to mediate in vivo ossification through a macrophage polarization related pathway in a femur defect rat model, and allowed the optimal therapeutic outcome compared to normal CaP counterparts. Our current work may have enlightened a new mechanism regarding NP-induced stem cell differentiation through immunoregulation, and the 2D CaP encapsulated hydrogel scaffold may serve as a potential alternative to autograft bone for orthopedic applications.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030301

RESUMO

Aster tataricus L.f. is a traditional Eastern Asian herbal medicine used for the relief of uroschesis-related illnesses and has been demonstrated clinically to exert satisfied effects. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic action remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective mechanism of Aster tataricus extract (ATE) on CYP or LPS + ATP-induced interstitial cystitis (IC), we successfully constructed the induced IC Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and IC human urothelium cell (SV-HUC-1) model. The main compounds of ATE were determined by LC-MS. After intervention, the changes on the bladder wall morphology and inflammation were observed in each group. SV-HUC1 cell viability was measured by MTT and double stained with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI). The expression levels of NLRP3, Pro-caspase-1, Caspsae-1 p20, GSDMD, GSDMD-N and Cleave-IL-1ß in vivo and in vitro in different groups were detected by Western blotting. ATE significantly alleviated oedema and haemorrhage and reduced the inflammation index and histopathological score in SD rat bladder. The results of cell revealed that ATE could improve cell viability and decrease pyroptosis ratio. The expression of NLRP3 and other pyroptosis-related protein was remarkably decreased by ATE both in vivo and in vitro. ATE may be used as an inhibitor of NLRP3 in treating IC. The discovery of NLRP3/Caspase-1/GSDMD-N as a new protective pathway provides a new direction for protecting cell against IC.

12.
Sci Adv ; 6(43)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097529

RESUMO

Poor wound healing after diabetes or extensive burn remains a challenging problem. Recently, we presented a physical approach to fabricate ultrasmall silver particles from Ångstrom scale to nanoscale and determined the antitumor efficacy of Ångstrom-scale silver particles (AgÅPs) in the smallest size range. Here we used the medium-sized AgÅPs (65.9 ± 31.6 Å) to prepare carbomer gel incorporated with these larger AgÅPs (L-AgÅPs-gel) and demonstrated the potent broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of L-AgÅPs-gel without obvious toxicity on wound healing-related cells. Induction of reactive oxygen species contributed to L-AgÅPs-gel-induced bacterial death. Topical application of L-AgÅPs-gel to mouse skin triggered much stronger effects than the commercial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-gel to prevent bacterial colonization, reduce inflammation, and accelerate diabetic and burn wound healing. L-AgÅPs were distributed locally in skin without inducing systemic toxicities. This study suggests that L-AgÅPs-gel represents an effective and safe antibacterial and anti-inflammatory material for wound therapy.

13.
Luminescence ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037741

RESUMO

Strong anodic Ru(bpy)3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) was obtained at a cucurbil[8]uril (CB[8]) modified electrode in neutral conditions without the need of an additional coreactant. An ECL aptasensor was fabricated based on the strong ECL emission as well as the host-guest interaction between DNA and CB[8]. Firstly, amino group-terminated complementary DNA (DNA-NH2 ) was firmly immobilized on CB[8]/glass carbon electrode, which could further increase ECL intensity. Then, a ferrocene group-terminated lysozyme aptamer (Fc-DNA) was hybridized with complementary DNA. The inhibiting effect of ferrocene on Ru(bpy)3 2+ ECL resulted in the apparent decrease in ECL signal. When the modified electrode was incubated in lysozyme, specific binding between lysozyme and its aptamer could release the ferrocene group from the electrode surface, and the ECL emission was recovered. As a result, an 'on-off-on' mode ECL aptasensor for lysozyme was fabricated. In the range 0.14-140 pg ml-1 , the increased ECL intensities exhibited excellent linearity with the logarithm of lysozyme concentrations, and the detection limit was calculated as 0.093 pg ml-1 (3σ). The proposed ECL aptasensor exhibited satisfactory analytical performance, revealing the potential application of CB[n]s in an ECL sensing field.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116884, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049825

RESUMO

Development of eco-friendly adhesives from renewable biomass has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Here, we present a novel approach via combination of waste newspaper (WNP) powder, oxidized glutinous rice starch, and polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) to prepare a formaldehyde-free starch-cellulosic adhesive (SCA) for woody composites. The oxidation treatment made the carboxyl/carbonyl groups more available in starch. Plywood bonded by the optimum SCA with 50 wt% of the WNP powder showed a wet shear strength of 0.83 MPa exceeding that of the oxidized starch adhesive by 130.5 %. During the curing process of SCA, the oxidized starch and WNP fiber participated into the crosslinking reaction with PAE via ester and ether bonds, as evidenced by FTIR analysis. The resulting cured adhesive had enhanced crystalline structures, thermal properties, hydrophobicity, wet-cohesion, rheological properties, and adhesiveness to wood. The SCA showed great potential in wood composites as an alternative to formaldehyde-derived adhesives.

15.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122087

RESUMO

The discovery and applications of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems have revolutionized our ability to track and manipulate specific nucleic acid sequences in many cell types of various organisms. The robustness and simplicity of these platforms have rapidly extended their applications from basic research to the development of therapeutics. However, many hurdles remain on the path to translation of the CRISPR systems to therapeutic applications: efficient delivery, detectable off-target effects, potential immunogenicity, and others. Chemical modifications provide a variety of protection options for guide RNA, Cas9 mRNA and donor templates. For example, chemically modified gRNA demonstrated enhanced on-target editing efficiency, minimized immune response and decreased off-target genome editing. In this review, we summarize the use of chemically modified nucleotides for CRISPR-mediated genome editing and emphasize open questions that remain to be addressed in clinical applications.

17.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025164

RESUMO

Reduced fertility is a common clinical feature of the individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to deficiency in FA pathway during DNA repair. Our previous study reported that the heterozygous pathogenic variants in FANCA (Fanconi anemia complementation group A) induced premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). However, the genotype-phenotype correlation in POI caused by FANCA variants remains considerably uncertain. Herein, a heterozygous non-frameshift Fanca-mutated mouse strain (Fanca+/hypo) carrying a 9-bp deletion (c.3581del9, p.QEA1194-1196del) was generated. The mutant mice exhibited slightly decreased Fanca protein level in ovaries, suggesting the non-frameshift deletion mutant is hypomorphic. Female fertility test showed decreased number of litters, litter sizes and prolonged litter interval time in the female Fanca+/hypo mice compared to wild-type mice. Follicle counting revealed a consistent decreasing pattern of follicle numbers in Fanca+/hypo females compared to that in wild-type mice with aging. Furthermore, embryonic fibroblasts of Fanca+/hypo mice were hyper-responsive to Mitomycin C in vitro, demonstrating a partial loss of function of this hypomorphic Fanca mutant in DNA repair. Collectively, our experimental observations suggest that the hypomorphic Fanca allele is sufficient to reduce female fertility in mice, providing new insights into the genetic counseling of FANCA variants in subfertile women.

18.
Acta Biomater ; 117: 133-141, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966923

RESUMO

Closure of wounds with tissue adhesives has many advantages over sutures, but existing synthetic adhesives are toxic and have poor workability. Blood-derived adhesives display complete resorption but have adhesion too weak for reliable wound dressings. We propose a semi-synthetic design that combines the positive attributes of synthetic and blood-derived tissue adhesives. PAMAM-g-diazirine (PDz) is a rapidly gelling bioadhesive miscible in both aqueous and organic solvents. PDz blended with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) forms PDz/PRP composite, a semi-synthetic formulation that combines PDz's wet tissue adhesion with PRP's potent wound healing properties. Light-activated PDz/PRP bioadhesive composite has similar elasticity to soft tissues and behaves as an induced hemostat-an unmet clinical need for rapid wound dressings. PDz/PRP composite applied to in-vivo full-thickness wounds observed a 25% reduction in inflammation, as assessed by the host-cell response.

19.
Analyst ; 145(22): 7412-7420, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945329

RESUMO

In the present work, ZnGa2O4 was incorporated with g-C3N4 nanosheets to synthesize ZnGa2O4/g-C3N4 nanocomposites through the hydrothermal method. The morphologies of nanocomposites were characterized by TEM, XRD, and spectral and electrochemical methods, respectively. The nanocomposites exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence with the maximum emission peak red-shifted from 380 nm to 450 nm. A strong cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) signal of ZnGa2O4/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was obtained under neutral conditions, which was much stronger than those of pure materials. ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) occurred between ZnGa2O4/g-C3N4 and gold nanoparticle/graphene nanocomposites, resulting in an apparent decrease of the ECL signal. Based on this, a label-free ECL sensor for thrombin was fabricated. The sensor showed high sensitivity, wide linearity, and good selectivity for the detection of thrombin in the range from 1.37 fM to 27.4 pM with a detection limit of 0.55 fM (3σ). The proposed method was applied to detect thrombin in serum samples with satisfactory results. This work revealed a new role of spinel-type semiconductor oxide nanomaterials, which will provide more ECL systems for the fabrication of biosensors.

20.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 612, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lysin motif-containing proteins (LYP), which act as pattern-recognition receptors, play central roles in growth, node formation, and responses to biotic stresses. The sequence of Chinese white pear genome (cv. 'Dangshansuli') along with the seven other species of Rosaceae has already been reported. Although, in these fruit crops, there is still a lack of clarity regarding the LYP family genes and their evolutionary history. RESULTS: In the existing study, eight Rosaceae species i.e., Pyrus communis, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus avium, Prunus mume, Rubus occidentalis, and Malus × domestica were evaluated. Here, we determined a total of 124 LYP genes from the underlined Rosaceae species. While eighteen of the genes were from Chinese white pear, named as PbrLYPs. According to the LYPs structural characteristics and their phylogenetic analysis, those genes were classified into eight groups (group LYK1, LYK2, LYK3, LYK4/5, LYM1/3, LYM2, NFP, and WAKL). Dispersed duplication and whole-genome duplication (WGD) were found to be the most contributing factors of LYP family expansion in the Rosaceae species. More than half of the duplicated PbrLYP gene pairs were dated back to the ancient WGD (~ 140 million years ago (MYA)), and PbrLYP genes have experienced long-term purifying selection. The transcriptomic results indicated that the PbrLYP genes expression was tissue-specific. Most PbrLYP genes showed differential expression in leaves under fungal pathogen infection with two of them located in the plasmalemma. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive analysis identified 124 LYP genes in eight Rosaceae species. Our findings have provided insights into the functions and characteristics of the Rosaceae LYP genes and a guide for the identification of other candidate LYPs for further genetic improvements for pathogen-resistance in higher plants.

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