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1.
Genomics ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032618

RESUMO

DNA N6-methyladenine (6 mA) is a new type of DNA methylation identified in various eukaryotic cells. However, its alteration and genomic distribution features in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain elusive. In this study, we found that N6AMT1 overexpression increased HCC cell viability, suppressed apoptosis, and enhanced migration and invasion, whereas ALKBH1 overexpression induced the opposite effects. Further, 23,779 gain-of-6 mA regions and 11,240 loss-of-6 mA regions were differentially identified in HCC tissues. The differential gain and loss of 6 mA regions were considerably enriched in intergenic regions. Moreover, 7% of the differential 6 mA modifications were associated with tumors, with 60 associated with oncogenes and 57 with tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), and 17 were common to oncogenes and TSGs. The candidate genes affected by 6 mA were filtered by gene ontology (GO) and RNA-seq. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), BCL2 and PARTICL were found to be correlated with DNA 6 mA in certain HCC processes.

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 1): 504-512, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626992

RESUMO

As a typical two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and visible-light responsive semiconductor, zinc indium sulfide (ZnIn2S4) has attracted much attention in photocatalysis. However, the high recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes seriously limits its performance for hydrogen production. In this work, we report in-situ photodeposition of Ni clusters in hierarchical ZnIn2S4 nanoflowers (Ni/ZnIn2S4) to achieve unprecedented photocatalytic hydrogen production. The Ni clusters not only provide plenty of active sites for reactions as evidenced by in-situ photoluminescence measurement, but also effectively accelerate the separation and migration of the photogenerated electrons and holes in ZnIn2S4. Consequently, the Ni/ZnIn2S4 composites exhibit good stability and reusability with highly enhanced visible-light hydrogen production. In particular, the best Ni/ZnIn2S4 photocatalyst exhibits an unprecedented hydrogen production rate of 22.2 mmol·h-1·g-1, 10.6 times that of the pure ZnIn2S4 (2.1 mmol·h-1·g-1). And its apparent quantum yield (AQY) is as high as 56.14% under 450 nm monochromatic light. Our work here suggests that depositing non-precious Ni clusters in ZnIn2S4 is quite promising for the potential practical photocatalysis in solar energy conversion.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118716, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742440

RESUMO

Consumption of chitooligosaccharides (COS) prevents intestinal microecological disorder. The mechanisms for the effects of different COS on the gut microbiota are currently unclear. This study examined the impact of COS with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) on the gut microbial community and metabolic profile. COS significantly promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes, and inhibited that of Proteobacteria, which were significantly correlated with DPs. COS3 and COS2 enriched the butyrate production in microbial communities composed of Clostridium and Parabacteroides. Microbial communities enriched by DPs 4-6 COS displayed increased diversity in differential metabolite function. Several biomarkers were distinguished significantly, including unsaturated fatty acids, bile acids, indoles and amines, which are mainly related to processes such as fatty acid synthesis and decomposition, bile acid modification, and tryptophan metabolism. The results display the relationship among COS structure-gut microbes-metabolomics, providing a new perspective for COS as a functional food to improve intestinal health.

5.
Food Chem ; 370: 131044, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509940

RESUMO

The shelf life of chestnut rose beverage is largely dependent on packaging method and storage temperature. In this study, we investigated the effects of packaging beverages in bottles made of either polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or PEN (polyethylene naphthalate)/PET and storage temperature (4, 25, 37, and 55 ℃) on the shelf life of chestnut rose beverage. The physicochemical parameters and enzyme activity of beverages were evaluated, and we found that at 4 °C, the vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, and total polyphenol contents of beverages stored in PEN/PET bottles increased by 9.95 ± 0.49%, 2.86 ± 0.13%, and 3.23 ± 0.09% respectively, compared to beverages in ordinary PET bottles. In addition, other characteristic indicators including total soluble solids, browning index, and color value were also significantly improved. A shelf-life model was established based on the Arrhenius equation, and it will help distributors and consumers to determine the storage time and optimal shelf life of chestnut rose beverage.


Assuntos
Polietilenotereftalatos , Rosa , Bebidas/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Polietilenotereftalatos/análise , Temperatura
6.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2021: 9826046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877538

RESUMO

Controlled polypeptide synthesis via α-amino acid N-carboxylic anhydride (NCA) polymerization using conventional primary amine initiators encounters two major obstacles: (i) normal amine mechanism (NAM) and activated monomer mechanism (AMM) coexist due to amine basicity and nucleophilicity and (ii) NCA is notoriously sensitive towards moisture and heat and unstable upon storage. We serendipitously discover that N-phenoxycarbonyl-functionalized α-amino acid (NPCA), a latent NCA precursor, could be polymerized solely based on NAM with high initiating efficiency by using primary amine hydrochloride as an initiator. The polymerization affords well-defined polypeptides with narrow polydispersity and high-fidelity terminal functionalities, as revealed by the clean set of MALDI-TOF MS patterns. We further demonstrate successful syntheses of random and block copolypeptides, even under open-vessel conditions. Overall, the integration of moisture-insensitive and air-tolerant NPCA precursors with stable primary amine hydrochloride initiators represents a general strategy for controlled synthesis of high-fidelity polypeptides with sophisticated functions.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(23)2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885534

RESUMO

Coating on the surface is one of the main ways to improve the corrosion resistance and wear resistance of materials. In this work, the corrosion, erosion, and wear resistance of WC-10Co4Cr coating and 27CrMoV substrate were compared by simulating the actual working conditions of the drill pipe. The simulation results show that the most serious corrosion occurred at the pipe body and the dominating erosion arose at the pipe joint closing to the inlet of the flow field. WC-10Co4Cr coating has excellent protection to 27CrMoV substrate, resulting in a 400 mV increase in corrosion potential, a two-orders-of-magnitude decrease in the corrosion current, and four times the improvement of the impedance value. The erosion resistance of the WC-10Co4Cr coating increased to more than 30% higher than that of the 27CrMoV substrate. The friction coefficient of the WC-10Co4Cr coating was much lower than that of the 27CrMoV substrate, and the wear resistance of the coating was higher than that of the substrate.

8.
Atherosclerosis ; 340: 23-27, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The high false-positive rate of the treadmill exercise test (TET) may lead to unnecessary invasive coronary angiography. We aimed to develop a machine learning-based algorithm to improve the diagnostic performance of TET. METHODS: Study included 2325 patients who underwent TET and subsequent coronary angiography within one-year interval. The mean age was 58.7 (48.1-69.3) years, 1731 (74.5%) were male, 1858 (79.9%) had positive TET result, and 812 (34.9%) had obstructive coronary artery disease (≥70% stenosis in at least one vessel). The study population were randomly divided into training (70%) and testing (30%) groups for algorithm development. A total of 93 features, including exercise performance, hemodynamics and ST-segment changes were extracted from the TET results. Clinical features included comorbidity, smoking, height, weight, and Framingham risk score. Support vector machine, logistic regression, random forest, k-nearest neighbor and extreme gradient boosting machine learning algorithms were used to build the predictive models. The performance of each model was compared with that of conventional TET. RESULTS: Four of the five models exhibited comparable diagnostic performance and were better than conventional TET. The random forest algorithm had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.73. When used with clinical features, the AUC improved to 0.74. The major advantage of the algorithm is the reduction of the false-positive rate compared with conventional TET (55% vs. 76.3%, respectively), while maintaining comparable sensitivity (85%). CONCLUSIONS: Using the information obtained from conventional TET, a more accurate diagnosis can be made by incorporating an artificial intelligence-based model.

9.
Environ Pollut ; : 118654, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890741

RESUMO

The pollution of Energetic compounds (ECs) in military ranges has become the focus of worldwide attention. However, few studies on the contamination of ECs at Chinese military ranges have been reported to date. In this study, two different types of military demolition range in China, Dunhua (DH) and Taiyuan (TY), were investigated and the ECs in their soils were determined. 10 ECs were detected at both ranges. While all the contamination characteristics were distinct, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was the most abundant contamination source in soils at DH range, with an average concentration of 1106 mg kg-1 and a maximum concentration of 34,083 mg kg-1. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and two mono-amino degradation products of TNT were also found to have high concentrations, with potential ecological and human health risks. In contrast, the concentrations of ECs in soils of TY range were much lower. The content of RDX was most significant, with average and maximum concentrations of 7.8 and 158 mg kg-1, respectively. However, the potential threat to human health of 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in soils at both ranges should not be ignored. The differences in pollution characteristics of the ECs at DH and TY are closely related to the types and amounts of the munitions destroyed. Moreover, the spatial distribution of ECs at the demolition ranges was extremely heterogeneous, which may be attributed to the use of open-air demolition activities and the non-homogeneous composition of the munitions.

10.
Chembiochem ; : e202100597, 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958167

RESUMO

Proteins directly participate in tremendous physiological processes and mediate a variety of cellular functions. However, precise manipulation of proteins with predefined relative position and stoichiometry for understanding protein-protein interactions and guiding cellular behaviors is still challenging. With superior programmability of DNA molecules, DNA origami technology is able to construct arbitrary nanostructures that can accurately control the arrangement of proteins with various functionalities to solve these problems. Herein, starting from the classification of DNA origami nanostructures and the category of assembled proteins, we summarize the existing DNA origami-based protein manipulation systems (PMSs), review the advances on the regulation of their functions, and discuss their applications in cellular behavior modulation and disease therapy. Moreover, the limitations and potential directions of DNA origami-based PMSs are also presented, which may offer guidance for rational construction and ingenious application.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation is reported to aid in lean mass preservation, which may in turn minimize the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) during weight loss. Our study aimed to examine the effect of BCAA supplementation to a hypocaloric diet on RMR and substrate utilization during a weight loss intervention. METHODS: A total of 111 Chinese subjects comprising 55 males and 56 females aged 21 to 45 years old with BMI between 25 and 36 kg/m2 were randomized into three hypocaloric diet groups: (1) standard-protein (14%) with placebo (CT), (2) standard-protein with BCAA, and (3) high-protein (27%) with placebo. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure RMR, carbohydrate, and fat oxidation before and after 16 weeks of dietary intervention. RESULTS: RMR was reduced from 1600 ± 270 kcal/day to 1500 ± 264 kcal/day (p < 0.0005) after weight loss, but no significant differences in the change of RMR, respiratory quotient, and percentage of fat and carbohydrate oxidation were observed among the three diet groups. Subjects with BCAA supplementation had an increased postprandial fat (p = 0.021) and decreased postprandial carbohydrate (p = 0.044) oxidation responses compared to the CT group after dietary intervention. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA-supplemented standard-protein diet did not significantly attenuate reduction of RMR compared to standard-protein and high-protein diets. However, the postprandial fat oxidation response increased after BCAA-supplemented weight loss intervention.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Período Pós-Prandial , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2100808, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719888

RESUMO

A differentiation switch of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) from osteoblasts to adipocytes contributes to age- and menopause-associated bone loss and marrow adiposity. Here it is found that osteocytes, the most abundant bone cells, promote adipogenesis and inhibit osteogenesis of BMSCs by secreting neuropeptide Y (NPY), whose expression increases with aging and osteoporosis. Deletion of NPY in osteocytes generates a high bone mass phenotype, and attenuates aging- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone-fat imbalance in mice. Osteocyte NPY production is under the control of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and osteocyte NPY deletion blocks the ANS-induced regulation of BMSC fate and bone-fat balance. γ-Oryzanol, a clinically used ANS regulator, significantly increases bone formation and reverses aging- and OVX-induced osteocyte NPY overproduction and marrow adiposity in control mice, but not in mice lacking osteocyte NPY. The study suggests a new mode of neuronal control of bone metabolism through the ANS-induced regulation of osteocyte NPY.

14.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 344, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759279

RESUMO

Macrophages play a vital role in the development of atherosclerosis. Previously, we have found that swiprosin-1 was abundantly expressed in macrophages. Here, we investigated the role of swiprosin-1 expressed in macrophages in atherogenesis. Bone marrow transplantation was performed from swiprosin-1-knockout (Swp-/-) mice and age-matched ApoE-/- mice. Atherosclerotic lesion, serum lipid, and interleukin-ß (IL-ß) levels were detected. In vitro, the peritoneal macrophages isolated from Swp-/- and wild-type mice were stimulated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and the macrophage of foam degree, cellular lipid content, apoptosis, inflammatory factor, migration, and autophagy were determined. Our results showed that swiprosin-1 was mainly expressed in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques in aorta from ApoE-/- mice fed with high-cholesterol diet (HCD). The expression of swiprosin-1 in the foaming of RAW264.7 macrophages gradually increased with the increase of the concentration and time stimulated with ox-LDL. Atherosclerotic plaques, accumulation of macrophages, collagen content, serum total cholesterol, LDL, and IL-ß levels were decreased in Swp-/- → ApoE-/- mice compared with Swp+/+ → ApoE-/- mice fed with HCD for 16 weeks. The macrophage foam cell formation and cellular cholesterol accumulation were reduced, while the lipid uptake and efflux increased in macrophages isolated from Swp-/- compared to wild-type mice treated with ox-LDL. Swiprosin-1 deficiency in macrophages could inhibit apoptosis, inflammation, migration, and promote autophagy. Taken together, our results demonstrated that swiprosin-1 deficiency in macrophages could alleviate the development and progression of AS. The role of swiprosin-1 may provide a promising new target for ameliorating AS.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805225

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the associations between refractive errors and multiple eye health outcomes. Methods: This is an umbrella review based on systematic reviews with meta-analyses. In our study, refractive errors included myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia. We reconducted the meta-analyses whose primary data were available in sufficient detail by random effect model. Heterogeneity was assessed by I 2. The main outcomes included myopic macular degeneration (MMD), retinal detachment (RD), cataract, open-angle glaucoma (OAG), strabismus, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Results: Myopia was associated with increased risk of MMD (relative risk = 102.11, 95% CI 52.6-198.22), RD (3.45, 1.08-11.00), nuclear cataract (2.15, 1.53-3.03), posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract (1.74, 1.41-2.15), OAG (1.95, 1.74-2.19), exotropia (5.23, 2.26-12.09), but decreased risk of DR (0.83, 0.66-1.04), and early AMD (0.80, 0.67-0.94). From mild-to-high myopia, the association strengthened for MMD, RD, nuclear cataract, PSC cataract, OAG, and DR. Hyperopia was associated with an increased risk of early AMD (1.09, 1.01-1.18) and esotropia (22.94, 10.20-51.62). Astigmatism and anisometropia were associated with increased risk of both exotropia and esotropia. Conclusions: Myopia, especially high myopia, demonstrated the highest risk for eye health outcomes, such as MMD, RD, OAG, nuclear and PSC cataracts, and exotropia. However, myopia was associated with a lower risk of early AMD and DR. Individuals with hyperopia are more likely to suffer early AMD and esotropia. Astigmatism and anisometropia predispose to strabismus. A lot of research studies on the mechanism of the associations are needed. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=239744; identifier: 239744.

17.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 34051-34065, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809203

RESUMO

It is a challenge to retrieve atmospheric sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) with high resolution solar spectra because it has only one single retrieval micro window and has interfered with many factors in the retrieval. Optical misalignment is one of the key factors that affect the accuracy of SF6 retrieval. In this study, we first present a long term time series of the SF6 total column over Hefei, China, between January 2017 and December 2020, retrieved by mid-infrared (MIR) solar spectra recorded by ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sensitivities of the total column, root mean square of fitting residual (RMS), total error budgets, degrees of freedom for signal (DOFs), and vertical mixing ratio (VMR) profile with respect to different levels of optical misalignment for SF6 retrieval were assessed. The SF6 total column is sensitive to optical misalignment. In order to avoid inconsistencies in the total column due to optical misalignment, we use the true instrumental line shape (ILS) derived from regular low-pressure HBr cell measurements to retrieve the time series of SF6. The total column of SF6 over Hefei presents strong seasonal dependent features. The maximum monthly average value of (3.57 ± 0.21) × 1014 molecules*cm-2 in summer is (7.60 ± 3.50) × 1013 molecules*cm-2 (21.29 ± 9.80) % higher than the minimum monthly average value of (2.81 ± 0.14) × 1014 molecules*cm-2 in winter. The annual average SF6 total columns in 2017-2020 are (3.02 ± 0.17), (3.50 ± 0.18), (3.25 ± 0.18), and (3.08 ± 0.16) × 1014 molecules*cm-2, respectively, which are close to each other. It indicates that SF6 total column over Hefei is stable in the past four years. Our study can improve the current understanding for ground-based high-resolution remote sensing of SF6 and also contribute to generate new reliable remote sensing data in this sparsely monitored region for investigations of climate change, global warming, and air pollution.

18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA121316902, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) plays a critical role in cholesterol metabolism via the PCSK9-LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor) axis in the liver; however, evidence indicates that PCSK9 directly contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases through mechanisms independent of its LDL-cholesterol regulation. The objective of this was to determine how PCSK9 directly acts on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), contributing to degenerative vascular disease. Approach and Results: We first examined the effects of PCSK9 on cultured human aortic SMCs. Overexpression of PCSK9 downregulated the expression of ApoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2), a known target of PCSK9. Treatment with soluble recombinant human ApoER2 or the DNA synthesis inhibitor, hydroxyurea, inhibited PCSK9-induced polyploidization and other cellular responses of human SMCs. Treatment with antibodies against ApoER2 resulted in similar effects to those observed with PCSK9 overexpression. Inducible, SMC-specific knockout of Pcsk9 accelerated neointima formation in mouse carotid arteries and reduced age-related arterial stiffness. PCSK9 was expressed in SMCs of human atherosclerotic lesions and abundant in the "shoulder" regions of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. PCSK9 was also expressed in SMCs of abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was inversely related to the expression of smooth muscle α-actin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that PCSK9 inhibits proliferation and induces polyploidization, senescence, and apoptosis, which may be relevant to various degenerative vascular diseases.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103684, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative determination of breast cancer molecular subtypes facilitates individualized treatment plan-making and improves patient prognosis. We aimed to develop an assembled convolutional neural network (ACNN) model for the preoperative prediction of molecular subtypes using multimodal ultrasound (US) images. METHODS: This multicentre study prospectively evaluated a dataset of greyscale US, colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), and shear-wave elastography (SWE) images in 807 patients with 818 breast cancers from November 2016 to February 2021. The St. Gallen molecular subtypes of breast cancer were confirmed by postoperative immunohistochemical examination. The monomodal ACNN model based on greyscale US images, the dual-modal ACNN model based on greyscale US and CDFI images, and the multimodal ACNN model based on greyscale US and CDFI as well as SWE images were constructed in the training cohort. The performances of three ACNN models in predicting four- and five-classification molecular subtypes and identifying triple negative from non-triple negative subtypes were assessed and compared. The performance of the multimodal ACNN was also compared with preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB). FINDING: The performance of the multimodal ACNN model (macroaverage area under the curve [AUC]: 0.89-0.96) was superior to that of the dual-modal ACNN model (macroaverage AUC: 0.81-0.84) and the monomodal ACNN model (macroaverage AUC: 0.73-0.75) in predicting four-classification breast cancer molecular subtypes, which was also better than that of preoperative CNB (AUC: 0.89-0.99 vs. 0.67-0.82, p < 0.05). In addition, the multimodal ACNN model outperformed the other two ACNN models in predicting five-classification molecular subtypes (AUC: 0.87-0.94 vs. 0.78-0.81 vs. 0.71-0.78) and identifying triple negative from non-triple negative breast cancers (AUC: 0.934-0.970 vs. 0.688-0.830 vs. 0.536-0.650, p < 0.05). Moreover, the multimodal ACNN model obtained satisfactory prediction performance for both T1 and non-T1 lesions (AUC: 0.957-0.958 and 0.932-0.985). INTERPRETATION: The multimodal US-based ACNN model is a potential noninvasive decision-making method for the management of patients with breast cancer in clinical practice. FUNDING: This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 81725008 and 81927801), Shanghai Municipal Health Commission (Grants 2019LJ21 and SHSLCZDZK03502), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Grants 19441903200, 19DZ2251100, and 21Y11910800).

20.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 9(5): 461-469, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733532

RESUMO

Background: Transperineal ultrasonography has been used as a diagnostic imaging modality for rectocele for many years. However, the consistency of ultrasonography and defecography in evaluating the severity of rectocele was not satisfactory. This study aimed to evaluate the agreement in the measurement of rectocele parameters between the two methods in different positions and provide clinical implications for the diagnosis of rectocele. Methods: In this pilot study, participants were recruited in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital between December 2017 and December 2019. All participants separately underwent defecation proctography at sitting and squatting positions, and undertook transperineal ultrasonography at left lateral, sitting, and squatting positions. The consistency of ultrasonography and defecography was evaluated. Results: Thirty female volunteers with rectocele were included in this study. The degree of anorectal angle was significantly larger at rest and during contraction, maximal Valsalva, and evacuation; the depth of the rectocele was significantly deeper during maximal Valsalva and evacuation; and the length of the perineum descending was significantly longer during contraction and maximal Valsalva in using squatting position compared to the sitting position when performing the defecation proctography. The degree of anorectal angle, the depth of rectocele, the area of levator hiatus, and the volume of the rectocele were significantly different in using squatting, sitting, and left lateral positions when performing the transperineal ultrasonography. Bland-Altman semi-quantitative plots showed good consistency in the measurement of the anorectal angle and the depth of the rectocele between proctography and ultrasonography in both sitting and squatting positions. Conclusions: The findings of our study may be considered as the preliminary evidence to support the use of transperineal ultrasonography with sitting and squatting positions as the imaging test of choice for evaluating patients with rectocele.

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