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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6266, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293512

RESUMO

Grain weight (GW) is one of the component traits of wheat yield. Existing reports have shown that multiple phytohormones are involved in the regulation of GW in different crops. However, the potential role of jasmonic acid (JA) remains unclear. Here, we report that triticale grain weight 1 (tgw1) mutant, with marked reductions in both GW and JA content, is caused by a premature stop mutation in keto-acyl thiolase 2B (KAT-2B) involved in ß-oxidation during JA synthesis. KAT-2B overexpression increases GW in wild type and boosts yield. Additionally, KAT-2B compliments the grain defect in tgw1 and rescues the lethal phenotype of the Arabidopsis kat2 mutant in a sucrose-free medium. Despite the suppression of JA synthesis in tgw1 mutant, ABA synthesis is upregulated, which is accompanied by enhanced expression of SAG3 and reduction of chlorophyll content in leaves. Together, these results demonstrate a role of the JA synthetic gene KAT-2B in controlling GW and its potential application value for wheat improvement.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670314

RESUMO

Pinellia ternata is a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal plant that undergoes different phenological patterns of dormancy depending on where it is growing. Plants grown in central and southern China typically display two growth cycles every year before and after hot summer days, exhibiting a summer dormancy. However, germplasms from these areas do not go into a dormancy phase in northern China where the summer monthly average temperatures range from 29-31°C. The northern China herbal growers prefer plant stocks from central China due to their longer growing quality and better tuber harvests. Here, we introduced a heat responsive receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) gene into P. ternata to explore changes in the growth cycle which were aimed at disrupting the summer dormancy. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene was also co-transformed with ER to improve the commercial trait. For the thermo-tolerance evaluation, all plants were treated with high temperatures (35°C/40°C) in a growth chamber or grown in natural field temperature in an isolated field before measurement of different agricultural, biochemical and physiological traits. The transgenics showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance, maintaining healthy vegetative growth unlike the empty vector (EV) harboring controls that became chlorotic and necrotic. Better performance in some of the monitored physiological traits was evident for overexpression lines exposed to the heat stress. In open isolated field trials, the transgenic genotypes did not show a summer dormancy but had a survival rate of 84-95%. The tuber biomasses were also significantly (P < 0.05) higher for the transgenic lines as compared to the EV controls, except for line ER118. Metabolites analysis indicated that the HMGR overexpressing lines (HMGR orHMGR + ER) exhibited significantly higher amounts of bioactive compounds including aromadendrene-4, 10-diol and 4, 8, 13-cyclotetradecatriene-1, 3-diol, 1, 5, 9-trimethyl-12-(1-methylethyl). Our findings show that the summer dormancy of P. ternata which is a naturally evolved trait, can be removed by a single heat responsive gene. The study contributes to generating heat tolerant new Pinellia varieties with enhanced commercially valuable chemicals.

3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(8): 1722-1735, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930656

RESUMO

The marriage of metabolomic approaches with genetic design has proven a powerful tool in dissecting diversity in the metabolome and has additionally enhanced our understanding of complex traits. That said, such studies have rarely been carried out in wheat. In this study, we detected 805 metabolites from wheat kernels and profiled their relative contents among 182 wheat accessions, conducting a metabolite-based genome-wide association study (mGWAS) utilizing 14 646 previously described polymorphic SNP markers. A total of 1098 mGWAS associations were detected with large effects, within which 26 candidate genes were tentatively designated for 42 loci. Enzymatic assay of two candidates indicated they could catalyse glucosylation and subsequent malonylation of various flavonoids and thereby the major flavonoid decoration pathway of wheat kernel was dissected. Moreover, numerous high-confidence genes associated with metabolite contents have been provided, as well as more subdivided metabolite networks which are yet to be explored within our data. These combined efforts presented the first step towards realizing metabolomics-associated breeding of wheat.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum , Flavonoides , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triticum/genética
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