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1.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Twitter and media coverage on poliomyelitis help maintain global support for its eradication. OBJECTIVE: To test our hypothesis that themes of polio-related tweets and media articles would differ by location of interest (hashtag of country name mentioned in the tweet; country name mentioned in media articles) but would be similar to each other (tweets and media articles) for each location of interest. METHODS: We retrospectively examined a 40% random sample of Twitter data containing the hashtag #polio from January 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015 (N = 79,333), from which we extracted 5 subcorpora each with a co-occurring hashtag #India (n = 5027), #Iraq (n = 1238), #Nigeria (n = 1364), #Pakistan (n = 11,427), and #Syria (n = 2952). We also retrieved and categorized 73 polio-related English-language news stories from within the same timeframe. We assessed the association between polio-related English news themes and the Twitter content. Descriptive analyses and unsupervised machine learning (latent Dirichlet allocation modeling) were conducted on the 5 Twitter subcorpora. RESULTS: The results of the latent Dirichlet allocation modeling on the specific subcorpora with country co-occurring hashtags showed significant differences between the 5 countries in terms of content. English mass media content focused largely on violence/conflicts and cases of polio, whereas social media focused on eradication and vaccination efforts along with celebrations. DISCUSSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, our evidence suggests Twitter content differs significantly from English mass media content. Evidence from our study helps inform media monitoring and communications surveillance during global public health crises, such as infectious disease outbreaks, as well as reactions to health promotion campaigns.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195677

RESUMO

Wastewater workers are exposed to different occupational hazards such as chemicals, gases, viruses, and bacteria. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a significant factor that can reduce or decrease the probability of an accident from hazardous exposures to chemicals and microbial contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine wastewater worker's beliefs and practices on wearing PPE through the integration of the Health Belief Model (HBM), identify the impact that management has on wastewater workers wearing PPE, and determine the predictors of PPE compliance among workers in the wastewater industry. Data was collected from 272 wastewater workers located at 33 wastewater facilities across the southeast region of the United States. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted to present frequency distributions of participants' knowledge and compliance with wearing PPE. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were applied to determine the association of predictors of interest with PPE compliance. Wastewater workers were knowledgeable of occupational exposures and PPE requirements at their facility. Positive predictors of PPE compliance were perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of contracting an occupational illness (p < 0.05). A negative association was identified between managers setting the example of wearing PPE sometimes and PPE compliance (p < 0.05). Utilizing perceived susceptibility and severity for safety programs and interventions may improve PPE compliance among wastewater workers.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 438, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and emotions towards public health issues could spread widely through online social networks. Although aggregate metrics on the volume of information diffusion are available, we know little about how information spreads on online social networks. Health information could be transmitted from one to many (i.e. broadcasting) or from a chain of individual to individual (i.e. viral spreading). The aim of this study is to examine the spreading pattern of Ebola information on Twitter and identify influential users regarding Ebola messages. METHODS: Our data was purchased from GNIP. We obtained all Ebola-related tweets posted globally from March 23, 2014 to May 31, 2015. We reconstructed Ebola-related retweeting paths based on Twitter content and the follower-followee relationships. Social network analysis was performed to investigate retweeting patterns. In addition to describing the diffusion structures, we classify users in the network into four categories (i.e., influential user, hidden influential user, disseminator, common user) based on following and retweeting patterns. RESULTS: On average, 91% of the retweets were directly retweeted from the initial message. Moreover, 47.5% of the retweeting paths of the original tweets had a depth of 1 (i.e., from the seed user to its immediate followers). These observations suggested that the broadcasting was more pervasive than viral spreading. We found that influential users and hidden influential users triggered more retweets than disseminators and common users. Disseminators and common users relied more on the viral model for spreading information beyond their immediate followers via influential and hidden influential users. CONCLUSIONS: Broadcasting was the dominant mechanism of information diffusion of a major health event on Twitter. It suggests that public health communicators can work beneficially with influential and hidden influential users to get the message across, because influential and hidden influential users can reach more people that are not following the public health Twitter accounts. Although both influential users and hidden influential users can trigger many retweets, recognizing and using the hidden influential users as the source of information could potentially be a cost-effective communication strategy for public health promotion. However, challenges remain due to uncertain credibility of these hidden influential users.


Assuntos
Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Redes Sociais Online , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
4.
Perm J ; 232019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe videos posted to the YouTube video-sharing Web site by US state health departments (SHDs) and associated institutional factors. METHODS: YouTube channels from SHDs were identified, their data retrieved, and their videos saved to a playlist on January 10, 2016. Ten randomly sampled videos from each channel were manually coded for topics. The 2012 Association of State and Territorial Health Officials profile survey was used to obtain information on staff, expenditure, and top 5 priorities for each SHD. Descriptive statistics and univariable regression were conducted. RESULTS: Forty-three SHDs had YouTube channels. Together, all SHDs posted 3957 videos, accumulated 12,151,720 views, and gained 6302 subscribers. In total, 415 videos were manually coded. Information about the agency (17.6%), communicable diseases (12.5%), and mother/infant health (8.9%) comprised the largest share of topics. No statistically significant association was observed between the log-transformed number of videos posted on an SHD's YouTube channel and any of the explanatory variables of SHD staffing and expenditure in 2011. The number of full-time employees (r = 0.34, p = 0.03), number of epidemiologists and biostatisticians (r = 0.41, p = 0.01), and 2011 total year expenditure (r = 0.38, p = 0.02) were positively correlated with the log-transformed number of views per YouTube video posted by SHDs. No meaningful patterns of statistical association were observed between the percentage of expenditure on a specific program area and the topics of videos. CONCLUSION: Most SHDs are using YouTube, which provides a unique opportunity for SHDs to disseminate health messages.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Órgãos dos Sistemas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravação em Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
5.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 25 Suppl 2, Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey 2017: S124-S133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720625

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Despite a growing consensus in public health to address health inequities and leverage social determinants of health (SDoH), the level of public health practitioners' readiness to become the agents of change in promoting health equity and shaping SDoH is not well researched. OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) the level of public health agency employees' perceived desirability for impacting health equity and SDoH, and (2) the impact of employee characteristics such as a (PH WINS) public health degree and awareness of health in all policies on such desirability. METHODS: Data from the 2017 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey were used in examining the sense of desirability among agency employees for affecting health equity and SDoH in the agency jurisdictions. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent of health agency employees believed that their agencies should be very involved in affecting health equity in their jurisdictions. Fairly smaller proportions of employees believed in the desirability of affecting SDoH, and the proportions who believed that the agency should be very involved in affecting specific SDoH were 17.8% for affecting the quality of transportation, 18.5% for affecting the economy, 22.2% for quality of housing, 22.4% for quality of the built environment, 25.4% for K-12 education system, and 34.5% for impacting the quality of social support systems. Agency employees without a public health degree had significantly lower odds (P < .05) of believing that the agency should be very involved in affecting health equity. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing efforts to reduce health inequities and leverage SDoH for improved population health, gaps exist in the public health workforce's perceived desirability for their agencies to be involved in such efforts. These gaps exist among employees regardless of their demographic characteristics, length of tenure, or agency setting. Policy and practice initiatives aimed to improve health equity might benefit from our findings positing a need for education regarding SDoH and health equity. Our study findings imply the need for interventions for improving alignment between employee beliefs and organizational priorities for an effective transformation to Public Health 3.0. Fostering cross-sector partnerships with a focus on Health in All Policies (HiAP), SDoH, and health equity must be a high priority for public health agencies, which can be formalized through organizational strategic plans.

6.
Microbes Infect ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735719

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are the major causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, which is characterized by increased capillary permeability. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) has been shown to degrade components of the basal membrane and interendothelial junctions via matrix metalloproteinase-9. To study the changes of serum DMP1 in HFRS, we determined the concentration of DMP1 using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that serum DMP1 concentrations increased significantly, and reached peak value during the oliguric phase and in the critical group in HFRS patients. Moreover, serum DMP1 concentrations were closely related to blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cystatin C, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We further explored the role of DMP1 in HTNV-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) model. Data from immunocytochemistry showed that VEGF and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoted the expression of DMP1 on HTNV-infected HUVECs. Results from transwell assays demonstrated that the permeability of HUVECs increased significantly after HTNV infection with the addition of DMP1, VEGF, and TNF-α. This study suggests that elevated DMP1 concentrations may be associated with disease stage, severity, and the degree of acute kidney injury. DMP1 is involved in the regulation of capillary permeability in HFRS caused by hantavirus infection.

7.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(1): 62-71, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may facilitate withdrawal of invasive mechanical ventilation (i-MV) and shorten intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) in hypercapnic patients, while data are lacking on hypoxemic patients. We aim to determine whether NIV after early extubation reduces the duration of i-MV and ICU LOS in patients recovering from hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Highly selected non-hypercapnic hypoxemic patients were randomly assigned to receive NIV after early or standard extubation. Co-primary end points were duration of i-MV and ICU LOS. Secondary end points were treatment failure, severe events (hemorrhagic, septic, cardiac, renal or neurologic episodes, pneumothorax or pulmonary embolism), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) or tracheobronchitis (VAT), tracheotomy, percent of patients receiving sedation after study enrollment, hospital LOS, and ICU and hospital mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 130 consecutive patients, 65 treatments and 65 controls. Duration of i-MV was shorter in the treatment group than for controls [4.0 (3.0-7.0) vs. 5.5 (4.0-9.0) days, respectively, p = 0.004], while ICU LOS was not significantly different [8.0 (6.0-12.0) vs. 9.0 (6.5-12.5) days, respectively (p = 0.259)]. Incidence of VAT or VAP (9% vs. 25%, p = 0.019), rate of patients requiring infusion of sedatives after enrollment (57% vs. 85%, p = 0.001), and hospital LOS, 20 (13-32) vs. 27(18-39) days (p = 0.043) were all significantly reduced in the treatment group compared with controls. There were no significant differences in ICU and hospital mortality or in the number of treatment failures, severe events, and tracheostomies. CONCLUSIONS: In highly selected hypoxemic patients, early extubation followed by immediate NIV application reduced the days spent on invasive ventilation without affecting ICU LOS.

8.
Int J Biostat ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465718

RESUMO

Background Many researchers have studied the relationship between diet and health. Specifically, there are papers showing an association between the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and Type 2 diabetes. Many meta-analyses use individual studies that do not attempt to adjust for multiple testing or multiple modeling. Hence the claims reported in a meta-analysis paper may be unreliable as the base papers do not ensure unbiased statistics. Objective Determine (i) the statistical reliability of 10 papers and (ii) indirectly the reliability of the meta-analysis study. Method We obtained copies of each of the 10 papers used in a metaanalysis paper and counted the numbers of outcomes, predictors, and covariates. We estimate the size of the potential analysis search space available to the authors of these papers; i. e. the number of comparisons and models available. The potential analysis search space is the number of outcomes times the number of predictors times 2 c , where c is the number of covariates. This formula was applied to information found in the abstracts (Space A) as well as the text (Space T) of each base paper. Results The median and range of the number of comparisons possible across the base papers are 6.5 and (2 12,288), respectively for Space A, and 196,608 and (3072-117,117,952), respectively for Space T. It is noted that the median of 6.5 for Space A may be misleading as each study has 60-165 foods that could be predictors. Conclusion Given that testing is at the 5% level and the number of comparisons is very large, nominal statistical significance is very weak support for a claim. The claims in these papers are not statistically supported and hence are unreliable so the meta-analysis paper is also unreliable.

9.
Int Health ; 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476105

RESUMO

Background: Twitter is used for World Pneumonia Day (WPD; November 12) communication. We evaluate if themes of #pneumonia tweets were associated with retweet frequency. Methods: A total of 28 181 original #pneumonia tweets were retrieved (21 November 2016), from which six subcorpora, 1 mo before and 1 mo after WPD 2011-2016, were extracted (n=6721). Underlying topics were identified via latent Dirichlet allocation and were manually coded into themes. The association of themes with retweet count was assessed via multivariable hurdle regression. Results: Compared with personal experience tweets, tweets that both raised awareness and promoted intervention were 2.62 times as likely to be retweeted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.62 [95% 1.79 to 3.85]) and if retweeted had 37% more retweets (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.37 [95% CI 1.06 to 1.78]). Tweets that raised concerns about vaccine price were twice as likely to be retweeted (aOR 2.29 [95% CI 1.36 to 3.84]) and if retweeted, had double the retweet count (aPR 2.05 [95% CI 1.27 to 3.29]) of tweets sharing personal experience. Conclusions: The #pneumonia tweets that both raised awareness and promoted interventions and those discussing vaccine price were more likely to engage users than tweets about personal experience. These results help health professionals craft WPD messages that will engage the audience.

10.
Infect Dis Health ; 23(1): 10-16, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different linguo-cultural communities might react to an outbreak differently. The 2015 South Korean MERS outbreak presented an opportunity for us to compare tweets responding to the same outbreak in different languages. METHODS: We obtained a 1% sample through Twitter streaming application programming interface from June 1 to 30, 2015. We identified MERS-related tweets with keywords such as 'MERS' and its translation in five different languages. We translated non-English tweets into English for statistical comparison. RESULTS: We retrieved MERS-related Twitter data in five languages: Korean (N = 21,823), English (N = 4024), Thai (N = 2084), Japanese (N = 1334) and Indonesian (N = 1256). Categories of randomly selected user profiles (p < 0.001) and the top 30 sources of retweets (p < 0.001) differed between the five language corpora. Among the randomly selected user profiles, K-pop fans ranged from 4% in the Korean corpus to 70% in the Thai corpus; media ranged from 0% (Thai) to 14% (Indonesian); political advocates ranged from 0% (Thai) to 19% (Japanese); medical professionals ranged from 0% (Thai) to 7% (English). Among the top 30 sources of retweets for each corpus (150 in total), 70 (46.7%) were media; 29 (19.3%) were K-pop fans; 7 (4.7%) were political; 9 (6%) were medical; and 35 (23.3%) were categorized as 'Others'. We performed chi-square feature selection and identified the top 20 keywords that were most unique to each corpus. CONCLUSION: Different linguo-cultural communities exist on Twitter and they might react to the same outbreak differently. Understanding audiences' unique Twitter cultures will allow public health agencies to develop appropriate Twitter health communication strategies.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antagonistic yeast and hot air treatment are two promising methods for conferring resistance to pathogenic fungi. The study assessed the effectiveness of hot-air treatment (45 °C, 4 h) and antagonistic yeast (Pichia guilliermondii at 108 CFU mL-1 ) alone or in combination on the two major postharvest diseases (Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium expansum), as well as the quality and antioxidant parameters in harvested peaches. RESULTS: The combination of hot-air treatment and Pichia guilliermondii had notable inhibitory effects on infections in peach fruit wounds. In addition, the individual hot-air treatment or Pichia guilliermondii could improve quality indexes to varying degrees, but the combination of the above two treatments could achieve the highest efficacy. Furthermore, compared with other groups, the combined treatment induced the highest activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, improved the content of total phenolics and reduced glutathione most obviously. Lastly, the most significant reductions in malondialdehyde content and relative electrical conductivity were observed in the combination-treated fruit. CONCLUSIONS: The combined treatment could control fungal diseases, besides delay the decline of quality and antioxidant parameters, so as to achieve the purpose of fresh keeping for harvested peach fruit. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

12.
Leuk Res ; 70: 56-61, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859415

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of study was to explore the PD-1 expression on Treg cells and its association with T-NHL. METHODS: 137 patients newly diagnosed with T-NHL and 115 healthy controls were enrolled. The expression level of PD-1 was measured by flow cytometry at the time of diagnose and 3-8 course of treatment. RESULTS: Median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of PD-1 on Treg cells in T-NHL patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P < 0.001). MFI of PD-1 in medium/high-risk T-NHL patients were higher than that in low-risk patients (P < 0.05). After treatment with Chidamide combined with chemotherapy, MFI of PD-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In patients with high PD-1 expression (percentage>19.6% and MFI > 580), EFS was significantly lower than patients with low PD-1 expression (percentage<19.6% and MFI < 580). CONCLUSIONS: The PD-1expression on peripheral blood Treg cells of T-NHL patients is related to the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease.

13.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 95: 362-370, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655856

RESUMO

This article aims to conduct toxicity test research on honokiol microemulsion(HM) to provide reference frame for the safe dose design as well as the toxic and adverse reaction monitoring in clinic. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was adopted to determine the concentration, stability and uniformity of HM and the results indicated that the test sample was conformed to the toxicity test requirements. In the acute toxicity test, six intravenous drip dosages, namely, 100.0, 66.7, 44.4, 19.8, 8.8, and 3.9 mg/kg were set, with one beagle dog in each dosage, respectively. In addition, the results also demonstrated that the approximate lethal dose range of HM was 66.7-100.0 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity test, beagle dogs were intravenously dripped with HM at doses of 1.25, 0.25 and 0.05 mg/kg for 30 days. During the test period, signs of gross toxicity, behavioral changes, body weight, rectal temperature, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, electrocardiography, urinalysis, blood biochemistry, coagulation, hematology, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Under the present study conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level for HM was estimated to be 0.25 mg/kg. According to the results of bacterial reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays, HM exhibited no notable genotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/toxicidade , Lignanas/toxicidade , Animais , Cães , Emulsões , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
15.
Noise Health ; 20(92): 1-8, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457600

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the information about tinnitus contained in different video sources on YouTube. Materials and Methods: The 100 most widely viewed tinnitus videos were manually coded. Firstly, we identified the sources of upload: consumer, professional, television-based clip, and internet-based clip. Secondly, the videos were analyzed to ascertain what pertinent information they contained from a current National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders fact sheet. Results: Of the videos, 42 were consumer-generated, 33 from media, and 25 from professionals. Collectively, the 100 videos were viewed almost 9 million times. The odds of mentioning "objective tinnitus" in professional videos were 9.58 times those from media sources [odds ratio (OR) = 9.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.94, 47.42; P = 0.01], whereas these odds in consumer videos were 51% of media-generated videos (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.20, 1.29; P = 0.16). The odds that the purpose of a video was to sell a product or service were nearly the same for both consumer and professional videos. Consumer videos were found to be 4.33 times as likely to carry a theme about an individual's own experience with tinnitus (OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.62, 11.63; P = 0.004) as media videos. Conclusions: Of the top 100 viewed videos on tinnitus, most were uploaded by consumers, sharing individuals' experiences. Actions are needed to make scientific medical information more prominently available and accessible on YouTube and other social media.

16.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(4): 258-263, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study describes factors associated with epidemiologists from state health departments (HDs) who served as preceptors. METHODS: We used the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, a national survey of state health agency workers, and selected those who identify their role in the organization as an epidemiologist and a state HD employee for analysis. Variables related to recruitment and retention were studied, and predictor variables were assessed. We applied statistical analysis of complex sampling design based on weights generated by the distribution of the epidemiologists. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that are significant predictors of preceptorship. RESULTS: Significant factors of increased preceptorship included being black (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 3.98, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-7.88), being a team leader (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.07-4.05), a supervisor (AOR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.25-6.08), or a manager (AOR = 2.70, 95% CI, 1.15-6.34), and collaborating with academia (AOR = 3.11, 95% CI, 1.82-5.34). CONCLUSIONS: State HDs and academic institutions should collaborate to offer applied epidemiology practicum opportunities to (1) increase job satisfaction among applied epidemiologists and (2) prepare the incoming workforce to work in applied epidemiology.

17.
Ear Hear ; 39(5): 1015-1024, 2018 Sep/Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mental rotation is the brain's visuospatial understanding of what objects are and where they belong. Previous research indicated that deaf signers showed behavioral enhancement for nonlinguistic visual tasks, including mental rotation. In this study, we investigated the neural difference of mental rotation processing between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). DESIGN: The participants performed a block-designed experiment, consisting of alternating blocks of comparison and rotation periods, separated by a baseline or fixation period. Mental rotation tasks were performed using three-dimensional figures. fMRI images were acquired during the entire experiment, and the fMRI data were analyzed with Analysis of Functional NeuroImages. A factorial design analysis of variance was designed for fMRI analyses. The differences of activation were analyzed for the main effects of group and task, as well as for the interaction of group by task. RESULTS: The study showed differences in activated areas between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners on the mental rotation of three-dimensional figures. Subtracting activations of fixation from activations of rotation, both groups showed consistent activation in bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, and bilateral posterior temporal lobe. There were different main effects of task (rotation versus comparison) with significant activation clusters in the bilateral precuneus, the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, the right interior frontal gyrus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, and the bilateral posterior cingulate. There were significant interaction effects of group by task in the bilateral anterior cingulate, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the left middle temporal gyrus, and the right inferior parietal lobe. In simple effects of deaf and hearing groups with rotation minus comparison, deaf signers mainly showed activity in the right hemisphere, while hearing nonsigners showed bilateral activity. In the simple effects of rotation task, decreased activities were shown for deaf signers compared with hearing nonsigners throughout several regions, including the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate cortex, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right inferior parietal lobe. CONCLUSION: Decreased activations in several brain regions of deaf signers when compared to hearing nonsigners reflected increased neural efficiency and a precise functional circuitry, which was generated through long-term experience with sign language processing. In addition, we inferred tentatively that there may be a lateralization pattern to the right hemisphere for deaf signers when performing mental rotation tasks.

18.
J Food Prot ; 81(2): 186-194, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315028

RESUMO

The effects of individual and combined Pichia guilliermondii (at 1 × 108 CFU mL-1) and hot air (at 38°C for 96 h) treatments on the three major postharvest diseases Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as well as the quality and antioxidant content of Red Fuji ( Malus pumila var. domestica) apple fruit, were investigated in this work. Results suggested that the combined hot air and antagonistic yeast ( P. guilliermondii) treatment effectively and completely inhibited the infection of apple fruit wounds by the three major postharvest diseases. Furthermore, apple fruit treated with antagonistic yeast or heat alone maintained better quality, which included mass loss, firmness, solid/acid ratio, and ascorbic acid content, than the control. The combination of the two treatments yielded the optimum apple quality. Moreover, the combined hot air and P. guilliermondii treatment also maintained or enhanced the antioxidative enzyme activities and total phenolic content of apple fruit. All results demonstrated that the combined antagonistic yeast and hot air treatment maintained the postharvest freshness of apple fruit.

19.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 27(3): 675-688, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233075

RESUMO

This article explores both existing and new methods for the construction of confidence intervals for differences of indices of diagnostic accuracy of competing pairs of biomarkers in three-class classification problems and fills the methodological gaps for both parametric and non-parametric approaches in the receiver operating characteristic surface framework. The most widely used such indices are the volume under the receiver operating characteristic surface and the generalized Youden index. We describe implementation of all methods and offer insight regarding the appropriateness of their use through a large simulation study with different distributional and sample size scenarios. Methods are illustrated using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, where assessment of cognitive function naturally results in a three-class classification setting.

20.
Ann Glob Health ; 84(4): 710-716, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CDC hosts monthly panel presentations titled 'Public Health Grand Rounds' and publishes monthly reports known as Vital Signs. Hashtags #CDCGrandRounds and #VitalSigns were used to promote them on Twitter. Objectives: This study quantified the effect of hashtag count, mention count, and URL count and attaching visual cues to #CDCGrandRounds or #VitalSigns tweets on their retweet frequency. METHODS: Through Twitter Search Application Programming Interface, original tweets containing the hashtag #CDCGrandRounds (n = 6,966; April 21, 2011-October 25, 2016) and the hashtag #VitalSigns (n = 15,015; March 19, 2013-October 31, 2016) were retrieved respectively. Negative binomial regression models were applied to each corpus to estimate the associations between retweet frequency and three predictors (hashtag count, mention count, and URL link count). Each corpus was sub-set into cycles (#CDCGrandRounds: n = 58, #VitalSigns: n = 42). We manually coded the 30 tweets with the highest number of retweets for each cycle, whether it contained visual cues (images or videos). Univariable negative binomial regression models were applied to compute the prevalence ratio (PR) of retweet frequency for each cycle, between tweets with and without visual cues. FINDINGS: URL links increased retweet frequency in both corpora; effects of hashtag count and mention count differed between the two corpora. Of the 58 #CDCGrandRounds cycles, 29 were found to have statistically significantly different retweet frequencies between tweets with and without visual cues. Of these 29 cycles, one had a PR estimate < 1; twenty-four, PR > 1 but < 3; and four, PR > 3. Of the 42 #VitalSigns cycles, 19 were statistically significant. Of these 19 cycles, six were PR > 1 and < 3; and thirteen, PR > 3. Conclusions: The increase of retweet frequency through attaching visual cues varied across cycles for original tweets with #CDCGrandRounds and #VitalSigns. Future research is needed to determine the optimal choice of visual cues to maximize the influence of public health tweets.

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