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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130738, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384978

RESUMO

A homogeneous galactoglucan was purified from the alkali-extracted polysaccharides from the basidioma of Macrolepiota albuminosa by gradient ethanol precipitation, whose proposed structure was given for the first time. Results showed it had a molecular weight of 210 kDa, and mainly consisted of glucose and galactose. There were abundant filaments, randomly distributed sheet-like and flaky appearance in its surface by SEM observation. Its backbone comprised ß-(1 â†’ 6)-Glcp, α-(1 â†’ 6)-Galp and ß-(1 â†’ 3,6)-Glcp residues at 4:1:1, terminated by ß-(1 â†’ 3)-Glcp and T-Glcp residues. Rheological measurements suggested its steady flow behavior was highly dependent on concentrations. Newtonian behavior was evident at low concentrations, whereas pseudoplastic behavior was observed at high concentrations. Besides, the X-ray diffraction patterns proved the presence of amorphous structure. The conformational parameters were detected by HPSEC-MALLS-RI, revealing a random coil conformation in NaNO3 aqueous solution. This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of polysaccharides from M. albuminosa in food- and drug-based therapies.


Assuntos
Galactanos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Glucanos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150003, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492487

RESUMO

Enrichment of ionic poly/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aqueous aerosol (AA) is an important pathway for them to enter atmosphere. In this study, the enrichment behaviors of 12 legacy and emerging PFASs in AA in both single solute and mixed solutions were investigated. The enrichment factors (EF) displayed a general increasing trend with the fluorinated carbon chain length. For the first time, a robust Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model coupled with partial least-square method was established with fifteen quantum chemical descriptors. Four molecular descriptors, including dipole moment (µ), molecular weight (MW), the maximal value of the molecular surface potential (Vs, max) and molecular volume (V) were identified as the key structural variables affecting the PFASs enrichment. Inorganic salts and humic acid (HA) which are common in seawater, facilitated the PFASs enrichment as a result of enhanced hydrophobicity and the bridging effect caused by divalent cations. The typical cationic and anionic surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate, both inhibited the enrichment due to the competition between PFASs and surfactants. It is interesting that 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F53B) had the highest EF among the 12 PFASs, implying its strong potential of atmosphere transport.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aerossóis , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Adv Mater ; : e2107111, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739745

RESUMO

Manipulating perovskite crystallization to prepare high-quality perovskite films is the key to achieve highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we report a dynamic strategy to modulate perovskite crystallization using a resonance hole-transporting material (HTM) capable of fast self-adaptive tautomerization between multiple electronic states with neutral and charged resonance forms for mediating perovskite crystal growth and defects passivation in situ. This approach, based on resonance variation with self-adaptive molecular interactions between HTM and perovskite, produces high-quality perovskite films with smooth surface, oriented crystallization and low charge recombination, leading to high-performance inverted PSCs with power conversion efficiencies approaching to 22% for small-area devices (0.09 cm2 ) and up to 19.5% for large-area devices (1.02 cm2 ). Also, remarkably high stability of the PSCs was observed, retaining over 90%, 88%, or 83% of the initial efficiencies in air with relative humidity of 40∼50%, under continuous one-sun illumination, or at 75°C annealing for 1000 h without encapsulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Planta Med ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741296

RESUMO

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening cardiovascular disorder caused by dissection and rupture. No effective medicine is currently available for the > 90% of patients whose aneurysms are below the surgical threshold. The present study investigated the impact of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid C, or salvianolic acid B on experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms. Abdominal aortic aneurysms were induced in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via infusion of angiotensin II for 4 wks. Rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid C, salvianolic acid B, or doxycycline as a positive control was provided daily through intraperitoneal injection. Administration of rosmarinic acid was found to decrease the thickness of the aortic wall, as determined by histopathological assay. Rosmarinic acid also exhibited protection against elastin fragmentation in aortic media and down-regulated cell apoptosis and proliferation in the aortic adventitia. Infiltration of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and neutrophils in aortic aneurysms was found, especially at the aortic adventitia. Rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid C, or salvianolic acid B inhibited the infiltration on macrophages specifically, but these compounds did not influence T lymphocytes and neutrophils. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor significantly increased in aortic aneurysms. Rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid C decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in media, and rosmarinic acid also tended to reduce migration inhibitory factor expression. Further then, partial least squares-discriminate analysis was used to classify metabolic changes among different treatments. Rosmarinic acid affected most of the metabolites in the biosynthesis of the citrate cycle, fatty acid pathway significantly. Our present study on mice demonstrated that rosmarinic acid inhibited multiple pathological processes, which were the key features important in abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. Further study on rosmarinic acid, the novel candidate for aneurysmal therapy, should be undertaken to determine its potential for clinical use.

6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 757906, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746110

RESUMO

Peripheral nerve injuries have become a common clinical disease with poor prognosis and complicated treatments. The development of tissue engineering pointed a promising direction to produce nerve conduits for nerve regeneration. Electrical and mechanical stimulations have been incorporated with tissue engineering, since such external stimulations could promote nerve cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. However, the combination of electrical and mechanical stimulations (electromechanical stimulation) and its effects on neuron proliferation and axon outgrowth have been rarely investigated. Herein, silver nanowires (AgNWs) embedded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) electrodes were developed to study the effects of electromechanical stimulation on rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) behaviors. AgNWs/PDMS electrodes demonstrated good biocompatibility and established a stable electric field during mechanical stretching. PC12 cells showed enhanced proliferation rate and axon outgrowth under electrical stimulation alone, and the cell number significantly increased with higher electrical stimulation intensity. The involvement of mechanical stretching in electrical stimulation reduced the cell proliferation rate and axon outgrowth, compared with the case of electrical stimulation alone. Interestingly, the cellular axons outgrowth was found to depend on the stretching direction, where the axons prefer to align perpendicularly to the stretch direction. These results suggested that AgNWs/PDMS electrodes provide an in vitro platform to investigate the effects of electromechanical stimulation on nerve cell behaviors and can be potentially used for nerve regeneration in the future.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The favorable outcomes with immunotherapy for mesothelioma were somewhat unexpected since this tumor has a low tumor mutation burden which has been associated with benefit in other cancers. Since chromosomal rearrangements are common in mesothelioma and have neoantigenic potential, we sought to determine whether they are associated with survival in patients treated with immunotherapy. METHODS: Pleural biopsies of mesothelioma after at least one line of therapy were obtained from patients (n=44) prior to treatment with nivolumab alone (NCT29908324) or in combination with ipilimumab (NCT30660511). RNA and whole genome sequencing were performed to identify the junctions resulting from chromosomal rearrangements, and antigen processing and presentation gene set expression. Associations with overall survival were estimated using cox models. An overall survival cutoff of 1.5 years was used to distinguish patients with and without durable benefit for use in receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: While tumor junction burdens were not predictive of overall survival, we identified significant interactions between the junction burdens and multiple antigen processing and presentation gene sets. The "regulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen" gene set demonstrated an interaction with tumor junction burden and was predictive of overall survival. This interaction also predicted 1.5-year or greater survival with an area under the ROC of 0.83. This interaction was not predictive of survival in a separate cohort of patients with mesothelioma who did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of structural variants and antigen presentation gene set expression may facilitate patient selection for immune checkpoint inhibitors.

8.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 231, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and gallstone disease (GSD) often coexist in the general population owing to shared risk factors. This study explored the relationship between NAFLD and GSD in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 4325 patients with type 2 diabetes. GSD and NAFLD were confirmed using ultrasonography. GSD was defined as either asymptomatic gallstones or previous cholecystectomy, and each was analyzed separately. RESULT: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of GSD between patients with and without NAFLD (23.8% vs. 21.2%, P = 0.15). After case-control matching (1:1) of baseline data such as age, sex, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c between patients with and without NAFLD, there was still no significant difference in the prevalence of GSD (25.5% vs. 23.6%, P = 0.15). The prevalence of NAFLD in patients with asymptomatic gallstones was lower than that of patients without GSD (38.6% vs. 47.3%, P < 0.001), whereas the prevalence in those who had undergone cholecystectomy was much higher (61.2% vs. 47.3%, P < 0.001). The ratio of cholecystectomy to asymptomatic gallstone in patients with or without NAFLD was 1.97 and 0.79, respectively. The rate of cholecystectomy was higher in the patients with NAFLD than in those without NAFLD (15.8% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001), consistent with the result after case-control matching (17.3% vs. 11.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for numerous potential confounding factors, revealed that GSD (OR = 1.241, 95%CI: 1.036-1.488, P = 0.002) and cholecystectomy (OR = 1.946, 95%CI: 1.546-2.445, P < 0.001) were both strongly associated with NAFLD. However, asymptomatic gallstone (OR = 0.663, 95%CI: 0.513-0.856, P = 0.002) seemed to be negatively correlated with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GSD was similar in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without NAFLD. The higher proportion of cholecystectomy and lower proportion of asymptomatic gallstones in patients with NAFLD suggests that NAFLD may increase the risk of complications of GSD.

9.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113913, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation offers great potential for treating ischemic stroke. Clinically, ischemia followed by reperfusion results in robust cerebrovascular injury that upregulates proinflammatory factors, disrupts neurovascular units, and causes brain cell death. NSCs possess multiple actions that can be exploited for reducing the severity of neurovascular injury. Our previous studies in young adult mice showed that human NSC transplantation during the subacute stage diminishes stroke pathophysiology and improves behavioral outcome. METHODS: We employed a well-established and commonly used stroke model, middle cerebral artery occlusion with subsequent reperfusion (MCAO/R). Here, we assessed the outcomes of hNSC transplantation 48 h post-MCAO (24 h post-transplant) in aged mouse brains in response to stroke because aging is a crucial risk factor for cerebral ischemia. Next, we tested whether administration of the integrin α5ß1 inhibitor, ATN-161, prior to hNSC transplantation further affects stoke outcome as compared with NSCs alone. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to assess the impact of hNSC transplantation on differentially expressed genes (DEGs) on a transcriptome-wide level. RESULTS: Here, we report that hNSC-engrafted brains with or without ATN-161 showed significantly reduced infarct size, and attenuated the induction of proinflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteases. RNA-seq analysis revealed DEGs and molecular pathways by which hNSCs induce a beneficial post-stroke outcome in aged stroke brains. 811 genes were differentially expressed (651 downregulated and 160 upregulated) in hNSC-engrafted stroke brains. Functional pathway analysis identified enriched and depleted pathways in hNSC-engrafted aged mouse stroke brains. Depletion of pathways following hNSC-engraftment included signaling involving neuroinflammation, acute phase response, leukocyte extravasation, and phagosome formation. On the other hand, enrichment of pathways in hNSC-engrafted brains was associated with PPAR signaling, LXR/RXR activation, and inhibition of matrix metalloproteases. Hierarchical cluster analysis of DEGs in hNSC-engrafted brains indicate decreased expression of genes encoding TNF receptors, proinflammatory factors, apoptosis factors, adhesion and leukocyte extravasation, and Toll-like receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to show global transcripts differentially expressed following hNSC transplantation in the subacute phase of stroke in aged mice. The outcome of our transcriptome study would be useful to develop new therapies ameliorating early-stage stroke injury.

10.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783177

RESUMO

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for molecular diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy. Our purpose was to evaluate PSMA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and hepatic adenoma (HCA); investigate the genetic pathways in HCC associated with PSMA expression; and evaluate HCC detection rate with 68 Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomography (PET). In phase 1, PSMA immunohistochemistry (IHC) on HCC (n = 148), CCA (n = 111), and HCA (n = 78) was scored. In a subset (n = 30), messenger RNA (mRNA) data from the Cancer Genome Atlas HCC RNA sequencing were correlated with PSMA expression. In phase 2, 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET was prospectively performed in patients with treatment-naïve HCC on a digital PET scanner using cyclotron-produced 68 Ga. Uptake was graded qualitatively and semi-quantitatively using standard metrics. On IHC, PSMA expression was significantly higher in HCC compared with CCA and HCA (P < 0.0001); 91% of HCCs (n = 134) expressed PSMA, which principally localized to tumor-associated neovasculature. Higher tumor grade was associated with PSMA expression (P = 0.012) but there was no association with tumor size (P = 0.14), fibrosis (P = 0.35), cirrhosis (P = 0.74), hepatitis B virus (P = 0.31), or hepatitis C virus (P = 0.15). Overall survival tended to be longer in patients without versus with PSMA expression (median overall survival: 4.2 vs. 1.9 years; P = 0.273). FGF14 (fibroblast growth factor 14) mRNA expression correlated positively (rho = 0.70; P = 1.70 × 10-5 ) and MAD1L1 (Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD1) correlated negatively with PSMA expression (rho = -0.753; P = 1.58 × 10-6 ). Of the 190 patients who met the eligibility criteria, 31 patients with 39 HCC lesions completed PET; 64% (n = 25) lesions had pronounced 68 Ga-PSMA-11 standardized uptake value: SUVmax (median [range] 9.2 [4.9-28.4]), SUVmean 4.7 (2.4-12.7), and tumor-to-liver background ratio 2 (1.1-11). Conclusion: Ex vivo expression of PSMA in neovasculature of HCC translates to marked tumor avidity on 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET, which suggests that PSMA has the potential as a theranostic target in patients with HCC.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13700-13712, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752105

RESUMO

Sulfur is an element that is indispensable throughout the growth of plants. In plant cells, reactive sulfur species (RSS) play a vital role in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and signal transduction. There is demand accordingly for a simple, highly selective, and sensitive method of RSS detection and imaging for monitoring dynamic changes and clarifying the biological functions of RSS in plant systems. Fluorescent analysis based on organic small-molecule fluorescent probes is an effective and specific approach to tracking plant RSS characteristics. This perspective summarizes the recent progress regarding organic small-molecule fluorescent probes for RSS monitoring, including small-molecule biological thiols, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfane sulfurs, in plants; it also discusses their response mechanism toward RSS and their imaging applications in plants across the agricultural chemistry field.


Assuntos
Química Agrícola , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Enxofre
12.
Sci Adv ; 7(48): eabj4801, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818038

RESUMO

[Figure: see text].

13.
Waste Manag ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838375

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) contains rich resources that can be recovered by methods such as incineration, anaerobic digestion to generate heat energy, biogas, and preservation by ensiling. However, a horizontal comparison of the resource potential and environmental impact of different recycling methods employed for FVW has not been conducted. This study quantifies and computes the recycling potential and global warming potential (GWP) of anaerobic digestion, ensiling, and incineration of the FVW generated during primary production in China. First, a gray model was employed to estimate the FVW output in 2030, based on the FVW produced between 2002 and 2017. Next, the resource potential and GWP of anaerobic digestion, incineration, and ensiling were evaluated. Finally, an optimization method was utilized to analyze possible strategies of FVW recycling in 2030. Results indicate that FVW output in China is expected to increase to 170 Mt by 2030, highlighting the need for efficient treatment options. Further, the resource potential and GWP of different waste treatment strategies were notably different. The recycling potential of ensiling was the highest at 1950 MJ/t; while the GWP of anaerobic digestion was the lowest at -31 kg CO2eq. An optimization analysis suggested that the optimal target of 100% would be attained if all FVW is ensiled in 2030. The study provides a basis for informed technical decision-making related to FVW recycling options in the future.

14.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723469

RESUMO

Colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have recently emerged as one of the most promising light-emitting materials for optoelectronic devices with outstanding performance. However, the facile detachment of surface capping organic ligands from these NCs leads to very poor colloidal stability and durability. This is mainly due to the weak interfacial interactions between the inorganic perovskite core and ligands, high density of surface defect states, and aggregation of NCs. Here, using a combination of time-resolved laser spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we explored the major impact of surface orientations and terminations for both CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 NCs not only on the interfacial binding affinities with organic ligands but also on surface defect formation and NC aggregation. By rationalizing that surface trap states are responsible for the decrease in photoluminescence (PL) upon fabrication and purification, we propose a powerful ligand-engineering strategy for eliminating these trap states and preventing the aggregation of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 NCs. Interestingly, we find that the surface orientation and dimensionality determine the degree of interfacial interactions between the inorganic perovskite core and ligands and subsequently control the overall PL intensity and NC stability. Our results demonstrate that a treatment of as-synthesized CsPbBr3 NCs consisting of the addition of extra oleylammonium bromide (OAmBr) as a capping ligand, allows the CsPbBr3 NCs to retain their green emission with increased PL intensity and quantum yields and improves colloidal durability. On the other hand, the ultraviolet emissions of Cs4PbBr6 NCs are effectively increased upon addition of extra cesium oleate (CsOL) as the trap states induced by surface cesium ions are largely reduced by the formation of Cs-O bonds. Our work provides a robust and adequate ligand engineering approach to significantly enhance the optical behavior of perovskite NCs with different dimensionalities and various compositions and to achieve more efficient and stable light-harvesting devices.

15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FGFR2 genomic alterations are observed in 10-20% of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although FGFR2 fusions are an important actionable target, FGFR2 protein expression has not been thoroughly characterized. AIMS: To evaluate FGFR2 protein expression in cholangiocarcinoma harboring FGFR2 genomic alterations. METHODS: FGFR2 protein expression was evaluated in 99 CCA cases with two different antibodies. FGFR2 genomic alterations were confirmed via next-generating sequencing (NGS) or FISH. Primary objective was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of FGFR2 immunohistochemistry staining for detecting FGFR2 genomic alterations. Secondary objectives included overall FGFR2 immunohistochemistry staining in CCA patients, and evaluation of whether FGFR2 expression correlates with clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and time-to-tumor recurrence (TTR). RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry staining with two antibodies against FGFR2, FPR2-D, and clone 98706 showed high accuracy (78.7% and 91.9%) and specificity (82.9% and 97.7%), and moderate sensitivity (53.9% and 57.1%), respectively, when compared with the standard methods for detecting FGFR2 genomic alterations. In a median follow-up of 72 months, there were no statistically significant differences in OS, PFS, and TTR, for patients with positive or negative FGFR2 staining. CONCLUSION: FGFR2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry has high specificity and therefore could be used to imply the presence of FGFR2 genomic alterations in the context of a positive test. In the case of a negative test, NGS or FISH would be necessary to ascertain cases with FGFR2 genomic alterations.

16.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211049963, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between soluble scavenger receptor differentiation antigen 163 (sCD163) and the severity and prognosis of renal injury in lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Serum sCD163 levels in 121 Eastern Chinese patients with LN who underwent renal biopsy were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Clinical data were collected, and the glomerular filtration rate and disease activity score of lupus were calculated. Pathological classification was performed, and renal pathological scores were assessed by the activity index (AI) and chronic index (CI). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn to evaluate prognosis. RESULTS: The pathological classification, AI and CI scores in the high sCD163 group were increased. The sCD163 levels were positively correlated with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, AI scores and CI scores and negatively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the incidence of renal endpoint events was increased in the high sCD163 group compared with the normal sCD163 group. CONCLUSION: The serum sCD163 level correlates with the severity of LN and is an important indicator of poor renal prognosis in patients with LN.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica , Antígenos CD , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Receptores de Superfície Celular
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672456

RESUMO

Objective: The fetus has no actual respiration, and the newborn begins to breathe after birth. We assume that the first breath dominantly generated by hypoxia. In this study, the changes and lowest limit of blood oxygen partial pressureof umbilical artery (PuaO2) after chemoreceptor were analyzed to explore the mechanism of neonatal spontaneous breathing. Methods: With signed consent form by all fetal parents before birth, 14 newborns successfully completed the umbilical artery or vein catheterization and drawn blood according to the heartbeat. All blood samples analyzed by blood gas analyzer,calculated and analyzed the similarities and differences between umbilical vein(Puv) and umbilical artery(Pua). Results: Although we completed 14 newborns, there were only 9 cases of umbilical artery samples and 8 cases of umbilical vein samples were collected. Only 3 cases collected both Pua and Puv blood samples at the same time (see serial paper II). PuaO2 in gradually decreased with time (heartbeat frequency), until Pua contracted after spontaneous breathing produced about 8~10 heartbeats, and then could not get enough blood samples. Only 3 newborns were able to take blood samples after spontaneous breathing for 8~10 heartbeats, and their PuaO2 were jumped to 186.0, 137.0 and 93.8 mmHg respectively. The mean value of PuaO2 was (25.94±6.79, 18.04~37.51)mmHg, the highest value was (29.11±6.46, 23.00~45.90)mmHg, and the lowest value was (21.34±5.54, 14.00~33.60)mmHg. Although PuvO2 decreased gradually with time (heartbeat) too, most of them also showed the tendency of alternately rising and falling with the regularity of mother's respiration. The mean value of PuvO2 was (53.35±21.35, 32.56~100.73)mmHg, the highest value was (90.38±48.44, 43.40~153.00)mmHg, and the lowest value was (36.96±14.90, 24.80~73.80)mmHg. Although there were large individual differences, the mean, highest and lowest values of PuvO2 were significantly higher than those of PuaO2 (P<0.05); although PuvCO2 slightly lower than PuaCO2, it was no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: PuaO2 decreases gradually with time before spontaneous breathing after the delivered fetus as a newborn, and it induces the first inhalation to start spontaneous breathing when it reaches the threshold of triggering breathing.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Artérias Umbilicais , China , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oxigênio , Pressão Parcial
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672457

RESUMO

Objective: In order to explore the mechanism of neonatal spontaneous breathing, the difference of oxygen and carbon dioxide between umbilical cord arteries and veins before the start of spontaneous breathing after birth has been analyzed among people. In this part, the related information is analyzed individually. Methods: After all fetal parents signed the informed consent before birth, and before the newborn was born and did not breathe, the umbilical cord was exposed as quickly as possible, and the heparinized arterial indwelling needle was inserted into the umbilical artery and umbilical vein in the direction of newborn and placenta, and then blood was taken continuously. Although dozens of mothers were selected,but only 3 cases were collected from Pua and Puv blood samplers at the same time for blood gas analysis and determination, and the differences and dynamic changes of umbilical vein and umbilical artery were calculated and analyzed. Results: In all 3 none spontaneous breathing newborns,PuvO2 was significantly higher than PuaO2 at the same time (P<0.01), with an average difference of (24.17±7.09) mmHg; while PuvCO2 was significantly lower than PuaCO2 (all P<0.01), with an average difference of (-7.67±3.70) mmHg.The difference of Puv-uaO2 was significantly higher than those of Puv-uaCO2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: PuaO2 decreases gradually with time (heartbeat frequency) before spontaneous breathing after the delivered fetus as a newborn, and it induces the first inhalation to start spontaneous breathing when it reaches the threshold of triggering breathing.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Artérias Umbilicais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oxigênio , Pressão Parcial , Gravidez
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672460

RESUMO

Objective: The arterial blood with the oscillatory information comes from the right heart system after gas exchanging in the lung. However, the evidence of the waveform of venous ABG is lack. The objectives of this article are to compare the different information between arterial and venous beat-by-beat blood sample at the same time. Methods: Six post-operative patients with normal heart function and negative Allen test, had been placed the arterial catheterization and central venous catheterization directly connected to pre-heparin plasticpipes for continuous collecting arterial and venous blood. We twisted the 2 pipes into helix formation. After drawing arterial and venous blood with syringes in one heart beat with one helix at the same time, totally 15 heart beats, clipping the pipes with forceps, we put the helix pipe into icedwater at once and analyses PaO2, PaCO2, pH and SaO2 as soon as possible. We selected two breathscycles of waveform from each patient for data calculations of magnitudes and time interval. Results: The heart beat numbers for drawing blood into pipe were 15~16, and all covered more than 2 breathing cycles. There were significant changes of arterial PaO2(i.e. the highest high values compare to the next lowestvalues, P<0.05), but no significant changes in venous blood(P>0.05). The magnitudes of changing PaO2 in arterial and venous blood sample were (9.96±5.18)mmHg and (1.63±0.41)mmHg with significant variance(P=0.010), and they were (8.09±2.43)% and (3.91±1.22)%from their mean with significant variance(P=0.009) respectively. Conclusion: With continuous beat-by-beat arterial and venous blood sampling and ABG analyzing method at the same time, we obtain a clear evidence of periodic parameters ABG waveform, which following breathing cycle, but no clear ABG waveform of the periodic parameters in the venous blood samples, which implies the oscillatory information of the arterial blood with comes from the gas exchanging in the lung.


Assuntos
Artérias , Corpo Humano , Gasometria , Humanos , Respiração , Veias
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672461

RESUMO

Objective: The objective is to find the characteristics of arterial blood sample waveform in different respiration models. Methods: Six post-operative patients with normal heart function and negative Allen test, were 4 male and 2 female, (59.00±16.64)year, (71.67±0.37)kg, left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) (61.33±2.16)%, had been placed the arterial catheterization and central venous catheterization for continuous collecting arterial in 3 different kinds of respiration models: normal breathing, no breathing and deep breathing. We selected two breaths cycles of waveform from each patient for data calculations of magnitudes and time interval. Compare the adjacent highest and lowest values of patients to verify whether there are periodic wave-like signal changes in arterial and venous blood gas in the three breathing states. In addition, statistical t-test analysis was performed on the change amplitude of the periodic wave-like signal of the patient's arterial and venous blood gas to compare whether there is a difference. Results: The heart beat numbers for drawing blood into pipe were 15-16, and all covered more than 2 breathing cycles. There were significant changes of arterial PaO2 (i.e. the highest high values compare to the next lowest values, P<0.05) in three different breathing models(normal, no breathing and high breathing), the magnitudes of which were (9.96±5.18)mmHg, (5.33±1.55)mmHg and (13.13±7.55)mmHg, with (8.09±2.43)%, (5.29±2.19)% and (10.40±2.68)% from their mean respectively. PO2 in venous blood gas did not show wavy changes under normal breathing, 20 s breath holding and high tidal volume ventilation. The amplitudes were (1.63 ± 0.41) mmHg, (1.13 ± 0.41) mmHg and (1.31 ± 0.67) mmHg, which were (3.91 ± 1.22)%, (2.92 ± 1.12)%, (3.33 ± 1.81)%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of arterial blood gas under the same state, but there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: With continuous beat-by-beat arterial blood sampling and ABG analyzing method in three different breathing models, We obtain a clear evidence of the biggest periodic parameters ABG waveform in high breathing models, which followed by normal breathing models, no breathing was the smallest, and the wave variation amplitude of venous oxygen partial pressure was not obvious in the three respiratory states, which implies the oscillatory information of the arterial blood with comes from the gas exchanging in the lung.


Assuntos
Respiração , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Gasometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Sistólico , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
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