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1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111834, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358501

RESUMO

Age-specific discrepancy of mortality burden attributed to temperature, measured as years of life lost (YLL), has been rarely investigated. We investigated age-specific temperature-YLL rates (per 100,000) relationships and quantified YLL per death caused by non-optimal temperature in China. We collected daily meteorological data, population data and daily death counts from 364 locations in China during 2006-2017. YLL was divided into three age groups (0-64 years, 65-74 years, and ≥75 years). A distributed lag non-linear model was first employed to estimate the associations of temperature with age-specific YLL rates in each location. Then we pooled the associations using a multivariate meta-analysis. Finally, we calculated age-specific average YLL per death caused by temperature by cause of death and region. We observed greater effects of cold and hot temperature on YLL rates for the elderly compared with the young population by region or cause of death. However, YLL per death due to non-optimal temperature for different regions or causes of death decreased with age, with 2.0 (95 % CI:1.5, 2.5), 1.2 (1.1, 1.4) and 1.0 years (0.9, 1.2) life loss per death for populations aged 0-64 years, 65-74 years and over 75 years, respectively. Most life loss per death results from moderate temperature, especially moderate cold for all age groups. The effect of non-optimal temperature on YLL rates is smaller for younger populations than older ones, while the temperature-related life loss per death was more prominent for younger populations.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118392, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678392

RESUMO

The short-term effects of ambient temperature on mortality have been widely investigated. However, the epidemiological evidence on the long-term effects of temperature on mortality is rare. In present study, we conducted a nationwide quasi-experimental design, which based on a variant of difference-in-differences (DID) approach, to examine the association between long-term exposure to ambient temperature and mortality risk in China, and to analyze the effect modification of population characteristics and socioeconomic status. Data on mortality were collected from 364 communities across China during 2006-2017, and environmental data were obtained for the same period. We estimated a 2.93 % (95 % CI: 2.68 %, 3.18 %) increase in mortality risk per 1 °C decreases in annual temperature, the greater effects were observed on respiratory diseases (5.16 %, 95 % CI: 4.53 %, 5.79 %) than cardiovascular diseases (3.43 %, 95 % CI: 3.06 %, 3.80 %), and on younger people (4.21 %, 95 % CI: 3.73 %, 4.68 %) than the elderly (2.36 %, 95 % CI: 2.06 %, 2.65 %). In seasonal analysis, per 1 °C decreases in average temperature was associated with 1.55 % (95 % CI: 1.23 %, 1.87 %), -0.53 % (95 % CI: -0.89 %, -0.16 %), 2.88 % (95 % CI: 2.45 %, 3.31 %) and 4.21 % (95 % CI: 3.98 %, 4.43 %) mortality change in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. The effects of long-term temperature on total mortality were more pronounced among the communities with low urbanization, low education attainment, and low GDP per capita. In total, the decrease of average temperature in summer decreased mortality risk, while increased mortality risk in other seasons, and the associations were modified by demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status. Our findings suggest that populations with disadvantaged characteristics and socioeconomic status are vulnerable to long-term exposure of temperature, and targeted policies should be formulated to strengthen the response to the health threats of temperature exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130857, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425341

RESUMO

In this study, the proteins glycinin (11S) and ß-conglycinin (7S) were mixed with soyasaponin (Ssa) Ab/Bb to form a composite system. We used fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectra to demonstrate the changes in the surrounding environment and the structure of the proteins. Dynamic interface behavior analysis showed the possible interface behavior induced by the composite system. The interactions between Ssa and the proteins, along with the mode of action, were analyzed by molecular docking. The interactions between Ssa and soy protein increased with the change in concentration. The interactions between the two proteins were mediated by tryptophan (Trp) and primarily involved hydrogen bonds, which changed the microenvironment and loosened the protein structure. These results helped in understanding the mechanism underlying the interactions between Ssa Ab/Bb and 7S/11S. Furthermore, these results highlighted the theoretical fundamentals for the future applications of composite systems as surfactants in the food industry.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Proteínas de Soja , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes , Soja
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130855, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496334

RESUMO

Contents of 20 bioactive compounds in 12 teas produced in Xinyang Region were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry was developed for untargeted metabolomics analysis. Antioxidant activities were measured by 4 various assays. Those teas could be completely divided into green and white tea through principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and orthonormal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (R2Y = 0.996 and Q2 = 0.982, respectively). The prolonged withering generated 472 differentiated metabolites between white and green tea, prompted significant decreases (variable importance in the projection > 1.0, p-value < 0.05 and fold change > 1.50) of most catechins and 8 phenolic acids to form 4 theaflavins, and benefited for the accumulation of 17 flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, 8 flavanone and their derivatives, 20 free amino acids, 12 sugars and 1 purine alkaloid. Additionally, kaempferol and taxifolin contributed to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability of white tea.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Chá , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Protein Cell ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800266

RESUMO

In vitro studies have established the prevalent theory that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 protects neurodegeneration by removing damaged mitochondria in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, difficulty in detecting endogenous PINK1 protein in rodent brains and cell lines has prevented the rigorous investigation of the in vivo role of PINK1. Here we report that PINK1 kinase form is selectively expressed in the human and monkey brains. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deficiency of PINK1 causes similar neurodegeneration in the brains of fetal and adult monkeys as well as cultured monkey neurons without affecting mitochondrial protein expression and morphology. Importantly, PINK1 mutations in the primate brain and human cells reduce protein phosphorylation that is important for neuronal function and survival. Our findings suggest that PINK1 kinase activity rather than its mitochondrial function is essential for the neuronal survival in the primate brains and that its kinase dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of PD.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728477

RESUMO

This paper describes the lessons from scaling up a verbal autopsy (VA) intervention to improve data about causes of death according to a nine-domain framework: governance, design, operations, human resources, financing, infrastructure, logistics, information technologies and data quality assurance. We use experiences from China, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines and Solomon Islands to explore how VA has been successfully implemented in different contexts, to guide other countries in their VA implementation. The governance structure for VA implementation comprised a multidisciplinary team of technical experts, implementers and staff at different levels within ministries. A staged approach to VA implementation involved scoping and mapping of death registration processes, followed by pretest and pilot phases which allowed for redesign before a phased scale-up. Existing health workforce in countries were trained to conduct the VA interviews as part of their routine role. Costs included training and compensation for the VA interviewers, information technology (IT) infrastructure costs, advocacy and dissemination, which were borne by the funding agency in early stages of implementation. The complexity of the necessary infrastructure, logistics and IT support required for VA increased with scale-up. Quality assurance was built into the different phases of the implementation. VA as a source of cause of death data for community deaths will be needed for some time. With the right technical and political support, countries can scale up this intervention to ensure ongoing collection of quality and timely information on community deaths for use in health planning and better monitoring of national and global health goals.

7.
Anal Methods ; 13(44): 5293-5298, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730131

RESUMO

Most biosensors for folate receptor (FR) detection based on folic acid (FA) recognition usually contain FA-linked single-strand DNA (FA-ssDNA) and nuclease to promote sensitivity, which increases expenses and involves complicated assay processes. A few electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensors that do not use FA-ssDNA and nuclease directly graft FA onto an ECL nanomaterial through covalent bonding for FR detection. In this study, we used FA-ssDNA to non-covalently graft FA onto π-conjugated ECL nanomaterial graphene oxide (GO)/perylene-aniline for fabricating ultrasensitive FR sensors without nuclease. 3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and aniline (An) self-assembled into π-conjugated nanorods, which were then loaded onto GO. This material was reported to produce 673 nm-dominated ECL with the co-reactant K2S2O8, and was used as an ECL platform. FA-modified Poly-dA-ssDNA (FA-Poly-dA-ssDNA) molecules, consisting of 20 bases, were attached to the surface of GO/PTCDA-An to capture FR. A significant decrease of ECL intensity was observed due to the steric hindrance of FR. The proposed sensors exhibited high detection sensitivity with a linear range from 1 fg mL-1 to 1 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.636 fg mL-1. The sensors also showed good potential in real sample detection. Without introducing nuclease and complicated chemical reactions, this work provides a new sensing strategy for protein detection based on molecular recognition, which is extremely important in clinical diagnosis.

8.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2973-2981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744434

RESUMO

Background: To examine trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality and years of life lost (YLL) due to COPD for all provinces in China during 2005-2020. Methods: Data for COPD mortality were derived from China National Mortality Surveillance System (NMSS). We analyzed the numbers and age-standardized rates of death and YLL due to COPD in China, during 2005-2020. We carried out decomposition analysis to analyze the drivers of change in COPD deaths during the study period. Results: The age-standardized mortality rate of COPD in China decreased significantly from 99.5/100,000 in 2005 to 50.5/100,000 in 2020. Similar trend was seen in the age-standardized YLL rate. The mortality rate increased with age. During 2005-2020, the age-standardized mortality rate decreased in all provinces (except for Tibet) with the largest decline in Jilin (-77.8%), Henan (-68.4%) and Fujian (-67.1%). The decreased number of deaths was decomposed as population growth (8.5%) and population ageing (69.7%) with offset by decline of age-specific mortality (-87.5%). Conclusion: COPD remains an important public health problem in China, though significant reductions of COPD mortality and YLL rate were observed. Vigorous prevention and control strategies should be enhanced to improve the quality of life of COPD patients and reduce the premature death caused by COPD in Chinese population.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Envelhecimento , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade , Mortalidade Prematura , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
9.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(11): 100604, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820052

RESUMO

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic disease with growing prevalence and has become a global public health problem. However, little is known about the burden caused by AD in China. Objective: To access the prevalence and burden of AD in China. Methods: We estimated the prevalence and year lived with disability (YLD) of AD in China, by different age and sex groups. We also compared the burden of AD in China with other countries in the Group of Twenty (G20). We analyzed the changes in the number of AD patients and their YLDs by cause decomposition from 1990 to 2019. Results: AD was the twenty-fourth leading cause of the burden of 369 diseases in China in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized prevalence and YLD rate of AD in China increased by 1.04% and 1.43% respectively, which were the second and the largest increase among the G20 and both higher than the global average (-4.29% and -4.14%). The number of patients with AD increased by 25.65%, of which 20.16% was due to population growth, 3.85% due to population aging, and 1.64% due to age-specific prevalence. Both the prevalence and YLD rate of AD were higher in 1 to 4 year-olds and 95+ years age group. Before the age of 10, the prevalence and YLD rate of AD in males were higher than those in females, while there was a marked sex shift at the ages of 10 to 14. Conclusion: AD is a serious public health problem in China. Substantial variations exist in burden due to AD between male and female, and in age groups. Considering these findings will be important for developing preventive strategies and treatments to reduce the burden of AD.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(46): 19317-19329, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762804

RESUMO

GFP-like fluorescent proteins and their molecular mimics have revolutionized bioimaging research, but their emissions are largely limited in the visible to far-red region, hampering the in vivo applications in intact animals. Herein, we structurally modulate GFP-like chromophores using a donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A') molecular configuration to discover a set of novel fluorogenic derivatives with infrared-shifted spectra. These chromophores can be fluorescently elicited by their specific interaction with G-quadruplex (G4), a unique noncanonical nucleic acid secondary structure, via inhibition of the chromophores' twisted-intramolecular charge transfer. This feature allows us to create, for the first time, FP mimics with tunable emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region (Emmax = 664-705 nm), namely, infrared G-quadruplex mimics of FPs (igMFP). Compared with their FP counterparts, igMFPs exhibit remarkably higher quantum yields, larger Stokes shift, and better photostability. In a proof-of-concept application using pathogen-related G4s as the target, we exploited igMFPs to directly visualize native hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome in living cells via their in situ formation by the chromophore-bound viral G4 structure in the HCV core gene. Furthermore, igMFPs are capable of high contrast HCV RNA imaging in living mice bearing a HCV RNA-presenting mini-organ, providing the first application of FP mimics in whole-animal imaging.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796159

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated risk factors among the general Chinese population. Methods: We carried out a nationwide study including 24,117 participants aged 60 years and older in China using a multistage clustered sampling. Dementia and AD were diagnosed according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the criteria issued by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. Face-to-face interviews were administered by the trained interviewers to obtain information on demographics, lifestyle factors, and previous diseases. Results: The overall weighted prevalence of dementia was 4.22% (95%CI 2.27-6.17%) for people aged 60 years and older, was higher in women than in men and increased with age. Daily tea drinking and daily exercises were the protective factors for both dementia and AD. Engaging in social and intellectual activities was significantly associated with a lower risk of dementia and AD. Conclusions: A large number of population with dementia posed a significant challenge to China where the population is rapidly aging. The increase of public awareness, building more care facilities, and training dementia specialists and professional caregivers are all urgently needed and should be the future priorities of dementia care in China.

12.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(12): e897-e906, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the temporal trend of the disease burden of stroke and its attributable risk factors in China, especially at provincial levels, is important for effective prevention strategies and improvement. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) is to investigate the disease burden of stroke and its risk factors at national and provincial levels in China from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Following the methodology in the GBD 2019, the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of stroke cases in the Chinese population were estimated by sex, age, year, stroke subtypes (ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, and subarachnoid haemorrhage), and across 33 provincial administrative units in China from 1990 to 2019. Attributable mortality and DALYs of underlying risk factors were calculated by a comparative risk assessment. FINDINGS: In 2019, there were 3·94 million (95% uncertainty interval 3·43-4·58) new stroke cases in China. The incidence rate of stroke increased by 86·0% (73·2-99·0) from 1990, reaching 276·7 (241·3-322·0) per 100 000 population in 2019. The age-standardised incidence rate declined by 9·3% (3·3-15·5) from 1990 to 2019. Among 28·76 million (25·60-32·21) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019, 24·18 million (20·80-27·87) were ischaemic stroke, 4·36 million (3·69-5·05) were intracerebral haemorrhage, and 1·58 million (1·32-1·91) were subarachnoid haemorrhage. The prevalence rate increased by 106·0% (93·7-118·8) and age-standardised prevalence rate increased by 13·2% (7·7-19·1) from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, there were 2·19 million (1·89-2·51) deaths and 45·9 million (39·8-52·3) DALYs due to stroke. The mortality rate increased by 32·3% (8·6-59·0) from 1990 to 2019. Over the same period, the age-standardised mortality rate decreased by 39·8% (28·6-50·7) and the DALY rate decreased by 41·6% (30·7-50·9). High systolic blood pressure, ambient particulate matter pollution exposure, smoking, and diet high in sodium were four major risk factors for stroke burden in 2019. Moreover, we found marked differences of stroke burden and attributable risk factors across provinces in China from 1990 to 2019. INTERPRETATION: The disease burden of stroke is still severe in China, although the age-standardised incidence and mortality rates have decreased since 1990. The stroke burden in China might be reduced through blood pressure management, lifestyle interventions, and air pollution control. Moreover, because substantial heterogeneity of stroke burden existed in different provinces, improved health care is needed in provinces with heavy stroke burden. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China and Taikang Yicai Public Health and Epidemic Control Fund.

13.
JOR Spine ; 4(3): e1151, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611586

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the three-dimensional (3D) changes of the spinal canal length (SCL) after corrective surgeries and their association with the radiographic and clinical outcomes of idiopathic scoliosis patients. The length of the spinal cord has been demonstrated to be strongly correlated with the SCL. Understanding the changes in SCL could help determine the morphologic changes in the spinal cord to prevent spinal cord injury. Methods: Twenty-seven scoliotic patients' 3D spinal canal were investigated using computed tomography images. The SCL between the upper and lower end vertebrae (U/L-EV) was measured at five locations. The radiographic parameters of each patient and the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) scores were also collected. The correlations of the changes of the SCLs with the other factors were analyzed. Results: The SCL between the U/L-EV changed non-uniformly at different locations. The post-operative SCLs were significantly elongated by 7.5 ± 3.5 mm (6.0 ± 2.5%, P < .001) at the concave side and compressed by -2.6 ± 2.6 mm (-1.9 ± 1.9%, P < .001) at the convex side. The elongations of the SCL at the concave and posterior locations were correlated with the radiographic parameters including the pre-operative main Cobb angles (r = .511, P = .006; r = .613, P = .001) and apical vertebral translation (AVT) (r = .481, P = .011; r = .684, P = .000). No PRO scores were found to correlate with the SCL changes. Conclusion: The corrective surgeries elongated the spinal canal mainly at the concave side and compressed at the convex side. The main thoracic Cobb angle, the changes of AVT, and Cobb angles were moderately associated with the changes of the SCLs, but no PRO score was found to associate with the changes of the SCLs. The data could be instrumental for the improvement of corrective surgeries that are aimed to maximize the correction of scoliosis and minimize the negative effect on the spinal cord to prevent neurological complications.

15.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(23): 485-489, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594919

RESUMO

What is already known about this topic? Previous studies have mainly focused on the relationship between temperature and mortality from stroke, but analysis on the effects on years of life lost (YLL) is limited. What is added by this report? YLLs were used as the health outcome, and cold and hot weather were found to be significantly associated with an increase in YLLs from stroke and for different groups, with a stronger effect found to be associated with low temperature. What are the implications for public health practice? These findings could help identify vulnerable regions and populations that have a more serious temperature-related burden and to guide the practical and effective measures for stroke control from a YLL perspective.

16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenol oxidative pathway during fermentation remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of fermentation on phenol conversion, we investigated the effects of fermentation temperature and duration on the conversion of catechins and the formation of theasinensins (TSs), theaflavins (TFs), thearubigins (TRs), and theabrownins (TBs). RESULTS: During fermentation, TSs formation increased initially and then decreased. Long fermentation durations were unfavorable for liquor brightness (LB) and resulted in the production of large amounts of TRs and TBs. Low fermentation temperatures (20 °C and 25 °C) favored the maintenance of polyphenol oxidase activity and the continuous formation of TFs, TSs, and TRSI (a TRs fraction), resulting in better LB and liquor color. Higher temperatures (30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C) resulted in higher peroxidase activity, higher oxidative depletion rates of catechins, and excessive production of TRSII (a TRs fraction) and TBs. Analysis of the conversion pathway of polyphenolic compounds during fermentation showed that, during early fermentation, large amounts of catechins were oxidized and converted to TFs and theasinensin B. As fermentation progressed, considerable amounts of theaflavin-3'-gallate, theasinensin A, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, and theasinensin C were produced and then converted to TRSI; in the final stage, TRSII and TBs were converted continuously. CONCLUSION: Different fermentation temperature and duration combinations directly affected the type and composition of phenolic compounds. The key conditions for controlling phenolic compound conversion and fermentation direction were 60 or 90 min and 25 or 30 °C. Our study provides insights into the regulation of phenolic compound conversion during black tea fermentation. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for surgical failure after gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) in juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG). DESIGN: Prospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Seventy eyes of 70 patients with JOAG underwent GATT as the initial surgery. Surgical success was defined as a post-operative intraocular pressure (IOP) of ≤21 mmHg with at least a 20% reduction from pre-operative IOP with or without the use of anti-glaucoma medication (qualified and complete success, respectively) at each post-operative visit. IOP spike was defined as IOP >30 mmHg and an increase of at least 10 mmHg from IOP prior to the spike, and then reduced to ≤21 mmHg. RESULTS: The median age at the time of surgery was 19.3 (range: 4.9-37.5) years with a visual field mean deviation (MD) -17.4±10.6 dB. Mean IOP decreased from 31.3±9.5 mmHg pre-operatively to 15.8±2.7 at 12 months post-operatively. The complete and qualified success rates were 74.3% and 91.4%, respectively. Fifty-two (74%) eyes had an IOP spike with a median spike duration of 3.5 days (range 1-21). Longer duration of IOP spike (P=0.009) and older age at the time of surgery (P=0.025) were both associated with worse surgical outcomes. Advanced disease was associated with prolonged IOP spike (P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: GATT provided excellent outcomes in patients with severe JOAG. Older age and longer duration of post-operative IOP spike are risk factors for failure. Severe cases are more likely to have longer durations of IOP spike. Frequent IOP monitoring during the early post-operative period is needed to detect IOP spikes in these patients.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(20): 11227-11248, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661214

RESUMO

Despite significant advances, the therapeutic impact of photodynamic therapy is still substantially hampered by the restricted penetration depth of light and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated toxicity, which is impeded by the shorter effective half-life and radius of ROS produced during treatment. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT), on the other hand, provides unrivalled benefits in deep-seated tumour ablation due to its deep penetration depth and not totally ROS-dependent toxicity, exhibiting enormous preclinical and clinical potential. In this tutorial review, we highlight imaging-guided precise SDT, which allows choosing the best treatment option and monitoring the therapy response in real-time, as well as recent clinical trials based on SDT. Aside from that, the subtle design strategies of sonosensitizers based on tumour environment shaping and rational structure modification, as well as SDT combination treatment (chemotherapy, chemodynamic therapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, gas therapy and immunotherapy), aimed at a more effective treatment outcome, are summarized. Finally, we discussed the future of SDT for personalized cancer and other disease treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Terapia por Ultrassom , Biotecnologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
20.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 16452-16468, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609842

RESUMO

Controlling excitonic energy transfer at the molecular level is a key requirement for transitioning nanophotonics research to viable devices with the main inspiration coming from biological light-harvesting antennas that collect and direct light energy with near-unity efficiency using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Among putative FRET processes, point-to-plane FRET between donors and acceptors arrayed in two-dimensional sheets is predicted to be particularly efficient with a theoretical 1/r4 energy transfer distance (r) dependency versus the 1/r6 dependency seen for a single donor-acceptor interaction. However, quantitative validation has been confounded by a lack of robust experimental approaches that can rigidly place dyes in the required nanoscale arrangements. To create such assemblies, we utilize a DNA brick scaffold, referred to as a DNA block, which incorporates up to five two-dimensional planes with each displaying from 1 to 12 copies of five different donor, acceptor, or intermediary relay dyes. Nanostructure characterization along with steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic data were combined with molecular dynamics modeling and detailed numerical simulations to compare the energy transfer efficiencies observed in the experimental DNA block assemblies to theoretical expectations. Overall, we demonstrate clear signatures of sheet regime FRET, and from this we provide a better understanding of what is needed to realize the benefits of such energy transfer in artificial dye networks along with FRET-based sensing and imaging.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Nanoestruturas , Corantes , DNA , Análise Espectral
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