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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 779-788, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383073

RESUMO

N and F co-doped La-TiO2 (La-TONF) samples were prepared through the solvothermal method by using HMT and NaF as precursors. The obtained samples were characterized by UV-Vis DRS, XRD, XPS and PL measurements for light-harvesting properties, crystal phase and optical characteristics, respectively. Interestingly, the TONF sample had a different fluorescence emission intensity than the TON or TOF samples, thus suggesting a clear synergistic effect of N and F co-doping. The optimal doping amount of La was 2 wt.%, and the absorption edge was red-shifted from 453 nm to 464 nm for La-TiO2 and La-TONF. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of MO and oxidation of TMB under visible light irradiation. La-TONF exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and a degradation rate of 92.4%, 4.4 times that of undoped TiO2 (20.8%). The photocatalytic degradation activity remained above 85.8%, even after five runs. In addition, the MO photodegradation catalyzed by La-TONF followed first order kinetics. According these results, a possible synergistic effect mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic performance is proposed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514140

RESUMO

There have been significant advances in capturing gigapixel panoramas (GPP). However, solutions for viewing GPPs on head-mounted displays (HMDs) are lagging: an immersive experience requires ultra-fast rendering while directly loading a GPP onto the GPU is infeasible due to limited texture memory capacity. In this paper, we present a novel out-of-core rendering technique that supports not only classic panning, tilting, and zooming but also dynamic refocusing for viewing a GPP on HMD. Inspired by the network package transmission mechanisms in distributed visualization, our approach employs hierarchical image tiling and on-demand data updates across the main and the GPU memory. We further present a multi-resolution rendering scheme and a refocused light field rendering technique based on RGBD GPPs with minimal memory overhead. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that our technique is highly efficient and reliable, able to achieve ultra-high frame rates (> 50 fps) even on low-end GPUs. With an embedded gaze tracker, our technique enables immersive panorama viewing experiences with unprecedented resolutions, field-of-view, and focus variations while maintaining smooth spatial, angular, and focal transitions.

3.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411769

RESUMO

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a kind of additive flame retardants (FRs) and was found to affect early embryonic development in zebrafish; however, there are few studies to investigate whether TDCPP will disturb the development of early mouse embryos. In our studies, we used mouse embryos as models to study the toxicology of TDCPP on the early embryos. The results showed that TDCPP disturbed the development of early mouse embryos in a dose-dependent manner. 10 µM TDCPP decreased the blastocyst formation and 100 µM TDCPP was a lethal concentration for the mouse embryos. We proved that TDCPP was detrimental to embryonic development potential by increasing the reactive oxygen species level and inducing early apoptosis. Furthermore, TDCPP changed the DNA methylation patterns of imprinted genes in treated blastocysts. The methylation of H19 and Snrpn promoter regions was increased from 37.67% to 46.00% and 31.56% to 44.38% in treated groups, respectively. In contrast, Peg3 promoter region methylation was declined from 86.55% to 73.27% in treated embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TDCPP could adversely impair the early embryonic development in mouse. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
Nanotechnology ; 30(43): 434001, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320601

RESUMO

Preparation of a p-n heterojunction with hierarchical structure is of great significance for photocatalysis due to its large specific surface area, abundant active sites and increased charge separation rate. Herein, we designed the novel p-n heterojunction photocatalyst TiO2/SnO microflower (TiO2/F-SnO) with hierarchical architecture by decorating TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the SnO microflower via a simple hydrothermal route. Compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/SnO with a microplate structure (TiO2/P-SnO), TiO2/F-SnO heterojunctions exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic performances for organics removal such as toluidine blue O (TBO) and methylene blue (MB) under daylight fluorescent lamp irradiation (350-800 nm). The improved performance was not only ascribed to the promoted charge transfer and separation efficiency induced by the formation of p-n junction, but also attributed to the larger specific surface area, sufficient active sites and stronger redox ability provided by the hierarchical microflowers. Moreover, after three photocatalytic cycles (24 h), the TiO2/SnO heterojunction still exhibited a stable photocatalytic activity. Finally, the photocatalytic enhancement mechanism for the TiO2/SnO heterojunction was proposed based on band alignments calculation and the active species trapping experiments.

5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(7): 582-598, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307968

RESUMO

Gene editing is a genetic manipulation technology which utilizes bacterial nucleases to accurately and efficiently modify DNA or RNA. Gene editing has broad applications in basic research, breeding, and drug screening, and it is gaining validity and applicability to the therapy of many diseases especially genetic-based disease. In this review, we summarize the development of gene editing technology, its different strategies and applications in the treatment of disease, and the research of gene editing therapy for genetic diseases (including base editor and epigenetic regulation) in the treatment of disorders and diseases of the blood system, liver, muscle and nervous system. Finally, we discuss the future development prospects of gene editing therapy.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/tendências , Terapia Genética , Doença , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(30): 26898-26908, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268294

RESUMO

Noble metals usually work as the cocatalyst for photocatalytic water splitting, but their rare and expensive properties narrowed their wide development. Transition-metal sulfides have appeared to be promising non-noble metal cocatalysts in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) to meet future energy demands. Meanwhile, many studies focus on the fabrication of bimetallic catalysts because of their remarkably superior catalytic activity compared with monometallic substances. Herein, amorphous bimetallic cobalt nickel sulfide (CoNiSx) was fabricated to work as a cocatalyst in the photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction, which can couple with pristine graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). CoNiSx-CN exhibits a larger specific surface area compared with g-C3N4, making it possess more reaction active sites. Moreover, the contacted interface in the CoNiSx-CN composite photocatalyst contributes to higher separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers, which was proved by experimental and theoretical calculations. More importantly, the theoretical calculation also verified that CoNiSx-CN has relatively closer Gibbs free energy to zero than pure g-C3N4 and corresponding monometallic cocatalyzed g-C3N4. Therefore, the prepared CoNiSx-CN composite exhibited a dramatic photocatalytic HER performance of 2.366 µmol mg-1 h-1, which is about 76-fold higher in comparison with pristine g-C3N4 and comparable to g-C3N4 with Pt as a cocatalyst under 420 nm light irradiation. This study reveals a promising and efficient bimetallic cocatalyst for the photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction.

7.
Gene ; 680: 51-58, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243935

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been wildly verified to modulate multiple tumorigeneses, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In present study, we aim to investigate the role of LINC00319 in the NPC carcinogenesis. It was indicated that LINC00319 was markedly increased in NPC tissues and cells in comparison to their corresponding controls. Moreover, the aberrant overexpression of LINC00319 indicated the poor prognosis of NPC patients. Silence of LINC00319 was able to suppress NPC cell growth in vitro while overexpression of LINC00319 inversed this process. Moreover, in vivo tumor xenografts were established using CNE-1/SUNE-1 cells to investigate the function of LINC00319 in NSCLC tumorigenesis. Rescue assay was performed to further confirm that LINC00319 contributed to NPC progression by regulating miR-1207-5p/KLF12 signal pathway. Taken together, our study discovered the oncogenic role of LINC00319 in clinical specimens and cellular experiments, showing the potential LINC00319/miR-1207-5p/KLF12 pathway. This results and findings provide a novel insight for NPC tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Camundongos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Transplante de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
8.
Cell Cycle ; 17(21-22): 2436-2446, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382773

RESUMO

SURVIVIN is an essential chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) subunit and participates in cell division. In this study, we used porcine oocyte as a model to investigate the roles of Survivin during porcine oocyte maturation. Survivin was highly expressed in germinal vesicle (GV) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stages oocytes, mainly localized in the GV at GV stage and on the chromosomes after GVBD. We have used RNA interference to specifically deplete Survivin in oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM). Immunofluorescence assay showed that Survivin-depleted oocytes failed to produce polar body in meiosisⅠ (failed to complete cytokinesis), and they were arrested in metaphaseⅠwith misaligned chromosomes. The homologous chromosomes in Survivin-depleted oocytes could not be separated normally. Moreover, both the phosphorylation levels of Aurora B and the mRNA level of Mad2L1 related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) was decreased in Survivin-depleted oocytes, which thus inhibited the degradation of Cyclin B1 (CCNB1) to complete meiosis. Taken together, we conclude that Survivin is an important mediator of centromere and midbody docking of Aurora-B as well as its activity and regulates SAC and MPF activity during meiosis in porcine oocytes.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14927, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297787

RESUMO

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has markedly increased. Our research findings during the past showed that medicinal plant extracts and the derived phytochemical components from Wedelia chinensis (WC) can have strong anti-colitis activities. Here, we further identified the key component phytochemicals from active fractions of different WC preparations (WCHA) that are responsible for the protective effect of WCHA in colitis mice. Of the 3 major compounds (wedelolactone, luteolin and apigenin) in this fraction, luteolin had the highest anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. Using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) (e.g., RNA-seq) system to analyze the transcriptome of colorectal cells/tissues in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis with/without phytochemicals treatment, luteolin was found to strongly suppress the DSS-activated IL-17 pathway in colon tissue. In addition, co-treatment with wedelolactone and luteolin had a synergistic effect on the expression level of some IL-17 pathway-related genes. Interestingly, our NGS analyses also indicated that luteolin and wedelolactone can specifically suppress the expression of NLRP3 and NLRP1. Using a 3-dimensional cell co-culture system, we further demonstrated that luteolin could efficiently suppress NLRP3 expression via disruption of IL-17A signaling in inflamed colon tissue, which also indicates the pharmacological potential of luteolin and wedelolactone in treating IBD.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 47(20): 7070-7076, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744502

RESUMO

Ca-Bridged siloxenes (Ca-siloxenes) composed of two-dimensional siloxene planes with Ca bridging were prepared and their photocatalytic properties for nitrogen oxide (NO) removal were investigated. Ca-Siloxenes were synthesized via a solid-state metathesis reaction using TaCl5 to extract Ca from CaSi2 with different Cl2/Ca molar ratios of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 (CS0.25, CS1.25 and CS2.5, respectively) in an attempt to control the extent of Ca extraction. Ca-Siloxenes have a wide optical absorption band from the visible to ultraviolet region with absorption edges of 1.5, 2.9, and 3.1 eV for CS0.25, CS1.25, and CS2.5, respectively. Ca-Siloxenes exhibited photocatalytic activity for NO removal under irradiation with visible (λ > 400 nm (<3.10 eV)) and ultraviolet light (λ > 290 nm (<4.28 eV)). The photocatalytic activity was particularly improved by mixing the Ca-siloxene with acetylene black as a conductive material, which might have inhibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The mixture of Ca-siloxene and acetylene black exhibited improved photocatalytic activity in the presence of 1O2 as one of the active oxygen species formed under ultraviolet light irradiation.

12.
World J Surg Oncol ; 16(1): 76, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MiR-182-5p, as a member of miRNA family, can be detected in lung cancer and plays an important role in lung cancer. To explore the clinical value of miR-182-5p in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and to unveil the molecular mechanism of LUSC. METHODS: The clinical value of miR-182-5p in LUSC was investigated by collecting and calculating data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Twelve prediction platforms were used to predict the target genes of miR-182-5p. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were used to explore the molecular mechanism of LUSC. RESULTS: The expression of miR-182-5p was significantly over-expressed in LUSC than in non-cancerous tissues, as evidenced by various approaches, including the TCGA database, GEO microarrays, RT-qPCR, and a comprehensive meta-analysis of 501 LUSC cases and 148 non-cancerous cases. Furthermore, a total of 81 potential target genes were chosen from the union of predicted genes and the TCGA database. GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated that the target genes are involved in pathways related to biological processes. PPIs revealed the relationships between these genes, with EPAS1, PRKCE, NR3C1, and RHOB being located in the center of the PPI network. CONCLUSIONS: MiR-182-5p upregulation greatly contributes to LUSC and may serve as a biomarker in LUSC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
13.
Nanotechnology ; 29(24): 244005, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547395

RESUMO

Fluorine-doped VO2(M) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method at a supercritical temperature of 490 °C. The pristine VO2(M) has the critical phase transformation temperature of 64 °C. The morphology and homogeneity of the monoclinic structure VO2(M) were adopted by the fluorine-doped system. The obtained particle size of the samples is smaller at the higher concentration of anion doping. The best reduction of critical temperature was achieved by fluorine doping of 0.13% up to 48 °C. The thin films of the fluorine-doped VO2(M) showed pronounced thermochromic property and therefore are suitable for smart window applications.

14.
Nanotechnology ; 29(22): 224001, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528844

RESUMO

Various types of coating films were obtained from hydrothermally synthesized Nb-doped TiO2 (NTO) and Cs x WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles. The coating films possessed multifunctionality including near infrared (NIR) absorption and photocatalysis abilities. The NTO and CWO nanoparticles were synthesized by a unique solvothermal reaction in which water induced by an esterification reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid can act as a hydrolyzing agent for metal precursors. NTO was synthesized by the unique solvothermal reaction for the first time. The reaction accompanied by the reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+ led to the formation of nanoparticles with both NIR absorption and photocatalytic properties. The effect of the ethanol-acetic acid ratio on the morphology of the obtained NTO was investigated, and the larger amount of acetic acid led to a larger nanoparticle size, indicating the size controllability. The two types of coating film, including CWO and NTO nanoparticles, were obtained for comparison: (1) coexistent coating film: one side of the quartz glass was coated with a dispersion, including both CWO and NTO nanoparticles, and (2) double-sided coating film: a quartz glass coated with a CWO dispersion on one side and an NTO dispersion on the other side. The double-sided coating led to higher multifunctionality. Furthermore, the optimized condition for the double-sided coating was investigated by using various NTO particles obtained using different ethanol-acetic acid ratios.

15.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(5): 3306-3313, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29442832

RESUMO

Fly ash is a solid waste discharged from thermal power plant. Specific surface area of floating fly ash cenospheres (FACs) would increase after it was modified. The photocatalytic composite of TiO2/FACs was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using the carrier of modified FACs and tetrabutyl titanate as starting materials. The different influence factors on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2/FACs composites were characterized through SEM, EDS, XRD, UV-vis DRS and BET surface measurements. The UV-vis DRS spectra revealed that the absorption edge of TiO2 is 387 nm while that of TiO2/FACs photocatalysts red-shifts to 500 nm. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2/FACs was evaluated by the photocatalytic depigmentation of methyl orange solution (MO, 20 mg L-1, pH = 6.3) under visible light irradiation. It was found that the specific surface area, surface roughness and activity of FACs were increased by NaOH solution activation. The degradation rate of MO reaches 52% in 180 min under the visible light illumination. But too much FACs could decrease its photocatalytic activity and degradation rate. And the recovery test indicated that TiO2/FACs photocatalyst was rather stable, easy to recover from the treated wastewater.

16.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 18(3): 1675-1681, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29448644

RESUMO

Metal ions (Cr, Ni, Co) doped titania (M-TiO2) coupled with the long after glow phosphor MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+) particles were synthesized by the sol-gel method, with the best mass ratio of MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+) to M-TiO2 as 4:6. MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+)/M-TiO2 had the persistent methyl orange (MO) photocatalytic degradation ability and the photocatalytic degradation went on reacting more than 90 min in dark after turning off the light. MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+) emitted the light as a light source in dark which was absorbed by M-TiO2. The differences of MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+)/Cr-TiO2, MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+)/Ni-TiO2 and MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+)/Co-TiO2 might be attributed to the difference in the metal ions doping. The composite MgAl2O4:(Pr3+, Dy3+)/Cr-TiO2 revealed the highest ability of persistent photocatalytic degradation methyl orange. Different metal ions doping made the TiO2 with different band gap.

17.
Nanoscale ; 10(4): 1837-1844, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308807

RESUMO

Gallium oxynitride (GaON) nanoparticles were synthesized through three steps; (i) hydrothermal treatment of an aqueous solution containing Ga(NO3)3, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), and acetylene black, (ii) calcination, and (iii) nitridation. The presence of acetylene black in the hydrothermal treatment is effective for the synthesis of Ga2O3 nanoparticles after the calcination. The intermediate obtained after the hydrothermal reaction possessed no detectable Ga particles in the TEM observation, although the presence of Ga was confirmed in the EDS measurement. This means that acetylene black (AB), in this study, cannot play a simple role as a template. The GaON nanoparticles obtained from the Ga2O3 nanoparticles through nitridation possessed a higher oxygen content than that from Ga2O3 obtained by hydrothermal synthesis without acetylene black and the subsequent calcination. The obtained GaON nanoparticles show higher photocatalytic NOx decomposition activity than bulk GaON synthesized under the same conditions except without acetylene black in the hydrothermal reaction, because of the longer absorption edge and the higher specific surface area. In addition, the effect of nitridation temperature and time on the obtained GaON nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity was also investigated. Consequently, nanoparticle morphology of a precursor for GaON is important not only for high surface area but also for high visible-light response.

18.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 59(3): 223-233, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285797

RESUMO

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a medicine to prevent tooth decay; however, excessive NaF could cause a pathological damage to the health. Recent studies showed that NaF impaired mouse oocyte maturation, included of abnormal spindle configuration, actin cap formation, cortical granule-free domain formation, and the following development after fertilization. However, few studies used large animals as models to study the toxicology of NaF on oocytes maturation. We proposed a hypothesis that NaF would affect the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes and DNA methylation pattern of imprinted genes in oocytes. Our results showed that NaF affected cumulus expansion, polar body emission, spindle morphology, cortical granule distribution, early apoptosis, and the following development after parthenogenetic activation during porcine oocyte maturation. Moreover, NaF increased the DNA methylation of NNAT and decreased its expression, which disturbed the glucose transport in oocytes. These results suggest that NaF impairs the porcine oocytes maturation epigenetically, which provides a new toxicological mechanism of NaF on the oocyte maturation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:223-233, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 105(1): 332-333, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233339
20.
Cancer Nurs ; 41(3): E56-E61, 2018 May/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer takes time for its survivors after a mastectomy to adjust to their changed bodies. There are limited studies about the process of how those survivors accept the changes of their bodies and how they reestablish their new selves. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the perception of body from women diagnosed with breast cancer more than 5 years previously and whose treatment included a mastectomy. METHODS: A phenomenological method was applied to this study. Women who received a mastectomy at least 5 years previously were invited to participate. Eight participants were recruited from southern Taiwan. RESULTS: Twenty transcripts were obtained and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Three themes were obtained from the data analysis: "restoration of the body image," "abandonment of objectification," and "redefinition of self." Subthemes were also identified and described. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that women with breast cancer have embodied the recovering experience to a new self and have adapted to identify their new bodies. They overcome being a female body with an absent breast(s) by discovering the value of their existence and being free from self-objectification. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study contributes to the understanding of the perception of body in long-term breast cancer survivors, which reflects the process of adjusting to the loss of a breast/breasts to reconstructing a new body experience. Health professionals could help and encourage women undergoing a mastectomy to engage in self-recovery by searching for and affirming self-value.

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