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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 774, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601780

RESUMO

Neonatal jaundice is prevalent among newborns and can lead to severe neurological deficits, particularly sensorimotor dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that bilirubin (BIL) enhances the intrinsic excitability of central neurons and this can potentially contribute to their overexcitation, Ca2+ overload, and neurotoxicity. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying elevated neuronal excitability remain unknown. By performing patch-clamp recordings from neonatal neurons in the rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN), a crucial relay station for locomotor and balance control, we found that BIL (3 µM) drastically increases the spontaneous firing rates by upregulating the current-mediated voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), while shifting their voltage-dependent activation toward more hyperpolarized potentials. Immunofluorescence labeling and western immunoblotting with an anti-NaV1.1 antibody, revealed that BIL elevates the expression of VGSCs by promoting their recruitment to the membrane. Furthermore, we found that this VGSC-trafficking process is Ca2+ dependent because preloading MVN neurons with the Ca2+ buffer BAPTA-AM, or exocytosis inhibitor TAT-NSF700, prevents the effects of BIL, indicating the upregulated activity and density of functional VGSCs as the core mechanism accountable for the BIL-induced overexcitation of neonatal neurons. Most importantly, rectification of such overexcitation with a low dose of VGSC blocker lidocaine significantly attenuates BIL-induced cell death. We suggest that this enhancement of VGSC currents directly contributes to the vulnerability of neonatal brain to hyperbilirubinemia, implicating the activity and trafficking of NaV1.1 channels as a potential target for neuroprotection in cases of severe jaundice.

2.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 183, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904342

RESUMO

In developing sensory systems, elaborate morphological connectivity between peripheral cells and first-order central neurons emerges via genetic programming before the onset of sensory activities. However, how the first-order central neurons acquire the capacity to interface with peripheral cells remains elusive. By making patch-clamp recordings from mouse brainstem slices, we found that a subset of neurons in the cochlear nuclei, the first central station to receive peripheral acoustic impulses, exhibits spontaneous firings (SFs) as early as at birth, and the fraction of such neurons increases during the prehearing period. SFs are reduced but not eliminated by a cocktail of blockers for excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, implicating the involvement of intrinsic pacemaker channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intrinsic firings (IFs) are largely driven by hyperpolarization- and cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (HCN) mediated currents (Ih), as evidenced by their attenuation in the presence of HCN blockers or in neurons from HCN1 knockout mice. Interestingly, genetic deletion of HCN1 cannot be fully compensated by other pacemaker conductances and precludes age-dependent up regulation in the fraction of spontaneous active neurons and their firing rate. Surprisingly, neurons with SFs show accelerated development in excitability, spike waveform and firing pattern as well as synaptic pruning towards mature phenotypes compared to those without SFs. Our results imply that SFs of the first-order central neurons may reciprocally promote their wiring and firing with peripheral inputs, potentially enabling the correlated activity and crosstalk between the developing brain and external environment.

3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 431, 2017 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28348377

RESUMO

Neonatal brain is particularly vulnerable to pathological levels of bilirubin which elevates and overloads intracellular Ca2+, leading to neurotoxicity. However, how voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are functionally involved in excess calcium influx remains unknown. By performing voltage-clamp recordings from bushy cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) in postnatal rat pups (P4-17), we found the total calcium current density was more than doubled over P4-17, but the relative weight of VGCC subtypes changed dramatically, being relatively equal among T, L, N, P/Q and R-type at P4-6 to predominantly L, N, R over T and P/Q at P15-17. Surprisingly, acute administration of bilirubin augmented the VGCC currents specifically mediated by high voltage-activated (HVA) P/Q-type calcium currents. This augment was attenuated by intracellular loading of Ca2+ buffer EGTA or calmodulin inhibitory peptide. Our findings indicate that acute exposure to bilirubin increases VGCC currents, primarily by targeting P/Q-type calcium channels via Ca2+ and calmodulin dependent mechanisms to overwhelm neurons with excessive Ca2+. Since P/Q-subtype calcium channels are more prominent in neonatal neurons (e.g. P4-6) than later stages, we suggest this subtype-specific enhancement of P/Q-type Ca2+ currents likely contributes to the early neuronal vulnerability to hyperbilirubinemia in auditory and other brain regions.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos
4.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 11: 21, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28217084

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an important molecule with extensive biological functions in various cellular processes, including protection against cell injuries. However, little is known regarding the roles of NAD+ in neuronal excitation and excitotoxicity associated with many neurodegenerative disorders and diseases. Using patch-clamp recordings, we studied its potential effects on principal neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), which is particularly vulnerable to bilirubin excitotoxicity. We found that NAD+ effectively decreased the size of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs), increased paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and reversed the effect of bilirubin on eEPSCs, implicating its inhibitory effects on the presynaptic release probability (Pr). Moreover, NAD+ not only decreased the basal frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs), but also reversed bilirubin-induced increases in the frequency of mEPSCs without affecting their amplitude under either condition. Furthermore, we found that NAD+ decreased the frequency of spontaneous firing of VCN neurons as well as bilirubin-induced increases in firing frequency. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings showed that NAD+ could directly decrease the intrinsic excitability of VCN neurons in the presence of synaptic blockers, suggesting NAD+ exerts its actions in both presynaptic and postsynaptic loci. Consistent with these observations, we found that the latency of the first postsynaptic spike triggered by high-frequency train stimulation of presynaptic afferents (i.e., the auditory nerve) was prolonged by NAD+. These results collectively indicate that NAD+ suppresses presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic excitability, jointly weakening excitatory neurotransmission. Our findings provide a basis for the exploration of NAD+ for the prevention and treatment of bilirubin encephalopathy and excitotoxicity associated with other neurological disorders.

5.
Toxicol Lett ; 240(1): 1-9, 2016 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26476400

RESUMO

Hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical phenomenon observed in human newborns. A high level of bilirubin can result in severe jaundice and bilirubin encephalopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin excitotoxicity are unclear. Our previous studies showed the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine switches from excitatory to inhibitory during development in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), one of the most sensitive auditory nuclei to bilirubin toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of GABAA/glycine receptors in the induction of bilirubin hyperexcitation in early developing neurons. Using the patch clamp technique, GABAA/glycine receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded from bushy and stellate cells in acute brainstem slices from young mice (postnatal day 2-6). Bilirubin significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was prevented by pretreatments of slices with either fast or slow Ca(2+) chelators BAPTA-AM and EGTA-AM suggesting that bilirubin can increase the release of GABA/glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. Using cell-attached recording configuration, we found that antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors strongly attenuated spontaneous spiking firings in P2-6 neurons but produced opposite effect in P15-19 neurons. Furthermore, these antagonists reversed bilirubin-evoked hyperexcitability in P2-6 neurons, indicating that excitatory action of GABA/glycinergic transmission specifically contribute to bilirubin-induced hyperexcitability in the early stage of development. Our results suggest that bilirubin-induced enhancement of presynaptic release GABA/Glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms may play a critical role in mediating neuronal hyperexcitation associated with jaundice, implicating potential new strategies for predicting, preventing, and treating bilirubin neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/efeitos adversos , Glicina/farmacologia , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Animais , Núcleo Coclear/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Coclear/metabolismo , Ácido Egtázico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Egtázico/metabolismo , Hiperbilirrubinemia/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Receptores da Glicina/metabolismo
6.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 21(3): 262-70, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25495717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bilirubin encephalopathy as a result of hyperbilirubinemia is a devastating neurological disorder that occurs mostly in the neonatal period. To date, no effective drug treatment is available. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is likely an important factor causing bilirubin encephalopathy. Thus, drugs suppressing the overrelease of glutamate may protect the brain against bilirubin excitotoxicity. Riluzole is a prescription drug known for its antiglutamatergic function. This study was conducted in the rat's ventral cochlear nucleus, a structure highly sensitive to bilirubin toxicity, to find whether riluzole can be used to inhibit bilirubin toxicity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Electrophysiology changes were detected by perforated patch clamp technique. Calcium imaging using Rhod-2-AM as an indicator was used to study the intracellular calcium. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were measured by PI/Hoechst staining. KEY RESULTS: In the absence of bilirubin, riluzole effectively decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and suppressed neuronal firing but did not change the amplitude of sEPSC and glutamate-activated currents (I(Glu)). Moreover, riluzole inhibited bilirubin-induced increases in the frequency of sEPSC and neuronal firing. Riluzole could prevent the bilirubin-induced increase in intracellular calcium, mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Furthermore, riluzole significantly reduced bilirubin-induced cell death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that riluzole can protect neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus from bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation and excitotoxicity through reducing presynaptic glutamate release.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/toxicidade , Núcleo Coclear/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Riluzol/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bilirrubina/antagonistas & inibidores , Cálcio/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Núcleo Coclear/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
7.
Exp Neurol ; 254: 216-23, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24382452

RESUMO

No effective medication for hyperbilirubinemia yet exists. Taurine is believed to exert a neuroprotective action. The aim of the present study was to determine whether taurine protected neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) against bilirubin-induced neuronal hyperexcitation. AVCN neurons were isolated from 13 to 15-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of bilirubin on the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and action potential currents were compared with those exerted by bilirubin and taurine together. Bilirubin dramatically increased the frequencies of sEPSCs and action potential currents, but not sEPSC amplitude. Taurine suppressed the enhanced frequency of action potentials induced by bilirubin, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, taurine decreased the amplitude of voltage-dependent calcium channel currents that were enhanced upon addition of bilirubin. We explored the mechanism of the protective effects exerted by taurine using GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists, bicuculline and strychnine, respectively. Addition of bicuculline and strychnine eliminated the protective effects of taurine. Neither bilirubin nor taurine affected the sensitivity of the glutamate receptor. Our findings thus indicate that taurine protected AVCN neurons against bilirubin-induced neuronal hyperexcitation by activating the GABAA and glycine receptors and inhibiting calcium flow through voltage-gated channels. Thus, taurine may be effective in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/toxicidade , Núcleo Coclear/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Canais de Cálcio/fisiologia , Núcleo Coclear/patologia , Núcleo Coclear/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Feminino , Hiperbilirrubinemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperbilirrubinemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia , Receptores de Glutamato/fisiologia , Receptores da Glicina/fisiologia
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