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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672525

RESUMO

Transfusion reactions are mainly induced by the interaction of an antigen and antibody. However, transfusion reactions still occur with the implementing of crossmatching and usage of pre-storage leukoreduced blood products. The roles of CD28 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms in transfusion reaction have been shown, and subjects with certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CD28 or CTLA4 gene had a significantly higher risk of transfusion reactions. In total, 40 patients with transfusion reactions after receiving pre-storage leukoreduced blood products were enrolled in this study. We focused on the SNPs located in the CD28 promoter region (rs1879877, rs3181096, rs3181097, and rs3181098) to find out the significant SNP. A luciferase reporter assay was used to investigate the expression level of protein affected by promoter SNP variation. We found that the polymorphism of rs3181097 was associated with transfusion reactions (p = 0.003 in additive model and p = 0.015 in dominant model). Consequently, we investigated the biological function in the CD28 promoter polymorphisms (rs1879877 G > T, rs3181096 C > T, rs3181097 G > A, and rs3181098 G > A) by using dual-spectral luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that the ex-pression level of CD28 was decreased under the effect of rs3181097 with A-allele. This suggested that rs3181097 may regulate immune response through decreasing CD28 protein expression and then lead to development of transfusion reactions.

2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 294, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of associated chest wall injuries (CWI) on the complications of clavicle fracture repair is unclear to date. This study aimed to investigate the complications after surgical clavicle fracture fixation in patients with and without different degrees of associated CWI. METHODS: A retrospective review over a four-year period of patients who underwent clavicle fracture repair was conducted. A CWI and no-CWI group were distinguished, and the CWI group was subdivided into the minor-CWI (three or fewer rib fractures without flail chest) and complex-CWI (flail chest, four or more rib fractures) subgroup. Demographic data, classification of the clavicle fracture, number of rib fractures, and associated injuries were recorded. Overall complications included surgery-related complications and unplanned hospital readmissions. Univariate analysis and stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression were used to identify potential risk factors for complications. RESULTS: A total of 314 patients undergoing 316 clavicle fracture operations were studied; 28.7% of patients (90/314) occurred with associated CWI. Patients with associated CWI showed a significantly higher age, body mass index, and number of rib fractures. The overall and surgical-related complication rate were similar between groups. Unplanned 30-day hospital readmission rates were significantly higher in the complex-CWI group (p = 0.02). Complex CWI and number of rib fractures were both independent factor for 30-day unplanned hospital readmission (OR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.00-2.54 and OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.68, respectively). CONCLUSION: CWI did not affect surgery-related complications after clavicle fracture repair. However, complex-CWI may increase 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rates.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784086

RESUMO

Metastable ε-Fe2O3 is a unique phase of iron oxide, which exhibits a giant coercivity field. In this work, we grew epitaxial ε-Fe2O3 films on flexible two-dimensional muscovite substrates via quasi van der Waals epitaxy. It turns out that twinning and interface energies have been playing essential roles in stabilizing metastable ε-Fe2O3 on mica substrates. Moreover, the weak interfacial bonding between ε-Fe2O3 and mica is expected to relieve the substrate clamping effect ubiquitously encountered in films epitaxially grown on rigid substrates, such as SrTiO3. It is anticipated that these flexible ε-Fe2O3 thin films can serve as a platform for exploring possible interesting emergent physical properties and eventually be integrated as flexible functional devices.

4.
Behav Neurol ; 2021: 6657716, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763156

RESUMO

Whether BDNF protein and BDNF mRNA expression of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; cingulated cortex area 1 (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), and infralimbic cortex (IL)), amygdala, and hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)) was involved in fear of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during the situational reminder of traumatic memory remains uncertain. Footshock rats experienced an inescapable footshock (3 mA, 10 s), and later we have measured fear behavior for 2 min in the footshock environment on the situational reminder phase. In the final retrieval of situational reminder, BDNF protein and mRNA levels were measured. The results showed that higher BDNF expression occurred in the Cg1, PrL, and amygdala. Lower BDNF expression occurred in the IL, CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG. BDNF mRNA levels were higher in the mPFC and amygdala but lower in the hippocampus. The neural connection analysis showed that BDNF protein and BDNF mRNA exhibited weak connections among the mPFC, amygdala, and hippocampus during situational reminders. The present data did not support the previous viewpoint in neuroimaging research that the mPFC and hippocampus revealed hypoactivity and the amygdala exhibited hyperactivity for PTSD symptoms. These findings should be discussed with the previous evidence and provide clinical implications for PTSD.

5.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751053

RESUMO

Muscle regeneration after damage or during myopathies requires a fine cooperation between myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation. A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNAs play critical roles in myocyte proliferation and differentiation transcriptionally. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the orchestration are not fully understood. Here, we showed that miR-130b is able to repress myoblast proliferation and promote myogenic differentiation via targeting Sp1 transcription factor. Importantly, overexpression of miR-130b is capable of improving the recovery of damaged muscle in a freeze injury model. Moreover, miR-130b expression is declined in the muscle of muscular dystrophy patients. Thus, these results indicated that miR-130b may play a role in skeletal muscle regeneration and myopathy progression. Together, our findings suggest that the miR-130b/Sp1 axis may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with muscle damage or severe myopathies.

6.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741596

RESUMO

Nonreciprocal devices operating at the single-photon level are fundamental elements for quantum technologies. Because magneto-optical nonreciprocal devices are incompatible for magnetic-sensitive or on-chip quantum information processing, all-optical nonreciprocal isolation is highly desired, but its realization at the quantum level is yet to be accomplished at room temperature. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate two regimes, using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) or a Raman transition, for all-optical isolation with warm atoms. We achieve an isolation of 22.52 ± 0.10 dB and an insertion loss of about 1.95 dB for a genuine single photon, with bandwidth up to hundreds of megahertz. The Raman regime realized in the same experimental setup enables us to achieve high isolation and low insertion loss for coherent optical fields with reversed isolation direction. These realizations of single-photon isolation and coherent light isolation at room temperature are promising for simpler reconfiguration of high-speed classical and quantum information processing.

7.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(2): 242-252, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785095

RESUMO

Sericin, a silk protein, has a high potential for use as an extracellular matrix in tissue engineering applications. In this study, novel gelatin (GEL) and silk sericin (SS) were incorporated with a polyvinyl alcohol) PVA hydrogel nanocomposite (GEL-SS-PVA) scaffold that can be applied to repair cartilage. Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent, with hydrochloric acid acting as an initiator. The microstructure characteristics of the obtained GEL-SS and GEL-SS-PVA scaffolds were also examined using FTIR and XRD spectra and their enhanced thermal stability was assessed by TGA. The blended GEL-SS and GEL-SS-PVA scaffolds were confirmed by SEM analysis to be highly porous with optimum pore sizes of 172 and 58 µm, respectively. Smaller pore sizes and improved uniformity were observed as the concentration of PVA in the GEL-SS-PVA scaffold increased. PVA decreased the tensile strength and elongation of the membranes but increased the modulus. Swelling studies showed high swellability and complete degradation in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the GEL-SS-PVA scaffolds showed that these had the highest potential to promote cell proliferation as evaluated with standard microscopy using L929 fibroblasts. The prepared GEL-SS composite scaffold incorporated with the PVA hydrogel was implanted in full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rats. The repair effect of cartilage defects was observed and evaluated among the GEL-SS-PVA, GEL-SS, and control operation groups. The defects were almost completely repaired after 14 weeks in the GEL-SS-PVA group, thereby indicating that the GEL-SS-PVA composite had a favorable effect on articular cartilage defects in rat knee joint repair.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Nanocompostos , Sericinas , Animais , Gelatina , Hidrogéis , Articulação do Joelho , Álcool de Polivinil , Ratos , Seda , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(12): 3638-3646, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734700

RESUMO

Gliadins are the main cause of wheat allergies, and the prevalence of gliadin allergy has increased in many countries. l-Arabinose, a kind of plant-specific five-carbon aldose, possesses beneficial effects on food allergy to gliadins. This study investigated the antiallergic activities and underlying mechanisms of l-arabinose in a wheat gliadin-sensitized mouse model. BALB/c mice were sensitized to gliadin by intraperitoneal injections with gliadin followed by being given a gliadin challenge. l-arabinose-treated mice exhibited a marked reduction in the productions of total immunoglobulin E (IgE), gliadin-specific IgE, gliadin-specific IgG1, and histamine, with an increase in IgG2a level as compared with gliadin-sensitized mice. Beside that, a significant decrease in Th2-related cytokine level, IL-4, and an increase in Th1-related cytokine level, IFN-γ, in the serum and splenocytes were observed after treatment with l-arabinose. l-Arabinose treatment also improved the imbalance of Th1/Th2 immune response on the basis of the expression levels of related cytokines and key transcription factors in the small intestine and spleen of sensitized mice. In addition, gliadin-induced intestinal barrier impairment was blocked by l-arabinose treatment via regulation of TJ proteins and suppression of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB inflammation signaling pathways. Notably, the results confirmed that l-arabinose treatment increased CD4+ Foxp3+ T cell populations and Treg-related factors associated with increased expression of IL-2 and activation of STAT5 in gliadin-sensitized mice. In conclusion, l-arabinose attenuated the gliadin-induced allergic symptoms via maintenance of Th1/Th2 immune balance and regulation of Treg cells in a gliadin-induced mouse model, suggesting l-arabinose could be used as a promising agent to alleviate gliadin allergy.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(9): 4363-4380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754066

RESUMO

Rationale: An improved understanding of thyroid hormone (TH) action on cholesterol metabolism will facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets for hypercholesterolemia. TH-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in TH-controlled biological processes; however, whether and how TH-regulated miRNAs mediate the cholesterol-lowering effect of TH remains unclear. Our aim was to identify TH-regulated microRNAs that have cholesterol-lowering effects and explore the underlying mechanism. Method: Microarray and RNA-seq were performed to identify TH-regulated microRNAs and the genes regulated by mmu-miR-378-3p (miR-378) in the liver of mice, respectively. Recombinant adenoviruses encoding miR-378, Mafg, and shRNA for Mafg, antagomiR-378, liver-specific miR-378 transgenic mice, and miR-378 knockout mice were employed to investigate the roles of hepatic miR-378 and MAFG in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis. The levels of bile salt species were determined by using UFLC-Triple-time of flight/MS. Results: Here, we show that hepatic miR-378 is positively regulated by TH. Transient overexpression of miR-378 in the liver of mice reduces serum cholesterol levels, accompanied with an increase in the expression of key enzymes in primary bile acid synthetic pathways and corresponding increases in biliary and fecal bile acid levels. Consistently, liver-specific miR-378 transgenic mice with moderate overexpression of hepatic miR-378 display decreased serum cholesterol levels and resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, while mice lacking miR-378 exhibit defects in bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis. Mechanistically, hepatic miR-378 regulates the expression of key enzymes in both classic and alternative bile acid synthetic pathways through MAFG, a transcriptional repressor, thereby modulating bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. Conclusions: TH-responsive hepatic miR-378 is capable of modulating serum cholesterol levels by regulating both the classic and alternative BA synthetic pathways. Our study not only identifies a previously undescribed role of hepatic miR-378 but also provides new cholesterol-lowering approaches.

11.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251089

RESUMO

BackgroundThere is a concern that low initial SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers in individuals may drop to undetectable levels within months after infection. Although this may raise concerns over long term immunity, both the antibody levels and avidity of the antibody-antigen interaction should be examined to understand the quality of the antibody response. MethodsA testing-on-a-probe "plus" panel (TOP-Plus) was developed, which included a newly developed avidity assay built into the previously described SARS-CoV-2 TOP assays that measured total antibody (TAb), surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb), IgM and IgG on a versatile biosensor platform. TAb and SNAb levels were compared with avidity in previously infected individuals at 1.3 and 6.2 months post-infection in paired samples from 80 COVID-19 patients. ResultsThe newly designed avidity assay in this TOP panel correlated well with a reference Bio-Layer Interferometry avidity assay (R=0.88). The imprecision of the TOP avidity assay was less than 9%. Although TAb and neutralization activity (by SNAb) decreased between 1.3 and 6.2 months post infection, the antibody avidity increased significantly (P < 0.0001). ConclusionThis highly precise and versatile TOP-Plus panel with the ability to measure SARS-CoV-2 TAb, SNAb, IgG and IgM antibody levels and avidity of individual sera on one sensor can become a valuable asset in monitoring not only SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, but also the status of individuals COVID-19 vaccination response.

12.
Food Funct ; 12(3): 1241-1251, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433547

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the complex and severe complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Icariin (ICA) is a flavonoid extracted from the leaves and stems of Herba epimedii with a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-osteoporosis, anti-fibrosis, anti-aging, anti-inflammation and antioxidation. The purpose of our study was to explore the renal protective effect of ICA on DN in mice and its possible mechanisms. ICR mice were exposed to STZ-induced DN. The kidney organ coefficient of mice was computed. 24 h UP in urine was measured. Serum FBG, Cr and BUN were detected. The content of MDA and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in renal tissues were tested. HE staining, PAS staining, PASM staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe renal pathological changes. Furthermore, TLR4, p-NF-κB p65, TNF-α and IL-6 of renal tissues were assayed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Our results indicated that ICA observably optimized the renal organ coefficient, reduced the level of 24 h UP in urine, decreased the content of Cr, BUN in serum and MDA in renal tissues, promoted the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in renal tissues, and ameliorated pathological lesions of kidneys noticeably. Besides, ICA inhibited the expressions of TLR4, p-NF-κB p65, TNF-α and IL-6 remarkably in renal tissues. ICA, which might lighten the renal inflammatory response by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB signal pathway, played a protective role in kidneys of STZ-induced DN mice.

13.
Placenta ; 104: 208-219, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429118

RESUMO

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2α (PGF2α) are the two most prominent prostanoids in parturition. They are involved in cervical ripening, membrane rupture, myometrial contraction and inflammation in gestational tissues. Because multiple receptor subtypes for PGE2 and PGF2α exist, coupled with diverse signaling pathways, the effects of PGE2 and PGF2α depend largely on the spatial and temporal expression of these receptors in intrauterine tissues. It appears that PGE2 and PGF2α play different roles in parturition. PGE2 is probably more important for labor onset, while PGF2α may play a more important role in labor accomplishment, which may be attributed to the differential effects of PGE2 and PGF2α in gestational tissues. PGE2 is more powerful than PGF2α in the induction of cervical ripening. In terms of myometrial contraction, PGE2 produces a biphasic effect with an initial contraction and a following relaxation, while PGF2α consistently stimulates myometrial contraction. In the fetal membranes, both PGE2 and PGF2α appear to be involved in the process of membrane rupture. In addition, PGE2 and PGF2α may also participate in the inflammatory process of intrauterine tissues at parturition by stimulating not only neutrophil influx and cytokine production but also cyclooxygenase-2 expression thereby intensifying their own production. This review summarizes the differential roles of PGE2 and PGF2α in parturition with respect to their production and expression of receptor subtypes in gestational tissues. Dissecting the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of PGE2 and PGF2α in parturition may assist in developing specific therapeutic targets for preterm and post-term birth.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1475, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446692

RESUMO

Adverse reactions may still occur in some patients after receiving haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), even when choosing a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. The adverse reactions of transplantation include disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), mortality and CMV infection. However, only the relapse was discussed in our previous study. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the correlation between the gene polymorphisms within the HLA region and the adverse reactions of post-HSCT in patients with acute leukaemia (n = 176), where 72 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) and 104 were acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms were divided into three models: donor, recipient, and donor-recipient pairs and the data of ALL and AML were analysed individually. Based on the results, we found 16 SNPs associated with the survival rates, the risk of CMV infection, or the grade of GVHD in either donor, recipient, or donor-recipient matching models. In the ALL group, the rs209132 of TRIM27 in the donor group was related to CMV infection (p = 0.021), the rs213210 of RING1 in the recipient group was associated with serious GVHD (p = 0.003), and the rs2227956 of HSPA1L in the recipient group correlated with CMV infection (p = 0.001). In the AML group, the rs3130048 of BAG6 in the donor-recipient pairs group was associated with serious GVHD (p = 0.048). Moreover, these SNPs were further associated with the duration time of survival after transplantation. These results could be applied to select the best donor in HSCT.

15.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1745-1756, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502423

RESUMO

l-Arabinose is a kind of plant-specific five-carbon aldose with benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown to have good properties in improving glucose homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not clear. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical for regulating glucose homeostasis. Here, this study aimed to investigate whether l-arabinose could improve glucose metabolism via suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis. High-fat-high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) or high-sucrose diet (HSD)-fed mice were supplemented with or without l-arabinose for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured and glucose tolerance test and the histological analysis were performed after l-arabinose administration. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expression levels were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. As expected, l-arabinose apparently decreased body weight and attenuated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance caused by HFHSD or HSD. l-Arabinose also had beneficial effects on glycogen synthesis by inactivating GSK3ß. The expression levels of gluconeogenic genes were all decreased by l-arabinose administration in vivo and in vitro. In addition, our work revealed that AMPK is required for the inhibitory effects of l-arabinose on hepatic gluconeogenesis. l-Arabinose significantly up-regulated the phosphorylated levels of AMPK and its downstream protein ACC. Furthermore, blocking AMPK signaling through an inhibitor (compound C) or siAMPK significantly attenuated the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and the promotion of glycogen synthesis with l-arabinose, indicating that the inhibitory effect of l-arabinose on hepatic gluconeogenesis was AMPK dependent. Our work revealed that l-arabinose is a promising natural product for the regulation of hyperglycemia through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK.

16.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health workforce governance has been proposed as key to improving health services delivery, yet few studies have examined the conceptualisation of health workforce governance in detail and exploration in literature remains limited. METHODS: A literature review using PubMed, Google Scholar and grey literature search was conducted to map out the current conceptualisation of health workforce governance. We identified all published literature relating to governance in health workforce since 2000 and analysed them on two fronts: the broad definition of governance, and the operationalisation of broad definition into key dimensions of governance. RESULTS: Existing literature adopts governance concepts established in health literature and does not adapt understanding to the health workforce context. Definitions are largely quoted from health literature whilst dimensions are focused around the sub-functions of governance which emphasise operationalising governance practices over further conceptualisation. Two sub-functions are identified as essential to the governance process: stakeholder participation and strategic direction. CONCLUSIONS: Although governance in health systems has gained increasing attention, governance in health workforce remains poorly conceptualised in literature. We propose an improved conceptualisation in the form of a stakeholder-driven network governance model with the national government as a strong steward against vested stakeholder interests. Further research is needed to explore and develop on the conceptual thinking behind health workforce governance.

17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108590, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310125

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the association between thyroid function and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in assisted pregnancies. METHODS: We screened 57,386 pregnant women treated from February 2013 to October 2017, and 2211 patients were retrospectively enrolled, and their data were analyzed based on quintile groups constituted based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels. Odds ratios (ORs) of GDM were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for maternal age and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: The prevalence rate of GDM was 20.1%. Lower FT4 levels were associated with an increased risk of GDM (ORQ2 = 1.512, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.073-2.132, p = 0.018; ORQ1 = 1.620, 95% CI 1.161-2.261, p = 0.005), but this association disappeared after adjustments. TPOAb+ titer was associated with an increased risk of GDM (aOR = 1.472, 95% CI 1.068-2.028, p = 0.018). Higher TSH (aORQ5 = 2.882, 95% CI 1.919-6.975, p = 0.019) or lower FT4 (aORQ1 = 3.156, 95% CI 1.088-9.115, p = 0.034) levels were associated with an increased risk of GDM in assisted pregnancies for TPOAb+ patients. CONCLUSION: TPOAb+ is an independent risk factor for GDM in patients with assisted pregnancies. Higher TSH or lower FT4 levels, with TPOAb+ detection, are risk factors for GDM in assisted pregnancies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Tireóidea/métodos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 208-216, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camptothecin (CPT) and matrine (MAT) have potential as botanical pesticides against several pest species. However, the mechanisms of metabolic and physiological changes in pests induced by CPT and MAT are unknown. In this study, a toxicological test, an NMR-based metabolomic study, an enzymatic test, and an RT quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiment were all conducted to examine the effect of CPT and MAT on Spodoptera litura. RESULTS: CPT (0.5-1%) exerted high toxicity against larvae of S. litura and caused growth stagnation and high mortality of larvae. A variety of metabolites were significantly influenced by 0.5% CPT, including several energy-related metabolites such as trehalose, lactate, succinate, citrate, malate, and fumarate. In contrast, MAT showed low toxicity against larvae and induced almost no changes in hemolymph metabolites of S. litura. Enzymatic tests showed that trehalase activity was significantly decreased in larvae after feeding with 0.5% CPT. RT-qPCR showed that the transcription levels of alanine aminotransferase, malate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were decreased while lactate dehydrogenase was increased in the 0.5% CPT-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that one of the important mechanisms of CPT against S. litura larvae is via the inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis and glycolysis. Our findings also suggest that CPT exhibits a stronger toxicological effect than MAT against S. litura, which provides basic information for the application of CPT in the control of S. litura or other lepidoptera pests.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Alcaloides , Animais , Camptotecina/toxicidade , Larva , Quinolizinas , Spodoptera
19.
Behav Neurol ; 2020: 8875087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299494

RESUMO

Do chronic fluoxetine treatments reduced footshock-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, including fear and comorbid depression, in the situational reminder phase? Moreover, are the subareas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), including the cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), infralimbic cortex (IL), and basolateral amygdala (BLA), involved in the fluoxetine amelioration of PTSD symptoms? These two crucial issues were addressed in the present study. All mice were injected with chronic fluoxetine or normal saline treatments for the adaptation (14 days), footshock fear conditioning (1 day), and situational reminder (3 days) phases. After adaptation, the mice were subjected to footshock (2 mA, 10 seconds) or nonfootshock and stayed 2 min in a footshock box for 2 min for fear conditioning. Later, they were placed in the footshock box for 2 min in the situational reminder phase. In the final session of the situational reminder phase, a forced swimming test (FST) and immunohistochemical staining were conducted. The results indicated that footshock induced fear and comorbid depression. Meanwhile, chronic fluoxetine treatments reduced fear and depression behaviors. The Cg1, PrL, IL, and BLA were seemingly to increase c-Fos expression after footshock-induced PTSD symptoms in the situational reminder phase. The fluoxetine treatments reduced only the BLA's c-Fos expression. The findings suggest that BLA contributes to the fluoxetine amelioration of PTSD symptoms; however, the mPFC, including the Cg1, PrL, and IL, did not mediate PTSD symptoms' amelioration stemming from fluoxetine. The present data might help us to further understand the neural mechanism of fluoxetine treatments in PTSD symptoms.

20.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-13, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356474

RESUMO

With the development of living standards, harmful substances in diet and food safety have seriously endangered people health and life. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which formed by Maillard reactions in processed food, have been shown a significantly associated with many chronic diseases, such as nephropathy, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and tumors. In recent years, the research about diet advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) have widespread controversy in academia. The main arguments include the production mechanism of dAGEs, metabolic pathways, and relationships with chronic diseases, especially related to the intestines, gut microbiota, and intestinal disorders. So this review attempts to briefly summarize the dAGE in following aspects, including the influencing factors, metabolism, absorption, and so forth. In addition, the effects of dAGEs on intestinal health and gut microbes were discussed, which can offer a goal for boff in to design low dAGEs products and provided some perspectives for further study with AGEs in the future.

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