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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28558, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of radiotherapy (RT) duration in medulloblastoma in the modern era of chemotherapy has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of RT treatment duration on overall survival (OS) in pediatric medulloblastoma and cenral nervous system neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). METHODS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried to identify patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma and CNS PNETs diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. Patients were excluded if they had extraneural metastasis, did not receive standard craniospinal irradiation dose, had a nonstandard total dose outside of 54 or 55.8 Gy, did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy, or if the RT duration was outside of the expected range of 37 to 80 days. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to estimate the association between RT duration (≤45 days or >45 days) and OS. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess other confounders of OS. RESULTS: Six-hundred twenty-five patients met inclusion criteria, of which 181 were assigned to the "RT long" (>45 days) cohort (29.0%) and 444 (71.0%) to the "RT short" group (≤45 days). The five-year OS for the "RT short" compared with "RT long" cohort was 82.2% versus 70.9%, respectively (log-rank, P < 0.0037). For average risk patients, the five-year OS was 84.6% versus 86.4% for "RT short" and "RT long," respectively (log-rank, P = 0.40). However, for high-risk patients, five-year OS was 77.7% versus 51.0% (log-rank, P < 0.0001) in the "RT short" and "RT long" cohorts. CONCLUSION: For patients with high-risk medulloblastoma and CNS PNETs, RT duration >45 days was associated with inferior OS.

2.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment for pediatric ependymoma includes surgical resection followed by local radiotherapy. Proton radiotherapy (PRT) enables superior sparing of critical structures compared to photons, with potential to reduce late effects. We report mature outcomes, patterns of failure, and predictors of outcomes in patients treated with PRT. METHODS: 150 patients (<22 years) with grade II/III ependymoma were treated with PRT between 1/2001 and 1/2019 at Massachusetts General Hospital. Demographic, tumor, and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed. Event free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and local control (LC) were assessed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 6.5 years. EFS, OS, and LC for the intracranial cohort (n=145) at 7 years were 63.4%, 82.6%, and 76.1%. 51 patients recurred: 26 (51.0%) local failures, 19 (37.3%) distant failures, and 6 (11.8%) synchronous failures. 116 patients (77.3%) underwent gross total resection (GTR), 5 (3.3%) underwent near total resection (NTR), and 29 (19.3%) underwent subtotal resection (STR). EFS for the intracranial cohort at 7 years for GTR/NTR and STR was 70.3% and 35.2%. With multivariate analysis, the effect of tumor excision persisted after controlling for tumor location. There was no adverse effect on disease control if surgery to RT interval was within 9 weeks of GTR/NTR. CONCLUSION: PRT is effective and safe in pediatric ependymoma. Similar to previous studies, GTR/NTR was the most important prognostic factor. Intervals up to 9 weeks from surgery to PRT did not compromise disease outcomes. There was no LC benefit between patients treated with >54 GyRBE vs ≤54 GyRBE.

5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28395, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386126

RESUMO

Children with medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), and ependymoma are treated with a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Lower doses of craniospinal irradiation and tumor bed boost together with chemotherapy are the current standard of care for average-risk medulloblastoma in the Children's Oncology Group (COG). The International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) is examining the role of hyperfractionated craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy in high-risk patients. The recent stratification of medulloblastoma into specific molecular risk groups has prompted both COG and SIOP to reexamine the role of these modalities in these different risk groups to maximize cure rates and minimize long-term complications. Proton therapy has shown lower rates of neurocognitive and endocrine complications compared with photons. Ependymomas are treated with maximal surgical resection and adjuvant radiation therapy. The role of chemotherapy in ependymoma is currently being studied in both COG and SIOP. Likewise, for ATRT the role of different high-dose chemotherapy regimens together with local radiation therapy in infants, or craniospinal radiation in older children, is the current focus of research.

6.
Semin Oncol ; 47(1): 8-22, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139101

RESUMO

Proton radiotherapy has promised an advantage in safely treating pediatric malignancies with an increased capability to spare normal tissues, reducing the risk of both acute and late toxicity. The past decade has seen the proliferation of more than 30 proton facilities in the United States, with increased capacity to provide access to approximately 3,000 children per year who will require radiotherapy for their disease. We provide a review of the initial efforts to describe outcomes after proton therapy across the common pediatric disease sites. We discuss the main attempts to assess comparative efficacy between proton and photon radiotherapy concerning toxicity. We also discuss recent efforts of multi-institutional registries aimed at accelerating research to better define the optimal treatment paradigm for children requiring radiotherapy for cure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons , Fatores Etários , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this analysis is to report long-term health related quality of life (HRQoL) among brain tumor survivors treated with proton therapy (PRT) at a very young age. METHODS: Fifty-nine children < 4 years old received PRT between 2000-2011. Forty families participated. HRQoL was assessed by child self report (CSR, age ≥ 5) and parent proxy report (PPR, age 2+) using the PedsQL Core. RESULTS: The median age was 2.5 years (range 0.3-3.8) at PRT and 9.1 years (5.5-18) at last follow-up. The most common diagnoses were ependymoma (n=22), and medulloblastoma (n=7). Median follow-up is 6.7 years (3-15.4). Follow-up mean CSR and PPR scores were: total core (78.4 and 72.9); physical (82.9 and 75.2), psychosocial (76.0 and 71.6) emotional (74.4 and 70.7), social (81.2 and 75.1), school (72.4 and 69.9). Parent-reported HRQoL fell within a previously defined range for healthy children in 37.5% of patients, and for children with severe health conditions in 45% of patients. PPR HRQoL was stable from baseline to last follow-up among all domains except for the social functioning. History of gastrostomy-tube was significantly associated with poorer CSR and PPR HRQoL on multivariable analysis. Ninety-percent of children functioned in a regular classroom; 14(36%) used a classroom aid, 9(23%) used an outside tutor, and 18(46%) had an individualized education plan. CONCLUSION: Long-term HRQoL among brain tumor survivors treated with proton therapy at a very young age is variable with over a third achieving HRQoL levels commensurate with healthy children.

8.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190673, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Pediatric Proton/Photon Consortium Registry (PPCR) is a comprehensive data registry composed of pediatric patients treated with radiation. It was established to expedite outcomes-based research. The attributes which allow the PPCR to be a successful collaboration are reviewed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Current eligibility criteria are radiotherapy patients < 22 years treated at one of the 15 US participating institutions. Detailed health and treatment data are collected about the disease presentation and treatment exposures, and annually thereafter, in REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture). DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) imaging and radiation plans are collected through MIM/MIMcloud. An optional patient-reported quality-of-life (PedsQL) study is administered at 10 sites. RESULTS: Accrual started October 2012 with 2,775 participants enrolled as of 25 July 2019. Most patients, 62.0%, were treated for central nervous system (CNS) tumors, the most common of which are medulloblastoma (n = 349), ependymoma (n = 309), and glial/astrocytoma tumors (n = 279). The most common non-CNS diagnoses are rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 284), Ewing's sarcoma (n = 153), and neuroblastoma (n = 130). While the majority of participants are US residents, 18.7% come from 36 other countries. Over 685 patients participate in the PedsQL study. CONCLUSIONS: The PPCR is a valuable research platform capable of answering countless research questions that will ultimately improve patient care. Centers outside of the USA are invited to participate directly or may engage with the PPCR to align data collection strategies to facilitate large-scale international research. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: For investigators looking to carry out research in a large pediatric oncology cohort or interested in registry work, this paper provides an updated overview of the PPCR.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/normas , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Astrocitoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/radioterapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Computação em Nuvem , Ependimoma/radioterapia , Feminino , Glioma/radioterapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
9.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 36(2): 305-313, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Post-operative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), characterized by mutism, ataxia/hypotonia, and emotional lability, can result in long-term deficits following resection of posterior fossa (PF) tumors. This longitudinal study compared neuropsychological outcomes of pediatric patients with post-operative CMS to a matched control patient group without CMS. METHODS: Fifty-eight PF tumor patients received post-surgical proton radiation therapy (PRT) and testing at baseline and at ≥ 1-year post-PRT over a 10-year period. Of these, 18 (31%) had post-operative CMS with baseline and follow-up neuropsychological test data. Those participants were matched to 18 controls by tumor location, age, gender, and handedness; no significant group differences were found at baseline for clinical/demographic variables. Total mean age at baseline was 7.26 years (SD = 4.42); mean follow-up interval was 3.26 years (SD = 2.24). Areas assessed: overall intelligence, expressive and receptive vocabulary, visuomotor integration, fine motor speed, inhibition, emotional control, depression, and anxiety. RESULTS: Patients were 52% male; 86% medulloblastoma/14% ependymoma; 86% craniospinal irradiation/14% focal radiation; and 86% chemotherapy. No group differences were found between most mean baseline scores; expressive vocabulary and fine motor speed were significantly lower in the post-operative CMS group (p < 0.05). Mean change scores revealed no significant differences for the sample; scores were within the normal range except fine motor skills were impaired for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal neuropsychological outcomes for post-operative pediatric CMS patients did not differ significantly from matched controls without this condition. Patients were in the normal range in all areas except fine motor speed, which was impaired for both groups independent of CMS diagnosis.

10.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 34(1): 143-159, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739941

RESUMO

In pediatric brain tumors, the intensification of chemotherapy has allowed for a reduction in radiotherapy (RT) volume to an involved field approach, particularly in patients with medulloblastoma. For patients with low-grade gliomas, the trend has remained to delay RT with chemotherapy; however, when RT is used, typically smaller clinical target volume margins are used. For patients with extracranial tumors, intensive chemotherapy to address systemic disease with local control is considered standard. Proton beam therapy shows significant promise in addressing both short-term and long-term toxicities in both central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS pediatric tumors.

11.
Neurology ; 93(16): e1561-e1571, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lesion location after pediatric cerebellar tumor resection in relation to the development of severe cognitive and affective disturbances, or cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS). METHODS: The postsurgical lesion location of 195 pediatric patients with cerebellar tumors was mapped onto a template brain. Individuals with CCAS were matched to 2 participants without CCAS by sex, age, and lesion volume. Lesion analyses included both a hypothesis-driven evaluation of the cerebellar outflow pathway (deep nuclei and superior cerebellar peduncles) and data-driven multivariate lesion symptom mapping. Lesion-associated networks were evaluated by comparing connectivity patterns between the lesion location of cases with and those without CCAS with resting-state functional connectivity MRI data from large normative adult and pediatric cohorts. RESULTS: CCAS was present in 48 of 195 participants (24.6%) and was strongly associated with cerebellar outflow tract lesions (p < 0.0001). Lesion symptom mapping also highlighted the cerebellar outflow pathway, with peak findings in the fastigial nuclei extending into the inferior vermis. Lesion network mapping revealed that the cerebellar region most associated with CCAS was functionally connected to the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus, among other sites, and that higher connectivity between lesion location and the mediodorsal nucleus predicts CCAS occurrence (p < 0.01). A secondary analysis of 27 participants with mutism revealed similar localization of lesions and lesion-associated networks. CONCLUSION: Lesions of the cerebellar outflow pathway and inferior vermis are associated with major cognitive and affective disturbances after pediatric cerebellar tumor resection, and disrupted communication between the cerebellum and the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus may be important.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3242-3248, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate local control for patients with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocol ARST0531. METHODS: This study analyzed 424 patients with intermediate-risk RMS. Patients were randomized to chemotherapy with either vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) or VAC alternating with vincristine and irinotecan. With the goal of improving local control, radiation therapy (RT) was delivered early at week 4 and was concurrent with irinotecan in the experimental arm. Individualized local control plans for children 24 months old or younger were allowed. Local failure on ARST0531 was compared with local failure on the preceding COG intermediate-risk study, D9803. RESULTS: For patients with group I/II alveolar RMS (n = 55), the 5-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 13.4%; for group III alveolar RMS (n = 141), it was 20.2%; and for group III embryonal RMS (n = 228), it was 27.9% (P = .03). Among patients with group III disease, local failure did not differ by histology, site, nodal status, RT modality, or treatment arm. Local failure was worse for a tumor size >5 cm (32.3% vs 16.7%; P = .001). Among patients with group III embryonal RMS, local failure was higher on ARST0531 than D9803 (27.9% vs 19.4%; P = .03). After the exclusion of patients 24 months old or younger or patients who did not receive radiation, local failure remained significantly increased on ARST0531 (P = .02). After adjustments for clinical prognostic factors, event-free survival and overall survival were worse on ARST0531 (P = .004 and P = .05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Despite interventions designed to enhance local control, local control was inferior on ARST0531 in comparison with D9803. The reason for this is unclear, but it could be the reduced cyclophosphamide dose on ARST0531.

15.
Radiother Oncol ; 134: 25-29, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Consistent follow-up and data collection are necessary to identify long-term benefits/detriments of proton radiotherapy. Obtaining comprehensive clinical follow-up can be difficult and time-intensive for proton centers. Here we evaluate what factors affect maximum follow-up time among MGH Pediatric Proton Consortium Registry (PPCR) participants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Enrollment in the PPCR was offered to any patient <22 years receiving protons. Patients were excluded from analysis if they were taken off study due to death or withdrawal. Distance from MGH was calculated by the great-circle formula. We utilized both univariate and multivariate analyses to determine risk factors associated with follow-up time. RESULTS: 333 PPCR patients enrolled between 10/2012 and 03/2017 were included. Median follow-up was 2.4 years (<1-5.5), and median distance away from the proton center was 256.4 km (<1.6-16,949.6). Distance from MGH significantly predicted follow-up time: patients living outside the Boston Metropolitan Statistical Area, >121 km from the proton center, had average follow-up that was 0.53 years less compared to those living within 121 km (p = 0.0002). Loss in average follow-up was also associated with Medicaid insurance, treatment delay due to insurance, and non-White race. Those co-enrolled on a proton trial or seen at a facility had significantly increased follow-up by almost one year (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Patients living further from treating proton center have shorter follow-up durations. Increased distance from treating centers may adversely affect clinical outcomes research. Enhanced sharing of medical information among care providers and improved collection methods are needed to effectively evaluate the benefits of proton therapy.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(3): 546, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722969
17.
Radiother Oncol ; 132: 155-161, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414759

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To facilitate the initiation of observational studies on late effects of proton therapy in pediatric patients, we report on current patterns of proton therapy use worldwide in patients aged less than 22 years. MATERIALS & METHODS: Fifty-four proton centers treating pediatric patients in 2016 in 11 countries were invited to respond to a survey about the number of patients treated during that year by age group, intent of treatment, delivery technique and tumor types. RESULTS: Among the 40 participating centers (participation rate: 74%), a total of 1,860 patients were treated in 2016 (North America: 1205, Europe: 432, Asia: 223). The numbers of patients per center ranged from 1 to 206 (median: 29). Twenty-four percent of the patients were <5 years of age, and 50% <10 years. More than 30 pediatric tumor types were identified, mainly treated with curative intent: 48% were CNS, 25% extra-cranial sarcomas, 7% neuroblastoma, and 5% hematopoietic tumors. About half of the patients were treated with pencil beam scanning. Treatment patterns were broadly similar across the three continents. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this survey provides the first worldwide assessment of proton therapy use for pediatric cancer management. Since previous estimates in the United States and Europe, CNS tumors remain the cancer types most commonly treated with protons in 2016. However, the proportion of extra-cranial tumors is growing worldwide. The typically low numbers of patients treated in each center indicate the need for international research collaborations to assess long-term outcomes of proton therapy in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 31(1): 28-34, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531222

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes. However, emerging data has shown that more conservative brainstem dose limits with protons compared with photons are required to limit brainstem toxicity; these modified recommendations have been incorporated into national cooperative group studies. Decreased toxicity in tumors outside of the CNS for PBT have also been reported in sarcomas, Hodgkin disease and neuroblastoma. Similarly, QoL outcomes are improved in brain tumor and other cohorts of patients treated with PBT. SUMMARY: The collective findings demonstrate improved understanding and refinement of PBT in pediatric cancers. Data on QOL, toxicity and disease outcomes with PBT should continue to be collected and reported in order to understand the full extent of the risks and benefits associated with PBT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons , Criança , Humanos
19.
Cancer ; 125(2): 290-297, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome for patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) remains poor. A previous Children's Oncology Group (COG) study (ARST0431) for patients with metastatic RMS produced no improvement in outcome using multiple cytotoxic agents in a dose-intensive manner. The authors report results from the subsequent COG study (ARST08P1), which evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of adding cixutumumab (insulin-like growth factor-1 monoclonal antibody) or temozolomide to the ARST0431 intensive chemotherapy backbone. METHODS: Two nonrandomized pilot studies were conducted in patients with metastatic RMS, initially to determine feasibility, and both pilots were expanded to assess efficacy. All patients received 54 weeks of chemotherapy, including vincristine/irinotecan, interval-compressed vincristine/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide/etoposide, and vincristine/dactinomycin/cyclophosphamide. In pilot 1, patients received intravenous cixutumumab (3, 6, or 9 mg/kg) once weekly throughout therapy. In pilot 2, patients received oral temozolomide (100 mg/m2 ) daily for 5 days with irinotecan. All patients received radiation to the primary tumor and to metastatic sites. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-eight eligible patients were enrolled (97 on pilot 1 and 71 on pilot 2). Most patients were aged ≥10 years (73%), with alveolar histology (70%), and had bone and/or bone marrow metastases (59%). Toxicities observed in each pilot were similar to those reported on ARST0431. With a median follow-up of 2.9 years, the 3-year event-free survival rate was 16% (95% confidence interval, 7%-25%) with cixutumumab and 18% (95% confidence interval, 2%-35%) with temozolomide. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of cixutumumab or temozolomide to intensive multiagent chemotherapy for metastatic RMS was safe and feasible. Neither agent improved outcome compared with the same chemotherapy that was used on ARST0431.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Rabdomiossarcoma/mortalidade , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(1): 52-61, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long-term survivors of Ewing sarcoma (ES) and osteosarcoma may be at risk for therapy-related acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AL/MDS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of 1071 patients with osteosarcoma (n = 757) and ES (n = 314) who were treated between 1985 and 2014. Multivariable competing risk analysis was used to analyze predictors of t-AL/MDS, including a radiation dose (≥55.8 Gy vs <55.8 Gy) × disease site (pelvis/spine vs other) interaction term. A supplemental nested case-control study was conducted to assess the association between cumulative chemotherapy dose and t-AL/MDS. RESULTS: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 97 months (range, 0.03-380). Twenty patients developed t-AL/MDS, all of whom received chemotherapy and 15 of whom were treated with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy to ≥55.8 Gy was associated with development of t-AL/MDS (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-6.80; P = .015), and there was a significant radiation dose × disease site interaction term (adjusted hazard ratio, 6.70; 95% CI, 2.71-16.53; Pinteraction < .001). The 5-year cumulative incidence of t-AL/MDS in patients receiving ≥55.8 Gy radiation therapy to the pelvis or spine was 5.0% (95% CI, 0.9-14.9) for osteosarcoma and 10.7% for ES (95% CI, 3.3-23.2). In our nested case-control study, cumulative doses of ifosfamide and etoposide were associated with development of t-AL/MDS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with osteosarcoma and ES receiving ≥55.8 Gy of radiation therapy to the pelvis or spine appear to be at increased risk for t-AL/MDS. Treatment with high cumulative doses of chemotherapy may further augment this risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Osteossarcoma/radioterapia , Sarcoma de Ewing/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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