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1.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075516

RESUMO

Intriguing properties of photoemission from free, unsupported particles and droplets were predicted nearly 50 years ago, though experiments were a technical challenge. The last few decades have seen a surge of research in the field, due to advances in aerosol technology (generation, characterization, and transfer into vacuum), the development of photoelectron imaging spectrometers, and advances in vacuum ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. Particles and droplets offer several advantages for photoemission studies. For example, photoemission spectra are dependent on the particle's size, shape, and composition, providing a wealth of information that allows for the retrieval of genuine electronic properties of condensed phase. In this review, with a focus on submicrometer-sized, dielectric particles and droplets, we explain the utility of photoemission from such systems, summarize several applications from the literature, and present some thoughts on future research directions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Volume 71 is April 20, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(1): 013402, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976689

RESUMO

The high surface sensitivity and controlled surface charge state of submicron sized droplets is exploited to study low-energy electron transport through liquid interfaces using photoelectron imaging. Already a few charges on a droplet are found to modify the photoelectron images significantly. For narrow escape barriers, the comparison with an electron scattering model reveals pronounced quantum effects in the form of above-barrier reflections at electron kinetic energies below about 1 eV. The observed susceptibility to the characteristics of the electron escape barrier might provide access to these properties for liquid interfaces, which are generally difficult to investigate.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 4777-4782, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382737

RESUMO

We have investigated the solvation dynamics and the genuine binding energy and photoemission anisotropy of the solvated electron in neutral water clusters with a combination of time-resolved photoelectron velocity map imaging and electron scattering simulations. The dynamics was probed with a UV probe pulse following above-band-gap excitation by an EUV pump pulse. The solvation dynamics is completed within about 2 ps. Only a single band is observed in the spectra, with no indication for isomers with distinct binding energies. Data analysis with an electron scattering model reveals a genuine binding energy in the range of 3.55-3.85 eV and a genuine anisotropy parameter in the range of 0.51-0.66 for the ground-state hydrated electron. All of these observations coincide with those for liquid bulk, which is rather unexpected for an average cluster size of 300 molecules.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(12): 2379-2386, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811202

RESUMO

Photoelectron velocity map imaging of Li(CH3OCH3) n clusters (1 ≤ n ≤ 175) is used to search for magic numbers related to the photoelectron anisotropy. Comparison with density functional calculations reveals magic numbers at n = 4, 5, and 6, resulting from the symmetric charge distribution with high s-character of the highest occupied molecular orbital. Since each of these three cluster sizes correspond to the completion of a first coordination shell, they can be considered as "isomeric motifs of the first coordination shell". Differences in the photoelectron anisotropy, the vertical ionization energies and the enthalpies of vaporization between Li(CH3OCH3) n and Na(CH3OCH3) n can be rationalized in terms of differences in their solvation shells, atomic ionization energies, polarizabilities, metal-oxygen bonds, ligand-ligand interactions and by cooperative effects.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(24): 16364-16371, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872831

RESUMO

Low-energy electron scattering in water clusters (H2O)n with average cluster sizes of n < 700 is investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using high harmonic radiation at photon energies of 14.0, 20.3, and 26.5 eV for ionization from the three outermost valence orbitals. The measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron anisotropy parameter ß as a function of cluster size. A remarkably steep decrease of ß with increasing cluster size is observed, which for the largest clusters reaches liquid bulk values. Detailed electron scattering calculations reveal that neither gas nor condensed phase scattering can explain the cluster data. Qualitative agreement between experiment and simulations is obtained with scattering calculations that treat cluster scattering as an intermediate case between gas and condensed phase scattering.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 146(22): 224204, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166077

RESUMO

The transmission of low-energy (<1.8 eV) photoelectrons through the shell of core-shell aerosol particles is studied for liquid squalane, squalene, and di-ethyl-hexyl-sebacate shells. The photoelectrons are exclusively formed in the core of the particles by two-photon ionization. The total photoelectron yield recorded as a function of shell thicknesses (1-80 nm) shows a bi-exponential attenuation. For all substances, the damping parameter for shell thicknesses below 15 nm lies around 8 to 9 nm and is tentatively assigned to the electron attenuation length at electron kinetic energies of ≲1 eV. The significantly larger damping parameters for thick shells (>20 nm) are presumably a consequence of distorted core-shell structures. A first comparison of aerosol and traditional thin film overlayer methods is provided.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(10): 103402, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339280

RESUMO

We report the first measurements of size-resolved photoelectron angular distributions for the valence orbitals of neutral water clusters with up to 20 molecules. A systematic decrease of the photoelectron anisotropy is found for clusters with up to 5-6 molecules, and most remarkably, convergence of the anisotropy for larger clusters. We suggest the latter to be the result of a local short-range scattering potential that is fully described by a unit of 5-6 molecules. The cluster data and a detailed electron scattering model are used to predict the anisotropy of slow photoelectrons in liquid water. Reasonable agreement with experimental liquid jet data is found.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(40): 12347-50, 2016 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571535

RESUMO

The famous nonmetal-to-metal transition in Na-ammonia solutions is investigated in nanoscale solution droplets by photoelectron spectroscopy. In agreement with the bulk solutions, a strong indication for a transition to the metallic state is found at an average metal concentration of 8.8±2.2 mole%. The smallest entity for the phase transition to be observed consists of approximately 100-200 solvent molecules. The quantification of this critical entity size is a stepping stone toward a deeper understanding of these quantum-classical solutions through direct modeling at the molecular level.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(50): 12376-82, 2015 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26355269

RESUMO

This paper reports on a curiosity concerning magic numbers in neutral molecular clusters, namely on magic numbers related to the photoelectron anisotropy in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra. With a combination of density functional calculations and experiment, we search for magic numbers in Na(H2O)n, Na(NH3)n, Na(CH3OH)n, and Na(CH3OCH3)n clusters. In clusters of high symmetry, the highest occupied molecular orbital can be delocalized over an extended region, forming a symmetric charge distribution of high s character, which results in a pronounced anisotropy in the photoelectron angular distribution. We find magic numbers at n = 6 and 4 for sodium-doped dimethyl ether and ammonia clusters, respectively, but not for sodium-doped water and methanol clusters, which is likely a consequence of the degree of hydrogen bonding and the number of structural isomers.

10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(8): 1487-92, 2015 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263156

RESUMO

Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of the unpaired electron in sodium-doped water, methanol, ammonia, and dimethyl ether clusters is presented. The experimental observations and the complementary calculations are consistent with surface electrons for the cluster size range studied. Evidence against internally solvated electrons is provided by the photoelectron angular distribution. The trends in the ionization energies seem to be mainly determined by the degree of hydrogen bonding in the solvent and the solvation of the ion core. The onset ionization energies of water and methanol clusters do not level off at small cluster sizes but decrease slightly with increasing cluster size.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Sódio/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Íons/química , Solventes/química , Água/química
11.
J Chem Phys ; 142(22): 224304, 2015 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26071707

RESUMO

We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. First, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Second, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 142(11): 114303, 2015 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25796245

RESUMO

We present a combined computational and threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence study of two isotopologues of dimethyl ether, (DME - h6)n and (DME - d6)n n = 1 and 2, in the 9-14 eV photon energy range. Multiple isomers of neutral dimethyl ether dimer were considered, all of which may be present, and exhibited varying C-H⋯O interactions. Results from electronic structure calculations predict that all of them undergo barrierless proton transfer upon photoionization to the ground electronic state of the cation. In fact, all neutral isomers were found to relax to the same radical cation structure. The lowest energy dissociative photoionization channel of the dimer leads to CH3OHCH3 (+) by the loss of CH2OCH3 with a 0 K appearance energy of 9.71 ± 0.03 eV and 9.73 ± 0.03 eV for (DME - h6)2 and deuterated (DME - d6)2, respectively. The ground state threshold photoelectron spectrum band of the dimethyl ether dimer is broad and exhibits no vibrational structure. Dimerization results in a 350 meV decrease of the valence band appearance energy, a 140 meV decrease of the band maximum, thus an almost twofold increase in the ground state band width, compared with DME - d6 monomer.


Assuntos
Ligações de Hidrogênio , Éteres Metílicos/química , Prótons , Carbono/química , Cátions/química , Simulação por Computador , Dimerização , Hidrogênio/química , Isomerismo , Modelos Químicos , Oxigênio/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Fótons , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
J Chem Phys ; 140(3): 034321, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25669393

RESUMO

Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(50): 13919-25, 2013 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24168153

RESUMO

The photoelectron spectra of WO3H(-) and WO2F(-) are presented and analyzed in the context of a series of previous similar measurements on MO(y)(-) (M = Mo, W; y = 0-3), MO4H(-) and AlMOy(-) (y ≤ 4) complexes. The electronic structures of the WO3H and WO2F anion and neutral complexes were investigated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional method. The spectra of WO3H(-), WO2F(-), and previously measured AlWO3(-) photoelectron spectra show that the corresponding neutrals, in which the transition metal centers are all in a +5 oxidation state, have comparable electron affinities. In addition, the electron affinities fit the general trend of monotonically increasing electron affinity with oxidation state, in spite of the WO3H(-), WO2F(-), and AlWO3(-) having closed shell ground states, suggesting that the oxidation state of the metal atom has more influence than shell closing on the electron affinity of these transition metal-oxo complexes. Results of DFT calculations suggest that the neutrals are pyramidal and the anions are planar. However, the barriers for inversion on the neutral surface are low, and attempts to generate simple Franck-Condon simulations based on simple normal coordinate displacement, ignoring the effects of inversion, are inadequate.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(50): 13326-35, 2013 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23919276

RESUMO

The size dependence of the band position, the bandwidth, and the asymmetry parameter in the valence photoelectron spectrum of ammonia clusters and ultrafine ammonia aerosol particles is investigated for aggregates with diameters up to ~7 nm. The neutral aggregates are ionized by single photons at 13.318 eV from a tabletop vacuum ultraviolet laser. The photoelectrons are detected in a velocity map imaging photoelectron spectrometer. The size distributions of the neutral aggregates are determined independently using the Na-doping method. Up to clusters with a few tens of molecules, the first ionization energy (value at band maximum) decreases, the width of the lowest band in the photoelectron spectrum broadens, and the corresponding asymmetry parameter decreases with increasing cluster size. Constant ("plateau") values of these parameters are found for larger aggregates, which might be explained by a predominantly noncrystalline structure of these aggregates with an average coordination similar to that of the liquid. This explanation is in agreement with previous infrared studies and theoretical predictions.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Aerossóis
16.
J Chem Phys ; 138(4): 044202, 2013 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23387577

RESUMO

We present a new experimental configuration for the study of size-dependent, angle-resolved photoelectron and photoion spectra of weakly bound ultrafine aerosol particles targeted at particle sizes below ~20 nm. It combines single photon ionization by a tunable, table-top vacuum ultraviolet laser at energies up to 18 eV with velocity map imaging detection and independent size determination of the aerosol particles using the Na-doping method. As an example, the size-dependence of the valence photoelectron spectrum of dimethyl ether clusters and ultrafine aerosols is investigated. Up to a mean particle diameter of ~3-4 nm, the first ionization energy (value at band maximum) decreases systematically (up to ~1 eV) and the corresponding band broadens systematically (up to a factor of ~3) with increasing aggregate size. Plateau values for band positions and bandwidths are reached beyond a diameter of ~3-4 nm. Experimental evidence for the dominance of the fast intermolecular proton transfer over monomer fragmentation reactions upon ionization is presented via photoion imaging.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Lasers , Éteres Metílicos/química , Sódio/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(3): 940-9, 2013 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23201898

RESUMO

The fragmentation of methanol, water, dimethyl ether, and acetic acid clusters upon photoionization with a single vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon of 10.1 eV, 13.3 eV, or 17.5 eV energy is studied with mass spectrometry. The sodium-doping method is used as an independent approximate measure of the original cluster size distribution providing information on the degree of fragmentation upon VUV ionization. The experimental results show strong fragmentation for (CH(3))(2)O and CH(3)CO(2)H clusters but minor fragmentation for H(2)O and CH(3)OH clusters. The pronounced cluster decay for (CH(3))(2)O and CH(3)CO(2)H is explained by additional intracluster chain reactions that occur after the initial fast proton transfer in the ionic clusters, i.e. the decay of (CH(3))(2)O molecules into H(2), CO, and CH(4) catalyzed by the methoxymethyl radical, and the decay of CH(3)CO(2)H molecules into CO(2) and CH(4) catalyzed by the acetyloxy radical. The absence of equivalent reaction cycles in ionic H(2)O and CH(3)OH clusters after the fast proton transfer is consistent with the much less pronounced cluster fragmentation observed upon VUV ionization. The study shows that VUV photoionization even at threshold cannot in general be considered a soft ionization method for weakly-bound clusters, largely because of potential intracluster reaction.

18.
J Chem Phys ; 135(22): 224703, 2011 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22168715

RESUMO

We present a stereodynamics study of the dissociative chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on the (100), (110), and (111) planes of a nickel single crystal surface. Using linearly polarized infrared excitation of the antisymmetric C-H stretch normal mode vibration (ν(3)), we aligned the angular momentum and C-H stretch amplitude of CH(4)(ν(3)) in the laboratory frame and measured the alignment dependence of state-resolved reactivity of CH(4) for the ν(3) = 1, J = 0-3 quantum states over a range of incident translational energies. For all three surfaces studied, in-plane alignment of the C-H stretch results in the highest dissociation probability and alignment along the surface normal in the lowest reactivity. The largest alignment contrast between the maximum and minimum reactivity is observed for Ni(110), which has its surface atoms arranged in close-packed rows separated by one layer deep troughs. For Ni(110), we also probed for alignment effects relative to the direction of the Ni rows. In-plane C-H stretch alignment perpendicular to the surface rows results in higher reactivity than parallel to the surface rows. The alignment effects on Ni(110) and Ni(100) are independent of incident translational energy between 10 and 50 kJ/mol. Quantum state-resolved reaction probabilities are reported for CH(4)(ν(3)) on Ni(110) for translational energies between 10 and 50 kJ/mol.

19.
Science ; 329(5991): 553-6, 2010 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20671185

RESUMO

Newly available, powerful infrared laser sources enable the preparation of intense molecular beams of quantum-state prepared and aligned molecules for gas/surface reaction dynamics experiments. We present a stereodynamics study of the chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on the (100) surface of nickel. Using linearly polarized infrared excitation of the C-H stretch modes of two methane isotopologues [CH4(nu3) and CD3H(nu1)], we aligned methane's angular momentum and vibrational transition dipole moment in the laboratory frame. An increase in methane reactivity of as much as 60% is observed when the laser polarization is parallel rather than normal to the surface. The dependence of the alignment effect on the rotational branch used for excitation indicates that alignment of the vibrational transition dipole moment of methane is responsible for the steric effect. Potential explanations for the steric effect in terms of an alignment-dependent reaction barrier height or electronically nonadiabatic effects are discussed.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(6): 2157-64, 2006 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16466251

RESUMO

The reactions of Mo2Oy- suboxide clusters with both methane and ethane have been studied with a combination of mass spectrometry, anion photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. Reactions were carried out under "gentle" and "violent" conditions. For methane, a number of products appeared under the gentler source conditions that were more logically attributed to dissociation of Mo2Oy- clusters upon reacting with methane to form MoCH2-, Mo(O)CH2-, and HMo(O2)CH3-. With ethane, products observed under the same gentle conditions were Mo(O)C2H2-, Mo(O)C2H4-, Mo(O2)C2H4-, and Mo(O2)(C2H5)2-. As expected, more products were observed when the reactions were carried out under violent conditions. The photoelectron spectra obtained for these species were compared to calculated adiabatic and vertical electron affinities and vibrational frequencies, leading to definitive structural assignments for several of the products.

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