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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1254: 125-31, 2012 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22832037

RESUMO

Intravenous lipid emulsion is recommended as treatment for local anesthetic intoxication based on the hypothesis that the lipophilic drug is entrapped by the lipid phase created in plasma. We compared a 15.6 mM 80/20 mol% phosphatidyl choline (PC)/phosphatidyl glycerol (PG)-based liposome dispersion with the commercially available Intralipid® emulsion in a pig model of local anesthetic intoxication. Bupivacaine-lipid interactions were studied by electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Multilamellar vesicles were used in the first in vivo experiment series. This series was interrupted when the liposome dispersion was discovered to cause cardiovascular collapse. The toxicity was decreased by an optimized sonication of the 50% diluted liposome dispersion (7.8 mM). Twenty anesthetized pigs were then infused with either sonicated PC/PG liposome dispersion or Intralipid®, following infusion of a toxic dose of bupivacaine which decreased the mean arterial pressure by 50% from baseline. Bupivacaine concentrations were quantified in blood samples using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. No significant difference in the context-sensitive plasma half-life of bupivacaine was detected (p=0.932). After 30 min of lipid infusion, the bupivacaine concentration was 8.2±1.5 mg/L in the PC/PG group and 7.8±1.8 mg/L in the Intralipid® group, with no difference between groups (p=0.591). No difference in hemodynamic recovery was detected between groups (p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/química , Anestésicos Locais/farmacocinética , Bupivacaína/química , Bupivacaína/farmacocinética , Fosfolipídeos/farmacocinética , Óleo de Soja/farmacocinética , Animais , Bupivacaína/sangue , Bupivacaína/toxicidade , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Interações Medicamentosas , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/química , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/farmacocinética , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Fosfatidilgliceróis/farmacocinética , Fosfolipídeos/química , Sonicação , Óleo de Soja/química , Suínos
2.
J Lipid Res ; 53(9): 1832-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22717515

RESUMO

During atherogenesis, the extracellular pH of atherosclerotic lesions decreases. Here, we examined the effect of low, but physiologically plausible pH on aggregation of modified LDL, one of the key processes in atherogenesis. LDL was treated with SMase, and aggregation of the SMase-treated LDL was followed at pH 5.5-7.5. The lower the pH, the more extensive was the aggregation of identically prelipolyzed LDL particles. At pH 5.5-6.0, the aggregates were much larger (size >1 µm) than those formed at neutral pH (100-200 nm). SMase treatment was found to lead to a dramatic decrease in α-helix and concomitant increase in ß-sheet structures of apoB-100. Particle aggregation was caused by interactions between newly exposed segments of apoB-100. LDL-derived lipid microemulsions lacking apoB-100 failed to form large aggregates. SMase-induced LDL aggregation could be blocked by lowering the incubation temperature to 15°C, which also inhibited the changes in the conformation of apoB-100, by proteolytic degradation of apoB-100 after SMase-treatment, and by HDL particles. Taken together, sphingomyelin hydrolysis induces exposure of protease-sensitive sites of apoB-100, whose interactions govern subsequent particle aggregation. The supersized LDL aggregates may contribute to the retention of LDL lipids in acidic areas of atherosclerosis-susceptible sites in the arterial intima.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína B-100/química , Apolipoproteína B-100/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/química , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/farmacologia , Bacillus cereus/enzimologia , Emulsões , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Anal Biochem ; 414(1): 117-24, 2011 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21419750

RESUMO

Distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol/distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol 5000 [PEG(5000)] lipid disks, mimicking biological membranes, were used as pseudostationary phase in partial filling electrokinetic capillary chromatography (EKC) to study interactions between pharmaceuticals and lipid disks. Capillaries were coated either noncovalently with a poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone)-based copolymer or covalently with polyacrylamide to mask the negative charges of the fused-silica capillary wall and to minimize interactions between positively charged pharmaceuticals and capillary wall. Although the noncovalent copolymer coating method was faster, better stability of the covalent polyacrylamide coating at physiological pH 7.4 made it more reliable in partial filling EKC studies. Migration times of pharmaceuticals were proportional to the amount of lipids in the pseudostationary phase, and partition coefficients were successfully determined. Because the capillary coatings almost totally suppressed the electroosmotic flow, it was not practical to use the EKC-based method for partition studies involving large molecules with low mobilities. Hence, the applicability of the biomembrane mimicking lipid disks for interactions studies with large molecules was verified by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Biotinylated lipid disks were then immobilized on streptavidin-coated sensor chip surface, and interactions with a high-molecular-mass molecule, lysozyme, were studied. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation were used to clarify the sizes of lipid disks used.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Membranas Artificiais , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo/métodos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Galinhas , Colesterol/química , Muramidase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Estreptavidina/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 675(2): 191-8, 2010 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20800732

RESUMO

The use of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) in the study of heat-induced aggregation of proteins is demonstrated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model analyte. The hydrodynamic diameter (d(h)), the molar mass of heat-induced aggregates, and the radius of gyration (R(g)) were calculated in order to get more detailed understanding of the conformational changes of BSA upon heating. The hydrodynamic diameter of native BSA at ambient temperature was approximately 7 nm. The particle size was relatively stable up to 60 degrees C; above 63 degrees C, however, BSA underwent aggregation (growth of hydrodynamic diameter). The hydrodynamic diameters of the aggregated particles, heated to 80 degrees C, ranged from 15 to 149 nm depending on the BSA concentration, duration of incubation, and the ionic strength of the solvent. Heating of BSA in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (1.7 or 17 mM) did not lead to aggregation. The heat-induced aggregates were characterized in terms of their molar mass and particle size together with their respective distributions with a hyphenated technique consisting of an asymmetrical field-flow fractionation device and a multi-angle light scattering detector and a UV-detector. The carrier solution comprised 8.5 mM phosphate and 150 mM sodium chloride at pH 7.4. The weight-average molar mass (M(w)) of native BSA at ambient temperature is 6.6x10(4) g mol(-1). Incubation of solutions with BSA concentrations of 1.0 and 2.5 mg mL(-1) at 80 degrees C for 1 h resulted in aggregates with M(w) 1.2x10(6) and 1.9x10(6) g mol(-1), respectively. The average radius of gyration and the average hydrodynamic radius of the heat-induced aggregate samples were calculated and compared to the values obtained from the size distributions measured by AsFlFFF. For comparison static light scattering measurements were carried out and the corresponding average molar mass distributions of solutions with BSA concentrations of 1.0 and 2.5 mg mL(-1) at 80 degrees C for 1 h gave aggregates with M(w) 1.7x10(6) and 3.5x10(6) g mol(-1), respectively.


Assuntos
Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Animais , Bovinos , Desenho de Equipamento , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Luz , Peso Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Refratometria , Espalhamento de Radiação , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
J Lipid Res ; 51(11): 3126-34, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20724654

RESUMO

In addition to circulation, where it transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was also identified as a component of normal tear fluid. The purpose of this study was to clarify the secretion route of tear fluid PLTP and elucidate possible interactions between PLTP and other tear fluid proteins. Human lacrimal gland samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies against PLTP. Heparin-Sepharose (H-S) affinity chromatography was used for specific PLTP binding, and coeluted proteins were identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry or Western blot analysis. Immunoprecipitation assay and blotting with specific antibodies helped to identify and characterize PLTP-mucin interaction in tear fluid. Human tear fluid PLTP is secreted from the lacrimal gland. MALDI-TOF analysis of H-S fractions identified several candidate proteins, but protein-protein interaction assays revealed only ocular mucins as PLTP interaction partners. We suggest a dual role for PLTP in human tear fluid: (1) to scavenge lipophilic substances from ocular mucins and (2) to maintain the stability of the anterior tear lipid film. PLTP may also play a role in the development of ocular surface disease.


Assuntos
Mucinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/patologia , Heparina/metabolismo , Humanos , Aparelho Lacrimal/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Especificidade por Substrato
6.
J Sep Sci ; 33(16): 2528-35, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20603841

RESUMO

Entrapment of lipoprotein particles in the extracellular matrix of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of the development of atherosclerosis, the disease behind myocardial infarction and stroke. In this study, sugars were exploited in the separation of lipoproteins by CE. Monosaccharides, disaccharides and one sugar alcohol used during ultracentrifugal isolation of lipoproteins prevented the strong and unfavorable adsorption of lipoprotein particles on the capillary wall, allowing their selective separation in uncoated fused silica capillary. The effect of ionic strength of the phosphate BGE solution on the separation at physiological pH was clarified. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering showed that sugars affected the structure of lipoproteins by decreasing their sizes. Although in molecular dynamics simulations, only a 19 amino acid peptide of apolipoprotein B-100 and a 15 amino acid peptide of apolipoprotein E were employed, the results also indicated a decrease in lipoprotein size, supporting the asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering results.


Assuntos
Dissacarídeos/química , Lipoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/química , Álcoois Açúcares/química , Adsorção , Eletroforese Capilar , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Electrophoresis ; 29(4): 852-62, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18213602

RESUMO

PEG-stabilized lipid aggregates are a promising new class of model membranes in biotechnical and pharmaceutical applications. CE techniques, field-flow fractionation, light scattering, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and microscopic techniques were used to study aggregates composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and PEG-lipid conjugates. The PEG-lipids, with PEG molar masses of 1000, 2000, and 3000, were 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy-(PEG)] derivatives with either dimyristoyl (DM, 14:0) or distearoyl (DS, 18:0) acyl groups. The 80/20 mol% POPC/PEG-lipid dispersions in HEPES at pH 7.4 were extruded through 100 nm size membranes. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to determine the sizes of POPC and the PEGylated aggregates. All methods demonstrated that the DSPEG-lipid sterically stabilized aggregates were smaller in size than pure POPC vesicles. The zeta potentials of the aggregates were measured and showed an increase from -19 mV for pure POPC to -4 mV for the POPC/DSPEG3000 aggregates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron cryo-microscopy (EM), and multifrequency QCM studies were made to achieve information about the PEGylated coatings on silica. Lipid aggregates with different POPC/DSPEG3000-lipid ratios were applied as capillary coating material, and the 80/20 mol% composition was found to give the most suppressed and stable EOFs. Mixtures of low-molar-mass drugs and FITC-labeled amino acids were separated with the PEGylated aggregates as carriers (EKC) or as coating material (CEC). Detection was made by UV and LIF.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Lipossomos/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Micelas , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos
8.
Anal Biochem ; 374(1): 133-42, 2008 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17980694

RESUMO

Fusidic acid (FA) is a potent antibiotic and blocks the protein synthesis by binding to elongation factor G (EF-G) directly. Here we hypothesized that the antibiotic activity of FA would be potentiated by several orders of magnitude if both FA and EF-G would be residing in the lipid membranes and, hence, the probability of interaction would transform from three-dimensional to two-dimensional. Such detailed information could lead to more effective therapeutic interventions if they are understood on a molecular level. Interactions between FA and various lipid membranes composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and cholesterol (Chol) were studied by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The influence of the lipid vesicle size--sonicated liposomes and liposomes extruded through 30-, 50-, and 100-nm filters--on the packing of vesicles on the silica capillary surface was investigated by CEC and dissipative quartz crystal microbalance. The CEC results evidenced that FA interacts with and resides in phospholipid membranes. Likewise, monolayer, asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation, and CEC studies confirmed that EF-G is hydrophobic and incorporated into POPC and POPC/Chol membranes. Including EF-G in phospholipid vesicles did not improve the binding of FA to the membranes.


Assuntos
Colesterol/química , Ácido Fusídico/química , Membranas Artificiais , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Eletrocromatografia Capilar , Eletro-Osmose , Lipossomos
9.
Analyst ; 132(10): 989-96, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17893802

RESUMO

Electrochromatography with open tubular capillaries coated with human low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and their protein-free derivatives was studied as a method for their in situ enzymatic modification. LDL particles as monolayers or their protein-free derivatives (lipid microemulsions) were coated on 50 microm i.d. capillaries, which resemble tiny human blood vessels in size, the arterioles. The immobilized LDL particles were exposed to sphingomyelinase, phospholipase A2 or alpha-chymotrypsin at 25 and 37 degrees C. The mobility of the electro-osmotic flow was employed as a surface charge indicator, and the retention factors of steroids were used as hydrophobicity indicators. Moreover, the capillaries were, for the first time, coated with lipid microemulsions containing either LDL-derived or commercial lipids, and the immobilized microemulsions were treated with sphingomyelinase in capillary. The results demonstrate that open tubular capillaries provide a good microreactor for the in situ modification of LDL particles and lipid microemulsions. The technique only requires extremely low quantities of LDL particles, lipid microemulsions, and enzymes. It allows quick and easy alteration of the reaction conditions, and the enzymes can be collected and reused. Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation provides useful information on the size of the enzymatically modified LDL particles.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eletrocromatografia Capilar/métodos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/metabolismo
10.
Anal Chem ; 79(8): 3091-8, 2007 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17348634

RESUMO

A novel, comprehensive two-dimensional asymmetric field-flow fractionation-liquid chromatographic system is described (AsFlFFF-RPLC). The interface is based on a switching valve, and the whole sample is analyzed in both dimensions. The system proved to be repeatable and quantitative in the characterization of egg white proteins. Four peaks at 4, 5.5-6.0, 7.5-8.0, and 10.0-11.0 nm, and corresponding to lysozyme, ovalbumin, transferrin, and a dimer of transferrin, were obtained in the AsFlFFF first-dimension system. Lysozyme also produced an additional peak, which overlapped with ovalbumin. Twelve compounds were separated in the LC second-dimension system. Identifications were made with the help of standards (ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, lysozyme) and by comparison of the peak areas, particle sizes, and retention data with values given in the literature. The effect of heat on egg white denaturation was studied, and the unfolding of peptide bonds of the protein was found to be pronounced when the sample was heated in phosphate solution.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteínas do Ovo/análise , Muramidase/análise , Ovalbumina/análise , Transferrina/análise
11.
Biochemistry ; 46(5): 1312-9, 2007 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17260960

RESUMO

In circulation the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitates the transfer of phospholipid-rich surface components from postlipolytic chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) to HDL and thereby regulates plasma HDL levels. To study the molecular mechanisms involved in PLTP-mediated lipid transfer, we studied the interfacial properties of PLTP using Langmuir phospholipid monolayers and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) to follow the transfer of 14C-labeled phospholipids and [35S]PLTP between lipid vesicles and HDL particles. The AsFlFFF method was also used to determine the sizes of spherical and discoidal HDL particles and small unilamellar lipid vesicles. In Langmuir monolayer studies high-activity (HA) and low-activity (LA) forms of PLTP associated with fluid phosphatidylcholine monolayers spread at the air/buffer interphase. Both forms also mediated desorption of [14C]dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) from the phospholipid monolayer into the buffer phase, even when it contained no physiological acceptor such as HDL. After the addition of HDL3 to the buffer, HA-PLTP caused enhanced lipid transfer to them. The particle diameter of HA-PLTP was approximately 6 nm and that of HDL3 approximately 8 nm as determined by AsFlFFF analysis. Using this method, it could be demonstrated that in the presence of HA-PLTP, but not LA-PLTP, [14C]DPPC was transferred from small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) to acceptor HDL3 molecules. Concomitantly, [35S]-HA-PLTP was transferred from the donor to acceptor, and this transfer was not observed for its low-activity counterpart. These observations suggest that HA-PLTP is capable of transferring lipids by a shuttle mechanism and that formation of a ternary complex between PLTP, acceptor, and donor particles is not necessary for phospholipid transfer.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/química , Radioisótopos de Enxofre
12.
Anal Biochem ; 354(2): 255-65, 2006 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16750506

RESUMO

Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), a technique that provides direct measurement of particle size and diffusion coefficient, is converted into miniaturized scale. In comparison with conventional AsFlFFF, the separation of proteins in miniaturized AsFlFFF is achieved within shorter time periods, with smaller sample amounts, and with lower mobile phase consumption. Minimization of the overloading and optimization of the separation efficiency are prerequisites to good results. Miniaturized AsFlFFF is applied to the measurement of particle sizes of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The average hydrodynamic diameters at pH 7.4 in 8.5mM phosphate buffer containing 1mM EDTA and 150 mM NaCl are 8.6+/-0.5, 11.2+/-0.2, 22.1+/-0.7, and 48.9+/-7.5 nm for subgroups HDL3, HDL2, LDL, and VLDL, respectively. In addition, the effect of different factors on the aggregation and fusion of LDL particles is studied. LDL particle sizes are unaffected by the addition of up to 300 mM NaCl and by an increase of the carrier solution pH from 3.2 to 7.4, but treatment of LDL with alpha-chymotrypsin, sphingomyelinase, or copper sulfate leads to the formation of aggregated and fused LDL particles.


Assuntos
Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Lipoproteínas/química , Lipoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Quimotripsina , Sulfato de Cobre , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/instrumentação , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/química , Lipoproteínas HDL/isolamento & purificação , Lipoproteínas HDL2 , Lipoproteínas HDL3 , Lipoproteínas LDL/química , Lipoproteínas LDL/isolamento & purificação , Lipoproteínas VLDL/química , Lipoproteínas VLDL/isolamento & purificação , Miniaturização/instrumentação , Miniaturização/métodos , Complexos Multiproteicos , Concentração Osmolar , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase
13.
Anal Chem ; 78(8): 2665-71, 2006 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16615778

RESUMO

A novel, open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method was developed for the in vitro oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Low-density lipoprotein particles with molar mass of approximately 2.5 MDa yielded a stable stationary phase at temperatures 25 and 37 degrees C and at pH values from 3.2 to 7.4. The quality of the coatings was not influenced by variations in the LDL concentration in the coating solutions (within the range of 2-0.015 mg/mL) with the coating procedure used in the study. Radiolabeled LDL stationary phases and scanning electron microscopy, employed to shed light on the location and coating density of LDL particles on the inner surface of the capillary wall, confirmed the presence of an LDL monolayer and almost 100% coating efficiency (99 +/- 8%). In addition, the radioactivity measurements allowed estimation of the amount of LDL present in a single capillary coating. Capillaries coated with human LDL particles were submitted to different oxidative conditions by changing the concentration of the oxidant (CuSO4), oxidation time, pH value, and temperature. The oxidation procedure was followed with electroosmotic flow mobility, which served as an indicator of the increase in total negative charges of LDL coatings, and by asymmetrical field flow fractionation, which measured the changes in size of the lipoprotein particles. The results indicated that oxidation of LDL was progressing with increasing time, temperature, and concentration of the oxidant as expected. The oxidation process was faster around neutral pH values (pH 6.5-7.4) and inhibited at acidic pH values (pH 5.5 and lower).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Sulfato de Cobre/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Marcação por Isótopo , Lipoproteínas LDL/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Sep Sci ; 28(5): 435-42, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15835731

RESUMO

Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFIFFF) was used to determine the hydrodynamic particle sizes, molar masses, and phase transition behaviour of various poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) samples synthesised by reversible addition--fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and conventional free radical polymerisation processes. The results were compared with corresponding data obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Agreement between the three methods was good except at higher molar masses, where the molar mass averages obtained by SEC were much lower than those obtained by AsFIFFF and light scattering. The aggregation of the polymers, which are thermally sensitive, was studied by DLS and AsFIFFF at various temperatures. In deionised water there was an abrupt change in the particle size due to phase separation at approximately equal to 32-35 degrees C. The critical temperatures determined by AsFIFFF were 3-5 degrees C higher than those obtained by DLS.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Espalhamento de Radiação , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 380(5-6): 757-66, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15747405

RESUMO

Lipid membranes are well recognized ligands that bind peripheral and integral proteins in a specific manner and regulate their function. Cytochrome c (cyt c) is one of the partner peripheral protein that binds to the lipid membranes via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) was used to compare the interactions of cyt c with the acidic phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol (DMPG), oleic acid (OA), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The influence of pH and the cyt c-lipid molar mass ratios were evaluated by monitoring the diffusion coefficients and particle diameter distributions obtained for the free and lipid-bound protein. The hydrodynamic particle diameter of cyt c (pI 10) was 4.1 nm at pH 11.4 and around 4.2 nm at pH 7.0 and 8.0. Standard molar mass marker proteins were used for calibration to obtain the molar masses of free cyt c and its complexes with lipids. AsFlFFF revealed the binding of cyt c to DMPG and to OA to be mainly electrostatic. In the absence of electrostatic interactions, minor complex formation occurred, possibly due to the extended lipid anchorage involving the hydrophobic cavity of cyt c and the hydrocarbon chains of DMPG or SDS. The possibility of the formation of the molten globule state of cyt c, induced by the interaction between cyt c and lipids, is discussed.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/química , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Citocromos c/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/química , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilgliceróis/análise , Proteínas/química , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/análise , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Eletricidade Estática
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