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1.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e709, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824859

RESUMO

Aim: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed a heavy burden on emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed impacts of COVID-19 on the EMS system in Tokyo. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we used publicly available data, including the daily number of newly diagnosed patients with COVID-19, the weekly number of transport difficulties, and the field activity time, from March 2, 2020, to January 25, 2021. Data for the same period in the previous year were used as controls. Results: The total number of EMS calls decreased by 12.7% in 2020 compared with that in 2019. The number of daily transport difficulties significantly increased in 2020 compared with that in 2019 (89 [72-120] vs 57 [49-63]; P < 0.001). Additionally, the field activity time significantly increased in 2020 compared with that in 2019 (22.7 [22.3-23.8] min vs 20.7 [20.6-21.2] min; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily number of new patients with COVID-19 was positively correlated with the number of transport difficulties (R = 0.76) and the field activity time on the scene (R = 0.74). With an increase in the number of people infected with COVID-19 by 1,000, the number of daily transport difficulties increased by 86.4. Per 1,000 infected patients per day, the field activity time increased by 3.48 min. Conclusion: This study revealed that the increase in the number of patients with COVID-19 indirectly affected the EMS system in Tokyo.

2.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567577

RESUMO

Aim: This study describes the clinical characteristics and outcomes as well as the prognostic factors of patients with accidental hypothermia (AH) using Japan's nationwide registry data. Methods: The Hypothermia study 2018 and 2019, which included patients aged 18 years or older with a body temperature of 35°C or less, was a multicenter registry conducted at 87 and 89 institutions throughout Japan, with data collected from December 2018 to February 2019 and December 2019 to February 2020, respectively. Results: In total, 1363 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1194 were analyzed in this study. The median (interquartile range) age was 79 (68-87) years, and the median (interquartile range) body temperature at the emergency department was 30.8°C (28.4-33.6°C). Forty-three percent of patients with AH had a mild condition, 35.2% moderate, and 21.9% severe. AH occurred in an indoor setting in 73.4% and was caused by acute medical illness in 49.3% of patients. A total of 101 (8.5%) patients suffered from cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival at the hospital. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 24.5%, the median (interquartile range) intensive care unit stay was 4 (2-7) days, and the median (interquartile range) hospital stay was 13 (4-27) days. In the multivariable logistic analysis, the prognostic factors were age (≥75 years old), male, activities of daily living (needing total assistance), cause of AH (trauma, alcohol), Glasgow Coma Scale score, and potassium level (>5.5 mEq/L). Conclusion: The mortality rate of AH was 24.5% in Japan. The prognostic factors developed in this study may be useful for the early prediction, prevention, and awareness of severe AH.

3.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 507, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been associated with a risk of adverse outcomes, and mortality in patients with various conditions. However, there have been few studies on whether or not frailty is associated with mortality in patients with accidental hypothermia (AH). In this study, we aim to determine this association in patients with AH using Japan's nationwide registry data. METHODS: The data from the Hypothermia STUDY 2018&19, which included patients of ≥18 years of age with a body temperature of ≤35 °C, were obtained from a multicenter registry for AH conducted at 120 institutions throughout Japan, collected from December 2018 to February 2019 and December 2019 to February 2020. The clinical frailty scale (CFS) score was used to determine the presence and degree of frailty. The primary outcome was the comparison of mortality between the frail and non-frail patient groups. RESULTS: In total, 1363 patients were included in the study, of which 920 were eligible for the analysis. The 920 patients were divided into the frail patient group (N = 221) and non-frail patient group (N = 699). After 30-days of hospitalization, 32.6% of frail patients and 20.6% of non-frail patients had died (p < 0.001). Frail patients had a significantly higher risk of 90-day mortality (Hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.17; p < 0.001). Based on the Cox proportional hazards analysis using multiple imputation, after adjustment for age, potassium level, lactate level, pH value, sex, CPK level, heart rate, platelet count, location of hypothermia incidence, and rate of tracheal intubation, the HR was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.25-2.29; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that frailty was associated with mortality in patients with AH. Preventive interventions for frailty may help to avoid death caused by AH.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Hipotermia , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipotermia/diagnóstico , Japão/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9501, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947902

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a machine learning-based mortality prediction model for hospitalized heat-related illness patients. After 2393 hospitalized patients were extracted from a multicentered heat-related illness registry in Japan, subjects were divided into the training set for development (n = 1516, data from 2014, 2017-2019) and the test set (n = 877, data from 2020) for validation. Twenty-four variables including characteristics of patients, vital signs, and laboratory test data at hospital arrival were trained as predictor features for machine learning. The outcome was death during hospital stay. In validation, the developed machine learning models (logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest, XGBoost) demonstrated favorable performance for outcome prediction with significantly increased values of the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR) of 0.415 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.336-0.494], 0.395 [CI 0.318-0.472], 0.426 [CI 0.346-0.506], and 0.528 [CI 0.442-0.614], respectively, compared to that of the conventional acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE)-II score of 0.287 [CI 0.222-0.351] as a reference standard. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values were also high over 0.92 in all models, although there were no statistical differences compared to APACHE-II. This is the first demonstration of the potential of machine learning-based mortality prediction models for heat-related illnesses.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , APACHE , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to determine the prevalence and characteristics of earthquake-associated head injuries for better disaster preparedness and management. METHODS: We searched for all publications related to head injuries and earthquakes from 1985 to 2018 in MEDLINE and other major databases. A search was conducted using "earthquakes," "wounds and injuries," and "cranio-cerebral trauma" as a medical subject headings. RESULTS: Included in the analysis were 34 articles. With regard to the commonly occurring injuries, earthquake-related head injury ranks third among patients with earthquake-related injuries. The most common trauma is lower extremity (36.2%) followed by upper extremity (19.9%), head (16.6%), spine (13.1%), chest (11.3%), and abdomen (3.8%). The most common earthquake-related head injury was laceration or contusion (59.1%), while epidural hematoma was the most common among inpatients with intracranial hemorrhage (9.5%) followed by intracerebral hematoma (7.0%), and subdural hematoma (6.8%). Mortality rate was 5.6%. CONCLUSION: Head injuries were found to be a commonly occurring trauma along with extremity injuries. This knowledge is important for determining the demands for neurosurgery and for adequately managing patients, especially in resource-limited conditions.

6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 169-175, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of accidental hypothermia (AH) is low, and the length of hospital stay in patients with AH remains poorly understood. The present study explored which factors were related to prolonged hospitalization among patients with AH using Japan's nationwide registry data. METHODS: The data from the Hypothermia STUDY 2018, which included patients ≥18 years old with a body temperature ≤ 35 °C, were obtained from a multicenter registry for AH conducted at 89 institutions throughout Japan, collected from December 1, 2018, to February 28, 2019. The patients were divided into a "short-stay patients" group (within 7 days) and "long-stay patients" group (more than 7 days). A logistic regression analysis after multiple imputation was performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for prolonged hospitalization with age, frailty, location, causes underlying the hypothermia, temperature, pH, potassium level, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score as independent variables. RESULTS: In total, 656 patients were included in the study, of which 362 were eligible for the analysis. The median length of hospital stay was 17 days. Of the 362 patients, 265 (73.2%) stayed in the hospital for more than 7 days. The factors associated with prolonged hospitalization were frailty (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-4.10; p = 0.027), the occurrence of indoor (OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.58-6.46; p = 0.001), alcohol intoxication (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.56; p = 0.004), pH (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.76; p = 0.029), potassium level (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00-1.85; p = 0.048), and DIC score (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13-2.10; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, indoor situation, alcohol intoxication, pH value, potassium level, and DIC score were factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization in patients with AH. Preventing frailty may help reduce the length of hospital stay in patients with AH. In addition, measuring the pH value and potassium level by an arterial blood gas analysis at the ED is recommended for the early evaluation of AH.


Assuntos
Hipotermia/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(5): 408-417, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator weaning protocols are commonly implemented for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. However, despite such protocols, the rate of extubation failure remains high. This study analyzed the usefulness and accuracy of machine learning in predicting extubation success. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from patients who underwent intubation for respiratory failure and received mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU). Information on 57 features, including patient demographics, vital signs, laboratory data, and ventilator data, were extracted. Extubation failure was defined as re-intubation within 72 hours of extubation. For supervised learning, data were labeled as intubation-required or not. We used three learning algorithms (Random Forest, XGBoost, and LightGBM) to predict successful extubation. We also analyzed important features and evaluated the area under curve (AUC) and prediction metrics. RESULTS: Overall, 13 of the 117 included patients required re-intubation. LightGBM had the highest AUC (0.950), followed by XGBoost (0.946) and Random Forest (0.930). The accuracy, precision, and recall performance were 0.897, 0.910, and 0.909 for Random Forest; 0.910, 0.912, and 0.931 for XGBoost; and 0.927, 0.915, and 0.960 for LightGBM, respectively. The most important feature was duration of mechanical ventilation, followed by fraction of inspired oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, maximum and mean airway pressures, and Glasgow Coma Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning predicted successful extubation of ICU patients on mechanical ventilation. LightGBM had the best overall performance. Duration of mechanical ventilation was the most important feature in all models.

8.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(2): 88-96, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal venous gas (PVG) is a rare finding and has a grave prognosis. The most common and critical underlying pathology of PVG is bowel necrosis. However, bowel necrosis is sometimes difficult to accurately diagnose. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients that contributed to the decision to perform emergency surgery and bowel resection. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2019, 25 consecutive adult patients with PVG were identified retrospectively and divided into the Operation and Non-operation groups. The Operation group was further subdivided into the Bowel resection and Non-resection groups. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Conservative management was successful for 32% (8/25) of patients (Non-operation group: mortality 0%); 68% (17/25) were treated surgically (Operation group: mortality 35.3%). In the Operation group, 52.9% (9/17) underwent bowel resection (Bowel resection group: mortality 55.6%); however, bowel resection was unnecessary in 47.1% (8/17) of cases (Non-resection group: mortality 12.5%). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the Operation and Non-operation groups in GCS, APACHE II, abdominal distention, CRP, lactate, and CT findings of bowel dilatation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and attenuation of contrast effects of the bowel wall. However, with the exception of GCS, there was no significant difference between the Bowel resection and Non-resection groups. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of clinical, laboratory, and radiographic variables can inform decisions on conservative management. However, 47.1% of the present patients who underwent surgery for suspected bowel necrosis did not require bowel resection, suggesting that this approach alone may not be sufficient to avoid non-therapeutic laparotomy. A new approach should be developed to improve this situation.

9.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(3): 194-203, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of the aging of the Japanese population, traumatic brain injuries (TBI) have increased in elderly adults. However, the effectiveness and prognosis of intensive treatment for geriatric TBI have not yet been determined. Thus, we used nationwide data from the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank (JNTDB) projects to analyze prognostic factors for intensive and aggressive treatments. METHODS: We analyzed 1,879 geriatric TBI cases (age ≥65 years) registered in four JNTDB projects: Project 1998 (P1998) to Project 2015 (P2015). Clinical features, use of aggressive treatment, and 6-month outcomes on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were compared among study projects. Logistic regression was used to identify prognostic factors in aggressively treated patients. RESULTS: The percentage of geriatric TBI cases significantly increased with time-P1998: 30.1%; Project 2004 (P2004): 34.6%; Project 2009 (P2009): 43.9%; P2015: 53.6%, p<0.0001). Use of aggressive treatment also significantly increased, from 67.0% in P1998 to 69.3% in P2015 (p<0.0001). Less invasive methods, such as trepanation and normothermic targeted temperature management, were more often chosen for geriatric patients. These efforts resulted in a significant decrease in the 6-month mortality rate, from 76.2% in P1998 to 63.1% in P2015 (p=0.0003), although the percentage of severely disabled patients increased, from 8.9% in P1998 to 11.1% in P2015 (p=0.0003). Intraventricular hemorrhage was the factor most strongly associated with unfavorable 6-month outcomes (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.78-8.06, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Less invasive treatments reduced mortality in geriatric TBI but did not improve functional outcomes. Patient age was not the strongest prognostic factor; thus, physicians should consider characteristics other than age.

10.
Resuscitation ; 157: 32-38, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080369

RESUMO

AIM: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an evolving resuscitative method for refractory cardiopulmonary arrests. However, considering the substantial healthcare costs and resources involved, there is an urgent need for a full economic evaluation. We therefore assessed the cost-effectiveness of ECPR for refractory ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pVT). METHODS: We developed a decision model to estimate lifetime costs and outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with VF/pVT who received either ECPR or conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) was used as the main outcome measure. This model was a combination of a decision tree model for the acute phase based on a prospective observational study (SAVE-J study), together with a Markov model for long-term follow-up periods extrapolated from published data. To evaluate the robustness of this model, we conducted a comprehensive deterministic sensitivity analysis (DSA) and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). RESULTS: ECPR was cost-effective, with an incremental cost of ¥3,521,189 (Є30,227), an incremental effectiveness of 1.34 QALY, and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ¥2,619,692 (Є22,489) per QALY gained. DSA revealed that the present model was most sensitive to probability of Cerebral Performance Category 1 after ECPR (¥2,153,977/QALY to ¥3,186,475/QALY), patient age (¥2,170,112/QALY to ¥3,334,252/QALY), and long-term medical cost for modified Rankin Scale 0 (¥2,280,352/QALY to ¥2,855,330/QALY). PSA indicated ECPR to be cost-effective and below the willingness-to-pay threshold of ¥5,000,000 with an 86.7 % possibility. CONCLUSIONS: ECPR was an economically acceptable resuscitative strategy, and the results of the present study were robust even when considering the uncertainty of all parameters.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e039689, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) is a major public health issue worldwide. In 2017, there were more than 5000 fatal choking cases in the USA alone, and it was the fourth leading cause of preventable injury-related death in the home and community. In Japan, FBAO is the leading cause of accidental death and with almost 9000 fatalities annually. However, research on FBAO is limited, particularly on the impact of a foreign body (FB) removal manoeuvres by bystanders. The primary objective of this study is to determine the impact of bystander FB removal manoeuvres on 1 month neurological outcome. Our secondary objectives include (1) evaluating the efficacy of a variety of FB removal manoeuvres; (2) identifying risk factors for unsuccessful removal and (3) evaluating the impact of time intervals from incidents of FBAO to FB removal on neurological outcome. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a nationwide multi-centre prospective cohort study of patients with FBAO who present to approximately 100 emergency departments in both urban and rural areas in Japan. Research personnel at each participating site will collect variables including patient demographics, type of FB and prehospital variables, such as bystander FB removal manoeuvres, medical interventions by prehospital personnel, advanced airway management and diagnostic findings. Our primary outcome is 1 month favourable neurological outcome defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Our secondary outcomes include success of FB removal manoeuvres and complications from the manoeuvres. We hypothesise that bystander FB removal manoeuvres improve patient survival with a favourable neurological outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study received research ethics approval from Nippon Medical School Hospital (B-2019-019). Research ethics approval will be obtained from all participating sites before entering patients into the registry. The study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN 000039907.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Corpos Estranhos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Corpos Estranhos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
12.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685172

RESUMO

Background: It is difficult to diagnose Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) in the acute phase, and emergency physicians could diagnose BBE as an unknown cause of consciousness disturbance. Case presentation: A 75-year-old woman presented with dizziness and weakness in both arms 1 week after an upper respiratory infection. She experienced gradual worsening of consciousness, had dilated pupils and no light reflex. She was suspected of brainstem dysfunction at the upper part of the brainstem; however, there were not significant findings on magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, or electroencephalography. The auditory brainstem response demonstrated a low voltage, but there was no prolonged latency. At a later date, she was diagnosed with BBE based on serum immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibody. She was discharged home without any neurological sequelae. Conclusion: It is necessary to analyze serum immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibodies to diagnose BBE. Auditory brainstem response would be helpful in detecting lesions and predicting functional recovery.

13.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551124

RESUMO

Aim: Heat-related illness is common, but its epidemiology and pathological mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to report current clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of heat-related illness in Japan. Methods: We undertook a prospective multicenter observational study in Japan. Only hospitalized patients with heat-related illness were enrolled from 1 July to 30 September 2017 and 1 July to 30 September 2018. Results: A total of 763 patients were enrolled in the study. Median age was 68 years (interquartile range, 49-82 years) and median body temperature on admission was 38.2°C (interquartile range, 36.8-39.8°C). Non-exertional cause was 56.9% and exertional cause was 40.0%. The hospital mortality was 4.6%. The median Japanese Association for Acute Medicine disseminated intravascular coagulation (JAAM DIC), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores on admission were 1 (0-2), 4 (2-6), and 13 (8-22), respectively. To predict hospital mortality, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.776 (JAAM DIC score), 0.825 (SOFA), and 0.878 (APACHE II). There were 632 cases defined as heatstroke by JAAM heat-related illness criteria, 73 cases diagnosed as having DIC. A total of 16.6% patients had poor neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥ 4) at hospital discharge. In the multivariate analysis, Glasgow Coma Scale and platelets were independent predictors of mortality. Type of heatstroke, Glasgow Coma Scale, and platelets were independent predictors of poor neurological outcome. Body temperature was not associated with mortality or poor neurological outcome. Conclusions: In this study, hospital mortality of heat-related illness was <5%, one-sixth of the patients had poor neurological outcome. The APACHE II, SOFA, and JAAM DIC scores predicted hospital mortality. Body temperature was not associated with mortality or poor neurological outcome.

14.
Resuscitation ; 154: 77-84, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531404

RESUMO

AIM: Assessment of brainstem function plays a key role in predicting the neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. However, the relationship of the two quantitative brainstem assessment methods-automated infrared pupillometry (AIP) and auditory brainstem response (ABR)-with neurological prognoses remains unclear. This study compares the prognostic value of AIP and ABR after cardiopulmonary arrest. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 124 comatose patients after cardiopulmonary arrest. ABR and AIP measurements were performed simultaneously within 72 h after return of spontaneous circulation. Neurological outcome was assessed at discharge by estimating the cerebral performance category (CPC) score; favourable neurological outcome (CPC score, 1-2) or poor neurological outcome (CPC score, 3-5). The correlation of each AIP parameter and ABR I-V wave latency was tested using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, and the prognostic value was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: Pupillary light reflex (PLR) was not detected in 69 patients, and ABR wave V was not detected in 47 patients. All these patients had poor neurological outcome. Among those whose PLR and ABR could be measured, each AIP parameter had a tendency to be correlated with ABR I-V wave latency. Pupil constriction velocity provided the greatest AUC (0.819), with 81% sensitivity and 77% specificity. ABR I-V wave latency provided extremely low AUC (0.560). CONCLUSIONS: Although AIP and ABR were correlated, the AIP measures were superior in predicting the neurological outcome after cardiac arrest as compared with the ABR measures.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Parada Cardíaca , Coma , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reflexo Pupilar
15.
Cardiol Ther ; 9(1): 189-199, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) receiving oral anticoagulants (OACs), reversal of coagulopathy can be achieved with specific reversal drugs such as idarucizumab, which is indicated for use in patients treated with dabigatran for cases of life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding or during emergency procedures that may cause serious bleeding. This study examined the incidence rate (IR) of emergency surgeries and major bleeding episodes associated with fractures and trauma in Japanese patients with NVAF receiving OACs. METHODS: This retrospective, non-interventional analysis of health insurance claims was conducted using data from 62,888 OAC-naive adult patients with NVAF who initiated dabigatran, warfarin, apixaban, rivaroxaban, or edoxaban between March 2011 and June 2016. The primary endpoint was overall IR of emergency surgery or major bleeding due to fracture or trauma. RESULTS: Overall IR of emergency surgery or major bleeding due to fracture or trauma considering outcomes until OAC discontinuation was 0.489 per 100 patient-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.406-0.572). Considering first OAC exposure only, the IR was 0.483 per 100 PY (95% CI 0.394-0.573). Emergency surgery/major bleeding events due to fracture or trauma was highest in those aged ≥ 75 years (0.611 per 100 PY [95% CI 0.481-0.741]). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than one in 200 patients per year with NVAF receiving OACs experience emergency surgeries and major bleeding episodes associated with fractures and trauma; however, the IR of these events is markedly higher in patients of advanced age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov 207, NCT03254147.

17.
Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag ; 10(3): 179-185, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348714

RESUMO

Rapid induction and maintaining a target temperature of 32.0-36.0°C within a narrow range for <24 hours are essential, but those are very hard to perform in postcardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) patients. We investigated the usability of an intravascular temperature management (IVTM) system with neurolept-anesthesia (NLA; droperidol and fentanyl). Single-arm, prospective multicenter trial was carried out in the seven university and the three affiliated hospitals. In the 24 comatose PCAS patients, the target temperature (33.0°C) was rapidly induced and maintained for 24 hours using an IVTM system with NLA. The rewarming speed was 0.1°C/h until 36.5°C and was maintained for 24 hours. The primary end point was the ability to achieve ≤34.0°C for <3 hours after starting cooling, and the secondary end points were the cooling rate, deviation from the target temperature, and adverse events. Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score at 14 days was also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS software, using the intention-to-treat data sets. The target temperature of ≤34.0°C was reached by 45 minutes (35-73 minutes) and was within 3 hours in all patients. The cooling rate from 36.4°C to 33.0°C was 2.7°C/h (2.4-3.6°C/h). The temperature of 33.1°C (33.1-33.1°C) and 36.7°C (36.6-36.9°C) for 24 hours each was held during the maintenance and the after rewarming phases, respectively. Temperature deviations >0.2°C from 33.0°C in the maintenance phase occurred once each in two patients. The favorable neurological outcomes (CPC1, 2) were relatively good (50%). Five patients experienced serious adverse events; none was device related. We rapidly achieved therapeutic hypothermia within a narrow temperature range without major complications using the IVTM system with NLA in PCAS patients.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191709

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the characteristics of quantitative pupillary response parameters other than amplitude of pupillary light reflex (PLR) early after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and their implications for predicting neurological outcomes early after cardiac arrest (CA). Fifty adults resuscitated after non-traumatic out-of-hospital CA from four emergency hospitals were enrolled. Pupil diameters, PLR, constriction velocity (CV), maximum CV (MCV), dilation velocity (DV), latency of constriction, and Neurological Pupil index (NPi) were quantitatively measured at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-ROSC using an automated pupillometer. Change over time of each parameter was compared between favorable (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] 1 or 2) and unfavorable neurological outcome (CPC 3-5) groups. Prognostic values of 90-day favorable outcome by these parameters and when combined with clinical predictors (witness status, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initial shockable rhythm, implementation of target temperature management) were tested. Thirteen patients achieved favorable outcome. CV, MCV, DV (P < 0.001), and NPi (P = 0.005) were consistently greater in the favorable group than in the unfavorable outcome group. Change over time was not statistically different between the groups in all parameters. CV, MCV, DV (ρ = 0.96 to 0.97, P < 0.001, respectively), and NPi (ρ = 0.65, P < 0.001) positively correlated with PLR. The prognostic value of 0-hour CV (area under the curve, AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.92 [0.80-1.00]), DV (0.84 [0.68-0.99]), and NPi (0.88 [0.74-1.00]) was equivalent to that of PLR (0.84 [0.69-0.98]). Prognostic values improved to AUC of 0.95-0.96 when 0-hour PLR, CV, DV, or NPi was combined with clinical predictors. The 0-hour CV, MCV, and NPi showed equivalent prognostic values to PLR alone/in combination with clinical predictors. Using PLR among several quantitative pupillary response parameters for early neurological prognostication of post-CA patients is a simple and effective strategy.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Cardiol Ther ; 9(1): 167-188, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idarucizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment, was developed to reverse the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran, and it was approved in Japan in September 2016. An all-case post-marketing surveillance is ongoing to collect data in Japanese patients treated with idarucizumab who had serious bleeding (Group A) or required an urgent procedure (Group B). METHODS: The primary endpoint was the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The secondary endpoint was the maximum extent of reversal of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran based on activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) within 4 h after idarucizumab administration. RESULTS: This interim analysis included 262 patients who received idarucizumab. Eighteen patients (6.9%) experienced ADRs within 4 weeks. The reversal effect of idarucizumab based on aPTT within 4 h after idarucizumab administration was assessed in 30 patients and the median maximum percentage reversal was 100%. In Group A, the median time to bleeding cessation in patients without intracranial bleeding was 3.3 h. In Group B, normal intraoperative hemostasis was reported in 63 patients (72.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this interim analysis suggest that idarucizumab is safe and effective for the reversal of dabigatran in Japanese patients in a real-world setting, and support the continued use of idarucizumab. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02946931.

20.
Crit Care Med ; 48(5): e356-e361, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that vasodilator therapy may be beneficial for patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. However, robust evidence supporting this contention is lacking. We examined the hypothesis that vasodilator therapy may be effective in patients diagnosed with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database. PATIENTS: A total of 1,837 patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia from July 2010 to March 2018. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We compared patients who received vasodilator therapy (vasodilator group; n = 161) and those who did not (control group; n = 1,676) using one-to-four propensity score matching. Vasodilator therapy was defined as papaverine and/or prostaglandin E1 administered via venous and/or arterial routes within 2 days of admission. Only patients who did not receive abdominal surgery within 2 days of admission were analyzed. The main outcomes were in-hospital mortality and abdominal surgery performed greater than or equal to 3 days after admission. After propensity score matching, in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the vasodilator group (risk difference, -11.6%; p = 0.005). The proportion of patients who received abdominal surgery at greater than or equal to 3 days after admission was also significantly lower in the vasodilator group (risk difference, -10.2%; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Vasodilator therapy with papaverine and/or prostaglandin E1 is associated with lower in-hospital mortality and prevalence of abdominal surgery in patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Isquemia Mesentérica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Mesentérica/mortalidade , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Isquemia Mesentérica/cirurgia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
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