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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(19): 5927-31, 2015 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25918401

RESUMO

We infer global and regional emissions of five of the most abundant hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) using atmospheric measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, networks. We find that the total CO2-equivalent emissions of the five HFCs from countries that are required to provide detailed, annual reports to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) increased from 198 (175-221) Tg-CO2-eq ⋅ y(-1) in 2007 to 275 (246-304) Tg-CO2-eq ⋅ y(-1) in 2012. These global warming potential-weighted aggregated emissions agree well with those reported to the UNFCCC throughout this period and indicate that the gap between reported emissions and global HFC emissions derived from atmospheric trends is almost entirely due to emissions from nonreporting countries. However, our measurement-based estimates of individual HFC species suggest that emissions, from reporting countries, of the most abundant HFC, HFC-134a, were only 79% (63-95%) of the UNFCCC inventory total, while other HFC emissions were significantly greater than the reported values. These results suggest that there are inaccuracies in the reporting methods for individual HFCs, which appear to cancel when aggregated together.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(22): 8581-86, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20886860

RESUMO

Diurnal variations of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOC) and nonfossil SOC were determined for the first time using a combination of several carbonaceous aerosol measurement techniques, including radiocarbon (¹4C) determinations by accelerator mass spectrometry, and a receptor model (chemical mass balance, CMB) at a site downwind of Tokyo during the summer of 2007. Fossil SOC showed distinct diurnal variation with a maximum during daytime, whereas diurnal variation of nonfossil SOC was relatively small. This behavior was reproduced by a chemical transport model (CTM). However, the CTM underestimated the concentration of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (ASOA) by a factor of 4-7, suggesting that ASOA enhancement during daytime is not explained by production from volatile organic compounds that are traditionally considered major ASOA precursors. This result suggests that unidentified semivolatile organic compounds or multiphase chemistry may contribute largely to ASOA production. As our knowledge of production pathways of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is still limited, diurnal variations of fossil and nonfossil SOC in our estimate give an important experimental constraint for future development of SOA models.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Combustíveis Fósseis/análise , Aerossóis/química , Movimentos do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Carbono/química , Ritmo Circadiano , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Japão , Cinética , Modelos Químicos
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(11): 4089-95, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20441144

RESUMO

The atmospheric mixing ratios of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), extremely potent greenhouse gases, have been continuously measured at two Japanese stations (Cape Ochiishi and Hateruma Island) since 2006, to infer their global and regional emissions. The baseline mixing ratios of the measured C(2)-C(4) PFCs [PFC-116 (C(2)F(6)), PFC-218 (C(3)F(8)), and PFC-318 (c-C(4)F(8))] showed slight annual increases of 1%-3%. Enhanced mixing ratios above baseline were occasionally observed at both sites in air masses that had passed over metropolitan regions in East Asia, suggesting high PFC emissions from those regions. We applied transport models to these pollution events and an inversion technique to estimate national emissions. The results suggest that, among the studied regions (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan), China was the largest PFC emitter, accounting for more than half of the regional emissions, followed by Japan. The estimated total emissions of each PFC from East Asia were 0.86 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-116, 0.31 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-218, and 0.56 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-318. They contributed greatly to global emissions as derived from the annual increases in the baseline mixing ratios, accounting for more than 75% of global PFC-218 and PFC-318 emissions and for approximately 40% of global PFC-116 emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Ásia
4.
Anal Chem ; 81(21): 9021-6, 2009 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19791769

RESUMO

We developed an equilibrator inlet-proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (EI-PTR-MS) method for fast detection of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dissolved in seawater. Dissolved DMS extracted by bubbling pure nitrogen through the sample was continuously directed to the PTR-MS instrument. The equilibration of DMS between seawater and the carrier gas, and the response time of the system, were evaluated in the laboratory. DMS reached equilibrium with an overall response time of 1 min. The detection limit (50 pmol L(-1) at 5 s integration) was sufficient for detection of DMS concentrations in the open ocean. The EI-PTR-MS instrument was deployed during a research cruise in the western North Pacific Ocean. Comparison of the EI-PTR-MS results with results obtained by means of membrane tube equilibrator-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry agreed reasonably well on average (R(2) = 0.99). EI-PTR-MS captured temporal variations of dissolved DMS concentrations, including elevated peaks associated with patches of high biogenic activity. These results demonstrate that the EI-PTR-MS technique was effective for highly time-resolved measurements of DMS in the open ocean. Further measurements will improve our understanding of the biogeochemical mechanisms of the production, consumption, and distribution of DMS on the ocean surface and, hence, the air-sea flux of DMS, which is a climatically important species.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 42(15): 5706-11, 2008 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18754497

RESUMO

Methods for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water and air are required so that the VOCs' fluxes in water environments can be estimated. We developed a silicone membrane tube equilibrator for collecting gas-phase samples containing VOCs at equilibrium with natural water. The equilibrator consists of six silicone tubes housed in a polyvinyl chloride pipe. Equilibrated air samples collected from the equilibrator were analyzed with an automated preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for hourly measurements of VOC partial pressures. The partial pressures of all the target VOCs reached equilibrium within 1 h in the equilibrator. The system was used to determine VOC partial pressures in Lake Kasumigaura, a shallow eutrophic lake with a high concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Compressed air was used daily to remove SPM deposited on the inner wall of the equilibrator and to maintain the equilibrium conditions for more than a week without the need to shut the system down. CH2Br2, CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CH2BrCl, C2H5I, C2Cl4, CH3I, and CH3Br in the lake were supersaturated with respect to the air, whereas CH3CI was undersaturated. CHCl3 had the highest flux (6.2 nmol m(-2) hr(-1)) during the observation period.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Membranas Artificiais , Silicones/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Automação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Água Doce/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Cloreto de Metila/análise , Pressão Parcial , Material Particulado/análise , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Chemosphere ; 69(4): 549-53, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17462706

RESUMO

A survey of methyl chloride (CH3Cl)-emitting plants was performed at a subtropical island in Japan (Iriomote Island). Among the 187 species of tropical/subtropical plants investigated, 33 species from a variety of families were identified as CH3Cl-emitting plants. The strongest emitters were Osmunda banksiifolia, Cibotium balometz, Angiopteris palmiformis, Vitex rotundifolia, Vitex trifolia, and Excoecaria agalloch, each with CH3Cl emission rates exceeding 1microg (gdrywt)(-1)h(-1). The first three species are ferns, and the last three are halophilous plants. Based on our results, the character of CH3Cl emission is likely to be shared at the genus level but not always at the family level. The atmospheric CH3Cl distribution measured on Iriomote Island showed significant enhancement in forested sites (up to 2750 ppt) and a higher concentration on the downwind shore than on the upwind shore. As previously reported, our findings provide strong evidence for the high emission of CH3Cl from tropical/subtropical forests.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cloreto de Metila/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Japão , Cloreto de Metila/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Árvores , Clima Tropical
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 376(1-3): 185-97, 2007 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17306859

RESUMO

The presence of iodine chemistry, hypothesized due to the overprediction of HO(2) levels by a photochemical box model at Rishiri Island in June 2000, was quantitatively tested against the observed NO/NO(2) ratios and the net production rates of ozone. The observed NO/NO(2) ratios were reproduced reasonably well by considering the conversion of NO to NO(2) by IO, whose amount was calculated so as to reproduce the observed HO(2) levels. However, the net production rates of ozone were calculated to be negative when such high mixing ratios of IO were considered, which was inconsistent with the observed buildup of ozone during daytime. These results suggest that iodine chemistry may not be the sole mechanism for the reduced mixing ratios of HO(2), or that "hot spots" for iodine chemistry were present. Diurnal variations in the mixing ratios of HCHO, CH(3)CHO, peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and HNO(3) observed during the study are presented along with the simulated ones. The box model simulations suggest that the effect of iodine chemistry on these concentrations is small and that important sources of CH(3)CHO and sinks of PAN are probably missing from our current understanding of the tropospheric chemistry mechanism.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Iodo/química , Modelos Químicos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geografia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Japão , Ácido Nítrico/análise , Ácido Nítrico/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Oxidantes/análise , Oxidantes/química , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/química , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/química , Ácido Peracético/análogos & derivados , Ácido Peracético/análise , Ácido Peracético/química , Peróxidos/análise , Peróxidos/química , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Chemosphere ; 63(7): 1209-13, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16303165

RESUMO

A method for measuring the concentration of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in air trapped in an ice core was developed. The method combines the air extraction by milling the ice core samples under vacuum and the analysis of the extracted air with a cryogenic preconcentration/gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry system. The method was applied to air from Antarctic ice core samples estimated to have been formed in the pre-industrial and/or early industrial periods. The overall precision of the method deduced from duplicate ice core analyses was estimated to be better than +/-20 pptv. The measured CH3Cl concentration of 528+/-26 pptv was similar to the present-day concentration in the remote atmosphere as well as the CH3Cl concentration over the past 300 years obtained from Antarctic firn air and ice core analyses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ar/análise , Gelo/análise , Cloreto de Metila/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
9.
Nature ; 416(6877): 163-5, 2002 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11894090

RESUMO

Methyl chloride is the largest natural source of ozone-depleting chlorine compounds, and accounts for about 15 per cent of the present atmospheric chlorine content. This contribution was likely to have been relatively greater in pre-industrial times, when additional anthropogenic sources-such as chlorofluorocarbons-were absent. Although it has been shown that there are large emissions of methyl chloride from coastal lands in the tropics, there remains a substantial shortfall in the overall methyl chloride budget. Here we present observations of large emissions of methyl chloride from some common tropical plants (certain types of ferns and Dipterocarpaceae), ranging from 0.1 to 3.7 microg per gram of dry leaf per hour. On the basis of these preliminary measurements, the methyl chloride flux from Dipterocarpaceae in southeast Asia alone is estimated at 0.91 Tg yr-1, which could explain a large portion of missing methyl chloride sources. With continuing tropical deforestation, natural sources of chlorine compounds may accordingly decrease in the future. Conversely, the abundance of massive ferns in the Carboniferous period may have created an atmosphere rich in methyl chloride.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Cloreto de Metila/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Clima Tropical , Ásia Sudeste , Biomassa , Cloro/análise , Gleiquênias/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Óxidos de Enxofre/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo
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