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1.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117086, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848898

RESUMO

Lead poisoning of wild birds by ingestion of lead ammunition occurs worldwide. Histopathological changes in organs of lead-intoxicated birds are widely known, and lead concentration of each organ is measurable using mass spectrometry. However, detailed lead localization at the suborgan level has remained elusive in lead-exposed birds. Here we investigated the detailed lead localization in organs of experimentally lead-exposed ducks and kites by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In both the ducks and kites, lead accumulated diffusely in the liver, renal cortex, and brain. Lead accumulation was restricted to the red pulp in the spleen. With regard to species differences in lead distribution patterns, it is noteworthy that intensive lead accumulation was observed in the arterial walls only in the kites. In addition, the distribution of copper in the brain was altered in the lead-exposed ducks. Thus, the present study shows suborgan lead distribution in lead-exposed birds and its differences between avian species for the first time. These findings will provide fundamental information to understand the cellular processes of lead poisoning and the mechanisms of species differences in susceptibility to lead exposure.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477475

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a metal toxicant of great public health concern. The present study investigated the applicability of the rat incisor in Pb exposure screening. The levels of lead in teeth (Pb-T) in the crown and root of incisors in laboratory Pb-exposed Sprague Dawley rats were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crown accumulated much Pb-T than the root of the Sprague Dawley rat incisor. The levels of lead in blood (Pb-B) were positively correlated with the Pb-T in the crown and root incisors of the Sprague Dawley rats. As an application of the Pb-T crown results in experimental rats, we subsequently analyzed the Pb-T in the crown incisors of Pb-exposed wild rats (Rattus rattus) sampled from residential sites within varying distances from an abandoned lead-zinc mine. The Pb-T accumulation in the crown of incisors of R. rattus rats decreased with increased distance away from the Pb-Zn mine. Furthermore, the Pb-T was strongly correlated (r = 0.85) with the Pb levels in the blood. Laser ablation ICP-MS Pb-T mappings revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the incisor with an increased intensity of Pb-T localized in the tip of the incisor crown bearing an enamel surface in both Sprague Dawley and R. rattus rats. These findings suggest that Pb-T in the crown incisor may be reflective of the rat's environmental habitat, thus a possible indicator of Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Incisivo , Terapia a Laser , Animais , Chumbo , Espectrometria de Massas , Plasma , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Iran J Public Health ; 49(8): 1510-1519, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083328

RESUMO

Background: Exposure to toxic metals remains a public health problem with lifelong impacts on childhood growth and development. We aimed to investigate metals effects on preschool children's anthropometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, from Jul 2013 to Mar 2016. We measured scalp hair metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, manganese, and cobalt), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in 207 preschool children's (36 to 72 months old). Results: A significant negative correlation between children's hair lead levels and children's weight was found (r= -0.178, P<0.05). Linear regression analysis confirmed the relationship when adjusted for the confounders, including children's age, sex, height, family income, and maternal education (ß= -0.191; t= -3.426, P< 0.01). The ANOVA analysis showed a significant (P<0.01) difference between hair lead level and children's weight-for-age percentiles. Totally and separately, in almost all weight percentiles, hair lead levels were higher in girls than boys. Conclusion: The present study on Iranian children showed the current levels of lead exposure might negatively influence on children growth, with higher risk for girls than boys.

4.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 163: 109202, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561043

RESUMO

We developed a mixing medical device by attaching Shirasu porous glass Millipore membrane to prepare water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion in a shorter time to be applied as 10B-entrapped WOW emulsion for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Single-dose toxicity studies by intra-arterial injection of 10BSH-entrapped WOW were performed in rabbits and pig, and no side effects were observed. We hope to proceed to the preclinical and clinical studies for further evaluation of 10B compound as multidisciplinary treatments for HCC.

5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124581, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445333

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems and has attracted worldwide attention. Pb causes hematological, central nervous system, as well as renal toxicity, and so on. Although many investigations about Pb in blood to evaluate pollution status and toxic effects have been reported, there are open question about biological behavior of Pb. In order to reveal any toxicological mechanisms or influences, we focused on the local distribution of Pb in mice organs. Lead acetate (100 mg/L and 1000 mg/L) in drinking water were given to the BALB/c mice (male, seven weeks of age, N = 24) for three weeks. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the liver and inhomogeneous distribution in the kidney and brain. The hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus had higher concentrations than other areas such as the white matter. Surprisingly, in the kidney, Pb tended to accumulate in the medulla rather than the cortex, strongly suggesting that high sensitivity areas and high accumulation areas differ. Moreover, distribution of stromal interacting protein 1 (STIM1) which is candidate gene of Pb pathway to the cells was homogenous in the liver and kidney whereas inhomogeneous in the brain. In contrast to our hypothesis, interestingly, Pb exposure under the current condition did not induce mRNA expressions for any candidate channel or transporter genes. Thus, further study should be conducted to elucidate the local distribution of Pb and other toxic metals, and pathway that Pb takes to the cells.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/química , Chumbo/análise , Fígado/química , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/análise , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Terapia a Laser , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Análise Espectral
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20237, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882961

RESUMO

The detailed comorbidity status of hospitalized elderly patients throughout Japan has remained largely unknown; therefore, our goal was to rigorously explore this situation and its implications as of the 2015 fiscal year (from April 2015 to March 2016). This study was based on a health insurance claims database, covering all insured policy holders in Japan aged ≥60 years (male: n = 2,135,049, female: 1,969,019) as of the 2015 fiscal year. Comorbidity status was identified by applying principal factor analysis to the database. The factors identified in male patients were [1] myocardial infarction, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus; [2] congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia, and renal failure; [3] Parkinson's disease, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, and pneumonia; [4] cancer and digestive disorders; and [5] rheumatoid arthritis and hip fracture. However, in female patients, the results obtained for the quaternary and quinary factors were the opposite of those obtained in male patients. In superelderly patients, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, and pneumonia appeared as the tertiary factor, and hip fracture and osteoporosis appeared as the quaternary factor. The comorbidities in the elderly patients suggest the importance of coronary heart disease and its related metabolic disorders; in superelderly patients, fracture and osteoporosis appeared as factors, in addition to dementia and pneumonia.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 516, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain neuroscience education (PNE) has been shown to reduce pain or psychological symptoms in patients with chronic pain and preoperative knee osteoarthritis; however, the evidence of its effectiveness in hospitalized patients who have undergone high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is unknown. This study was performed to determine whether the implementation of a newly developed hospital-time PNE provided by physical therapists to patients after HTO can result in meaningful improvements. METHODS: In total, 119 patients aged ≥45 years with knee osteoarthritis who were scheduled to undergo HTO were analyzed. Patients with a low Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) score of < 21 were excluded. The patients were classified into two groups: those who underwent a combination of PNE and rehabilitation (intervention group, n = 67) and those who underwent rehabilitation only (control group, n = 52). The patients were pseudo-randomized by their baseline demographic factors using a propensity score-matching method. The PNE was based on a psychosocial model and began 1 week postoperatively in a group setting; five 1-h weekly sessions were conducted. The primary outcome was the walking pain score as measured by a numerical rating scale. The secondary outcomes were the pain catastrophizing scores as measured by the PCS, self-efficacy as measured by the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and physical function. Measurements were taken at baseline (before surgery) and before discharge from the hospital (5 weeks postoperatively) to identify any intervention effects. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 52 pairs of patients were extracted. In the intervention group, 46 (88.5%) patients completed the PNE. In total, 44 patients in the intervention group and 52 patients in the control group were analyzed. Five weeks following surgery, the rehabilitation itself had also significantly decreased catastrophizing, and the difference between the two groups had only a small effect size (d = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary evidence that physical therapist-delivered PNE during hospitalization may help to at least slightly reduce pain catastrophizing in patients with catastrophizing prior to knee arthroplasty. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (UMIN000037114) on 19 June 2019.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/reabilitação , Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/reabilitação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Catastrofização/etiologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Fisioterapeutas/organização & administração , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tíbia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Health Econ Rev ; 9(1): 20, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a high number of wet compresses are prescribed daily in medical institutions in Japan, our understanding of the national burden of the cost of wet compresses and the details regarding their prescription is far from complete. We investigated the national burden of the annual pharmaceutical cost of wet compresses prescribed in Japan and estimated the predictors of this cost using nationwide health insurance claims data. METHODS: We extracted the records on wet compress products from summary table files obtained from the second version of the "NDB Open Data Japan" website and calculated the annual pharmaceutical cost of wet compresses by patients' 5-year age group, sex, and prefecture. We also conducted an ecological study treating each prefecture as an individual unit and multiple linear regression analyses using the age-standardized cost of wet compresses per resident as a dependent variable. RESULTS: The annual pharmaceutical cost of wet compresses prescribed in Japan in fiscal year 2015 was 149.0 billion Japanese yen (1.18 billion euros; 1.33 billion USD). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the number of orthopedists and rehabilitation physicians per 100,000 residents were significantly positively associated with the annual pharmaceutical cost of wet compresses per resident (P = 0.042 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The annual pharmaceutical cost of wet compresses prescribed in Japan has a considerable impact on the nation's limited healthcare resources. The number of orthopedists and rehabilitation physicians per 100,000 residents may be independent predictors of the wet compress cost in Japan.

9.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 147, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mirtazapine has a good tolerability and safety profile that demonstrates several benefits over other antidepressants and it is associated with few fatalities. Boric acid is an odorless white powder that is generally not recognized as a poisonous substance. We report a case of cardiac arrest induced by the intentional ingestion of mirtazapine, boric acid, and sennosides, by a patient who required percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 49-year-old Japanese woman with a history of depression; she was found in an unconscious state after ingesting boric acid (unknown amount), mirtazapine (1950 mg), and sennosides (780 mg). On arrival, she was in a deep coma with marked hypotension induced by atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and diffuse hypokinetic cardiac motion. She had systemic diffuse erythema. Her serum concentrations of boric acid and mirtazapine on arrival were 560.49 mg/L and 1270 ng/mL, respectively. She experienced repeated cardiac arrest, and was therefore treated with tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass, and continuous hemodialysis filtration. Stable circulation and respiration and a normal kidney function were finally obtained and she was transferred to a local medical facility in a persistent unconscious state. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of a return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest induced by the intentional ingestion of boric acid and mirtazapine, requiring percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass for survival. To maintain cerebral perfusion during percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass, even in a prolonged state of cardiac arrest induced by overdose, is medically, ethically, and economically challenging.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/envenenamento , Ácidos Bóricos/administração & dosagem , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/induzido quimicamente , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Mirtazapina/envenenamento , Ácidos Bóricos/efeitos adversos , Depressão , Avaliação da Deficiência , Overdose de Drogas , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 14, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836940

RESUMO

In 1952, the Japanese Society for Hygiene had once passed a resolution at its 22nd symposium on population control, recommending the suppression of population growth based on the idea of cultivating a healthier population in the area of eugenics. Over half a century has now passed since this recommendation; Japan is witnessing an aging of the population (it is estimated that over 65-year-olds made up 27.7% of the population in 2017) and a decline in the birth rate (total fertility rate 1.43 births per woman in 2017) at a rate that is unparalleled in the world; Japan is faced with a "super-aging" society with low birth rate. In 2017, the Society passed a resolution to encourage all scientists to engage in academic researches to address the issue of the declining birth rate that Japan is currently facing. In this commentary, the Society hereby declares that the entire text of the 1952 proposal is revoked and the ideas relating to eugenics is rejected. Since the Society has set up a working group on the issue in 2016, there have been three symposiums, and working group committee members began publishing a series of articles in the Society's Japanese language journal. This commentary primarily provides an overview of the findings from the published articles, which will form the scientific basis for the Society's declaration. The areas we covered here included the following: (1) improving the social and work environment to balance between the personal and professional life; (2) proactive education on reproductive health; (3) children's health begins with nutritional management in women of reproductive age; (4) workplace environment and occupational health; (5) workplace measures to counter the declining birth rate; (6) research into the effect of environmental chemicals on sexual maturity, reproductive function, and the children of next generation; and (7) comprehensive research into the relationship among contemporary society, parental stress, and healthy child-rearing. Based on the seven topics, we will set out a declaration to address Japan's aging society with low birth rate.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Mulher
11.
Ind Health ; 57(5): 627-636, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760651

RESUMO

In Japan, the agricultural working environment has undergone significant changes from self-employment to enterprises and employees. As the structure of the agricultural industry changes, there has been a growing interest in occupational health and safety because agriculture is a hazardous industry. However, the public is not aware of the actual situation regarding occupational accidents in agricultural enterprises because most Japanese farmers are not necessarily required to report occupational accidents. The aim of this study is to explore the risk factors regarding occupational accidents for Japanese agricultural employees. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,606 employees at 101 agricultural enterprises in Japan. Information on occupational accidents, personal characteristics, and working conditions was collected by questionnaires. A total of 337 valid responses were obtained. Of these respondents, 104 (30.9%) experienced occupational accidents. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that permanent employment (OR 3.67, 95% CI, 1.84-7.33), pesticide use (OR 2.61, 95% CI, 1.52-4.47), and long working hours (OR 1.76, 95% CI, 1.15-2.68) were associated with the risk of occupational accidents. This study revealed the risk factors for occupational accidents for Japanese agricultural employees. It is suggested that work-hour restrictions for permanent employees might contribute to reducing occupational accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 8, 2019 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In health examinations for local inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas, only healthy people are investigated, suggesting that patients with severe cadmium nephropathy or itai-itai disease may be overlooked. Therefore, we performed hospital-based screening to detect patients with cadmium nephropathy in two core medical institutes in cadmium-polluted areas in Akita prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Subjects for this screening were selected from patients aged 60 years or older with elevated serum creatinine levels and no definite renal diseases. We enrolled 35 subjects from a hospital in Odate city and 22 from a clinic in Kosaka town. Urinary ß2-microglobulin and blood and urinary cadmium levels were measured. RESULTS: The criteria for renal tubular dysfunction and the over-accumulation of cadmium were set as a urinary ß2-microglobulin level higher than 10,000 µg/g cr. and a blood cadmium level higher than 6 µg/L or urinary cadmium level higher than 10 µg/g cr., respectively. Subjects who fulfilled both criteria were diagnosed with cadmium nephropathy. Six out of 57 patients (10.5% of all subjects) had cadmium nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: This hospital-based screening is a very effective strategy for detecting patients with cadmium nephropathy in cadmium-polluted areas, playing a complementary role in health examinations for local inhabitants. REGISTRATION NUMBER: No. 6, date of registration: 6 June, 2010 (Akita Rosai Hospital), and No. 1117, date of registration: 26 December, 2013 (Akita University).


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Cádmio/complicações , Intoxicação por Cádmio/urina , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intoxicação por Cádmio/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Nefropatias/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo
15.
Ind Health ; 57(1): 10-21, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269602

RESUMO

The maintenance of a balance between work and disease treatment is an important issue in Japan. This study explored factors that affect collaboration between occupational physicians (OPs) and attending physicians (APs). A questionnaire was mailed to 1,102 OPs. The questionnaire assessed the demographic characteristics of OPs; their opinions and behaviors related to collaboration, including the exchange of medical information with APs; and the occupational health service system at their establishments. In total, 275 OPs completed the questionnaire (25.0% response rate). Over 80% of respondents believed OPs should collaborate with APs. After adjusting for company size, collaboration ≥10 times/yr (with regard to both returning to work following sick leave and annual health check-ups for employees) was significantly associated with environmental factors, such as the presence of occupational health nurses (odds ratio (OR): 5.56 and 5.01, respectively, p<0.05) and the use of prescribed forms for information exchange (OR: 4.21 and 3.63, respectively, p<0.05) but not with the demographic characteristics of the OPs (p>0.05). The majority of OPs believed that collaboration with APs is important for supporting workers with illnesses. Support systems including prescribed forms of information exchange and occupational health nurses, play pivotal roles in promoting this collaboration.


Assuntos
Troca de Informação em Saúde , Enfermagem do Trabalho/métodos , Médicos do Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Feminino , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(5): 1086-1092.e1, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) and ichthyosis syndrome (IS) are rare genetic skin disorders. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of patients with ARCI and IS in Japan and clarify the clinicoepidemiologic features of these diseases. METHODS: We performed a nationwide survey of patients treated for ARCI or IS during January 2005-December 2009. We developed diagnostic criteria and conducted a primary survey in a stratified random sample of Japanese hospitals to quantify the number of outpatients and inpatients with ARCI or IS. We performed a secondary survey of clinicoepidemiologic features in positive cases. RESULTS: The estimated number of patients receiving treatment for ARCI and IS during 2005-2009 was 220 (95% confidence interval [CI] 180-260). The estimated disease distribution was as follows: 95 (95% CI 80-110) patients with nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, 30 (95% CI 20-40) with lamellar ichthyosis, 15 (95% CI 10-20) with harlequin ichthyosis, and 85 (95% CI 50-120) with IS. LIMITATIONS: Patients with a mild case of the disease might not have visited a dermatology department, potentially causing underestimation of affected patients. CONCLUSION: We report the estimated number of patients with ARCI and IS in Japan and sex differences in the age distribution.


Assuntos
Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/epidemiologia , Ictiose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/diagnóstico , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/genética , Ictiose/diagnóstico , Ictiose/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chemosphere ; 212: 994-1001, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286556

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) poisoning in raptors and water birds is a serious problem in many countries. However, only a small fraction of Pb poisoning has been detected in birds. Bone specimens may be useful indices of Pb exposure because bones contain ∼90% of the total Pb body burden. The original purpose of this study was to comprehensively analyze Pb accumulation in various bone types using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Since our results showed that Pb accumulation differed greatly depending on bone type, a secondary objective was defined, aiming to investigate the fine Pb distribution and its relation to bone structure and bone marrow by using laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS. Our findings suggested that bone samples (1) consisting of trabecular tissue and (2) those that contain bone marrow could accumulate high levels of Pb following acute exposure. The shorter turnover time of trabecular bone can cause a rapid accumulation of Pb, and bone marrow may have an important role for internal exposure of Pb to bone tissue. Pb is accumulated in bones via blood flow, and bone marrow receives blood from outside the bones. In conclusion, bone samples provide valuable information on Pb exposure and could be useful to investigate and understand mortalities related to suspected Pb poisoning.


Assuntos
Aves/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Imagem Molecular , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
18.
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 73(3): 305-312, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270298

RESUMO

The factors contributing to the declining birthrate in Japan include the declining marriage rate, an increase in the average age of those getting married, economic burden, childcare burden, later child-bearing, and infertility. There is a gender difference in role division, with 70% of unmarried people live with their parents and continue to work while leaving the household chores to their mothers. The loss of these housekeeping services and the increase in the number of irregular workers are factors contributing to the declining marriage rate and the increase in the average age of those getting married. The expansion of the family support policy in Japan from the male breadwinner model to the earner-career model may have been delayed, but it is expected to provide economic benefits as well as actual childcare service benefits in order to reduce the economic and physical burden of childcare for married couples. It is also necessary to provide education in reproductive health to both men and women in schools and workplaces regarding late child-bearing and infertility. Furthermore, it is necessary to evaluate the cost-effectiveness analysis of improvements in fertility and disclose the relevant information in addition to sharing information on medical technology related to pregnancy/childbirth and treatment of diseases. It is urgent to prepare society for natural and healthy pregnancies/childbirths during optimal child-bearing years.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Educação em Saúde , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Renda , Infertilidade/prevenção & controle , Infertilidade/terapia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 291: 230-233, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227370

RESUMO

In cases of criminal thallium poisoning, forensic investigation is required to identify the amount and time of thallium exposure. Usually, blood and urine thallium levels are respectively used as biomarkers. Additionally, hair has the unique potential to reveal retrospective information. Although several studies have attempted to clarify how thallium is distributed in hair after thallium poisoning, none have evaluated the time course of changing thallium distribution. We investigated changes in the distribution of thallium in hair at different time points after exposure in five criminal thallotoxicosis patients. Scalp hair samples were collected twice, at 2.6 and 4.2-4.5months after an exposure incident by police. Results of our segmented analysis, a considerable amount of thallium was detected in almost all hair sample segments. The thallium exposure date estimated from both hair sample collections matched the actual exposure date. We found that determination of thallium amounts in hair samples divided into consecutive segments provides valuable information about exposure period even if a considerable time passes after exposure. Moreover, when estimating the amount of thallium exposure from a scalp hair sample, it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to individual differences in its decrease from hair.


Assuntos
Cabelo/química , Tálio/análise , Tálio/envenenamento , Adulto , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parestesia/induzido quimicamente , Chá/química , Tálio/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Affect Disord ; 241: 200-205, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6 and lithium on suicide-related behaviors separately. This study was performed to comprehensively investigate the effects of naturally absorbed EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid and lithium in relation to suicide attempt and deliberate self-harm, with adjustment for each other. METHODS: We analyzed plasma EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid levels and serum lithium levels of 197 patients including 33 patients with suicide attempts, 18 patients with deliberate self-harm, and 146 control patients. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender, EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid and log-transformed lithium levels revealed that the negative associations with EPA levels (adjusted OR 0.972, 95% CI 0.947-0.997, p = 0.031) and log-transformed lithium levels (adjusted OR 0.156, 95% CI 0.038-0.644, p = 0.01) and the positive association with DHA levels (adjusted OR 1.026, 95% CI 1.010-1.043, p = 0.002) were significant in patients with suicide attempts than in control patients. The analysis also demonstrated that the positive association with arachidonic acid levels (adjusted OR 1.015, 95% CI 1.005-1.025, p = 0.004) was significant in patients with deliberate self-harm than in control patients. LIMITATIONS: The limitations are relatively small number of patients and the effects of demographics of individual patients could not be adjusted for the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that, as naturally absorbed nutrients, higher EPA and lithium levels may be associated with less suicide attempt, and that higher arachidonic acid levels may be associated with more deliberate self-harm.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Lítio/sangue , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/sangue , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
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