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1.
Pharmacol Res ; : 106052, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999224

RESUMO

Various melatonin supplementations have been developed to improve health outcomes in various clinical conditions. Thus, we sought to evaluate and summarize the effect of melatonin treatments in clinical settings for health outcomes. We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to 4 February 2021. We included meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials investigating the melatonin intervention for any health outcome. Based on the different effect sizes of each meta-analysis, we calculated random models' standardized mean differences or risk ratios. We observed robust evidence supported by statistical significance with non-considerable heterogeneity between studies for sleep-related problems, cancer, surgical patients, and pregnant women. Patients with sleep disorder, sleep onset latency (SMD 0.33, 95% CI: 0.10 - 0.56, P < 0.01) were significantly improved whereas no clear evidence was shown with sleep efficiency (1.10, 95% CI: -0.26 - 2.45). The first analgesic requirement time (SMD 5.81, 95% CI: 2.57 - 9.05, P < 0.001) of surgical patients was distinctly improved. Female patients under artificial reproductive technologies had significant increase in the top-quality embryos (SMD 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 - 0.79, P < 0.001), but no statistically clear evidence was found in the live birth rate (SMD 1.20, 95% CI: 0.83 - 1.72). Survival at one year (RR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.28 - 2.83, P < 0.005) significantly increased with cancer patients. Research on melatonin interventions to treat clinical symptoms and sleep problems among diverse health conditions was identified and provided considerable evidence. Future well-designed randomized clinical trials of high quality and subgroup quantitative analyses are essential.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to ICU and recovery with conservative care. RESULTS: Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n=58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favourable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (OR:20.3, 95% CI 1.90-217, p=0.013). CONCLUSION: The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. While patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Autism Res ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939353

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently diagnosed with co-occurring medical conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To investigate the association, we conducted a systematic review registered in PROSPERO (ID:CRD42021236263) with a random-effects meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo (last search on January 25, 2021), and manually searched relevant publications. We included observational studies measuring the association between ASD and IBD. The primary outcome was the association (odds ratio, OR) between ASD and later development of IBD. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by quality, confounding adjustment, and study design. We performed meta-regression analyses and assessed heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality of studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Overall, we included six studies consisting of eight datasets, including over 11 million participants. We found that ASD was significantly associated with subsequent incident IBD (any IBD, OR = 1.66, 95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.25-2.21, p < 0.001; ulcerative colitis, OR = 1.91, 95%CI = 1.41-2.6, p < 0.001; Crohn's disease, OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.15-1.88, p = 0.002). ASD and IBD were also associated regardless of temporal sequence of diagnosis (any IBD, OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.28-1.93, p < 0.001; ulcerative colitis, OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.36-2.12, p < 0.001; Crohn's disease, OR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.12-1.69, p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings of the main analysis. Meta-regression did not identify any significant moderators. Publication bias was not detected. Quality was high in four datasets and medium in four. In conclusion, our findings highlight the need to screen for IBD in individuals with ASD, and future research should identify who, among those with ASD, has the highest risk of IBD, and elucidate the shared biological mechanisms between ASD and IBD.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare, serious complication after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration that can involve various organ systems. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in patients with VITT. METHODS: We searched PubMed ePubs, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published until April 28, 2021 involving patients with VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Demographic and clinical characteristics including laboratory measurements were collected and compared. RESULTS: Four case series and three case reports involving 48 cases of VITT were included. Hepatosplenic thrombosis was present in eight cases (17%). Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had lower platelet counts (13,000 vs. 29,500/µL, p=0.016) and higher D-dimer levels (140.0 vs. 57.3 times upper limit of normal range, p=0.028). Multiple-site thrombosis was also associated with hepatosplenic thrombosis (88% vs. 15%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study comparing clinical profiles of patients with VITT according to the presence of hepatosplenic thrombosis. Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had more severe presentations with lower platelet counts, higher D-dimer levels, and higher rate of multiple-site thromboses. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish definitive evidence regarding the significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in VITT.

5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5513611, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840976

RESUMO

Objective: Determining sensitivity to allergens is an essential step in diagnosing children with allergic diseases. Chronic cough has remained poorly understood with causative triggers. The purpose of our study was to shed light on the relationship between sensitization to aeroallergens and chronic cough. Methods: This population-based study examined children (aged 7 years to 13 years) between June and July 2016. The 1,259 children, 72 of whom (5.7%) had a chronic cough, and 1,187 of whom (94.3%) did not (controls), completed the questionnaire, but 1,051 children completed skin prick tests (SPTs) with eight aeroallergens. Results: There were positive SPT results to at least 1 allergen in 549 children (52.2%). Sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) was most common (chronic cough = 46.9%; controls = 47.2%), followed by pollen (chronic cough = 21.9%; controls = 16.5%) in both groups, but there was no difference in allergic profile and sensitization to aeroallergen (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Multivariable analysis with adjustment for confounding indicated that children who were in sensitization to pollen had an increased risk of chronic cough (aOR = 2.387; 95% CI: 1.115 to 5.111; P = 0.025). Multivariable analysis with adjustment for confounding indicated that children who were exposed to current smoking (aOR = 4.442; 95% CI: 1.831 to 10.776; P = 0.001) and mold (aOR = 1.988; 95% CI: 1.168 to 3.383; P = 0.011) were associated with chronic cough. Conclusion: Sensitization to pollen should be considered as a potential contributing factor to the development of chronic cough in school-aged children.

6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e29379, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basic studies suggest that statins as add-on therapy may benefit patients with COVID-19; however, real-world evidence of such a beneficial association is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (composite endpoint: admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) between statin users and nonusers. METHODS: Two independent population-based cohorts were analyzed, and we investigated the differences in SARS-CoV-2 test positivity and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as admission to the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death, between statin users and nonusers. One group comprised an unmatched cohort of 214,207 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the Global Research Collaboration Project (GRCP)-COVID cohort, and the other group comprised an unmatched cohort of 74,866 patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS)-COVID cohort. RESULTS: The GRCP-COVID cohort with propensity score matching had 29,701 statin users and 29,701 matched nonusers. The SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with statin use (statin users, 2.82% [837/29,701]; nonusers, 2.65% [787/29,701]; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.97; 95% CI 0.88-1.07). Among patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the GRCP-COVID cohort, 804 were statin users and 1573 were matched nonusers. Statin users were associated with a decreased likelihood of severe clinical outcomes (statin users, 3.98% [32/804]; nonusers, 5.40% [85/1573]; aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.91) and length of hospital stay (statin users, 23.8 days; nonusers, 26.3 days; adjusted mean difference -2.87; 95% CI -5.68 to -0.93) than nonusers. The results of the NHIS-COVID cohort were similar to the primary results of the GRCP-COVID cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that prior statin use is related to a decreased risk of worsening clinical outcomes of COVID-19 and length of hospital stay but not to that of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719115

RESUMO

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.

9.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(39): 4053-4063, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545400

RESUMO

AIMS: The clinical manifestation and outcomes of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration are largely unknown due to the rare nature of the disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, outcomes, and prognostic factors of adenoviral TTS, as well as identify predictors for mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched and the resulting articles were reviewed. A total of 6 case series and 13 case reports (64 patients) of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were included. We performed a pooled analysis and developed a novel scoring system to predict mortality. The overall mortality of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 35.9% (23/64). In our analysis, age ≤60 years, platelet count <25 × 103/µL, fibrinogen <150 mg/dL, the presence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were significantly associated with death and were selected as predictors for mortality (1 point each). We named this novel scoring system FAPIC (fibrinogen, age, platelet count, ICH, and CVT), and the C-statistic for the FAPIC score was 0.837 (95% CI 0.732-0.942). Expected mortality increased with each point increase in the FAPIC score, at 2.08, 6.66, 19.31, 44.54, 72.94, and 90.05% with FAPIC scores 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The FAPIC scoring model was internally validated through cross-validation and bootstrapping, then externally validated on a panel of TTS patients after Ad26.COV2.S administration. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen levels, age, platelet count, and the presence of ICH and CVT were significantly associated with mortality in patients with TTS, and the FAPIC score comprising these risk factors could predict mortality. The FAPIC score could be used in the clinical setting to recognize TTS patients at high risk of adverse outcomes and provide early intensive interventions including intravenous immunoglobulins and non-heparin anticoagulants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
12.
Eur Heart J ; 42(34): 3388-3403, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333589

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the causal relationship and evidence of an association between increased adiposity and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational (informing association) and Mendelian randomization (MR) (informing causality) studies were assessed to gather mutually complementary insights and elucidate perplexing epidemiological relationships. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational and MR studies that were published until January 2021 and evaluated the association between obesity-related indices and CVD risk were searched. Twelve systematic reviews with 53 meta-analyses results (including over 501 cohort studies) and 12 MR studies were included in the analysis. A body mass index (BMI) increase was associated with higher risks of coronary heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, all-cause stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, ischaemic stroke, hypertension, aortic valve stenosis, pulmonary embolism, and venous thrombo-embolism. The MR study results demonstrated a causal effect of obesity on all indices but stroke. The CVD risk increase for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI varied from 10% [relative risk (RR) 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.21; certainty of evidence, low] for haemorrhagic stroke to 49% (RR 1.49; 95% CI 1.40-1.60; certainty of evidence, high) for hypertension. The all-cause and CVD-specific mortality risks increased with adiposity in cohorts, but the MR studies demonstrated no causal effect of adiposity on all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: High adiposity is associated with increased CVD risk despite divergent evidence gradients. Adiposity was a causal risk factor for CVD except all-cause mortality and stroke. Half (49%; 26/53) of the associations were supported by high-level evidence. The associations were consistent between sexes and across global regions. This study provides guidance on how to integrate evidence from observational (association) and genetics-driven (causation) studies accumulated to date, to enable a more reliable interpretation of epidemiological relationships.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adiposidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 340, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to determine the association between infant exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD) with neuropsychiatric problems in pre-school children. METHODS: A total of 2,150 children (age 4-11 months) were enrolled in the Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) study. The Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used for assessments of neuropsychiatric problems. 1,113 children who participated in all the first to third PSKC studies and answered a question about HD exposure were finally enrolled. RESULTS: There were 717 (64.5%) children in non-HD group who were not exposed to HD and 396 (35.5%) in HD group with former exposure to HD. Exposure to HD was associated with total neuropsychiatric problems (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15-2.06), being emotionally reactive (aOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.00-2.39), having attention problems (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.10-3.47), having oppositional defiant problems (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07-2.71), and having attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (aOR = 11.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.38). The risks for neuropsychiatric problems were clearly increased in boy, firstborn, and secondary smoker. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to HD during early childhood had a potential association with subsequent behavioral abnormalities.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Umidificadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
14.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1208-1217, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313711

RESUMO

Importance: Heterogeneous evidence exists for the association between COVID-19 and the clinical outcomes of patients with mental health disorders. It remains unknown whether patients with COVID-19 and mental health disorders are at increased risk of mortality and should thus be targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19. Objective: To determine whether patients with mental health disorders were at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality compared with patients without mental health disorders. Data Sources: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched from inception to February 12, 2021. Bibliographies were also searched, and the corresponding authors were directly contacted. The search paradigm was based on the following combination: (mental, major[MeSH terms]) AND (COVID-19 mortality[MeSH terms]). To ensure exhaustivity, the term mental was replaced by psychiatric, schizophrenia, psychotic, bipolar disorder, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, personality disorder, eating disorder, alcohol abuse, alcohol misuse, substance abuse, and substance misuse. Study Selection: Eligible studies were population-based cohort studies of all patients with identified COVID-19 exploring the association between mental health disorders and mortality. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline was used for abstracting data and assessing data quality and validity. This systematic review is registered with PROSPERO. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the association of mental health disorders with mortality were calculated using a 3-level random-effects (study/country) approach with a hierarchical structure to assess effect size dependency. Results: In total, 16 population-based cohort studies (data from medico-administrative health or electronic/medical records databases) across 7 countries (1 from Denmark, 2 from France, 1 from Israel, 3 from South Korea, 1 from Spain, 1 from the UK, and 7 from the US) and 19 086 patients with mental health disorders were included. The studies covered December 2019 to July 2020, were of good quality, and no publication bias was identified. COVID-19 mortality was associated with an increased risk among patients with mental health disorders compared with patients without mental health disorders according to both pooled crude OR (1.75 [95% CI, 1.40-2.20]; P < .05) and adjusted OR (1.38 [95% CI, 1.15-1.65]; P < .05). The patients with severe mental health disorders had the highest ORs for risk of mortality (crude OR: 2.26 [95% CI, 1.18-4.31]; adjusted OR: 1.67 [95% CI, 1.02-2.73]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 observational studies in 7 countries, mental health disorders were associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality. Thus, patients with mental health disorders should have been targeted as a high-risk population for severe forms of COVID-19, requiring enhanced preventive and disease management strategies. Future studies should more accurately evaluate the risk for patients with each mental health disorder. However, the highest risk seemed to be found in studies including individuals with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorders.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos
17.
Retina ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effects of epiretinal membrane (ERM) and epiretinal proliferation (EP) on surgical outcomes for full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). METHODS: Nested case-control study with propensity-score-matching. Patients operated on for FTMH between January 2011 and March 2020 were enrolled. The primary outcome was failure of the MH closure and the secondary outcome was unfavorable hole closure (V or λ type closure) at 6 months after the surgery. RESULTS: 534 eyes of 534 patients met the inclusion criteria. After 1:1 propensity-score- matching (127 pairs), patients demonstrating ERM were more likely to have a failure of hole closure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.71; 95% CI 1.19-6.14) and unfavorable hole closure (aOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.16-3.71). ERM spanning the hole margin (hole marginal ERM, HM-ERM) greatly increased the likelihood of unfavorable hole closure (aOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.07). Patients with HM-ERM + EP were more likely to have a failure of hole closure (38.4%) compared to those with no ERM (11.8%). CONCLUSION: Patients with ERM had a higher risk for adverse surgical outcomes for FTMH closure. The location of the ERM relative to the MH and the presence of EP might affect the surgical outcomes for FTMH closure.

18.
Am J Ophthalmol ; : 11881, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential association of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a representative chronic age-related degenerative disease of the retina associated with inflammation and aging, with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study with propensity-score matching. SETTING: Population-based nationwide cohort in Korea. STUDY POPULATION: Data were obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea, including all patients older than 40 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing in South Korea between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (excluding self-referral). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 test positivity was the primary outcome and severe clinical outcome of COVID-19 was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: The unmatched cohort consisted of 135,435 patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4531 (3.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; 5493 (4.1%) patients had AMD. After propensity score matching, exudative AMD was associated with an increased likelihood of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.25), and a considerably greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (aOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.26), but not any AMD and non-exudative AMD. CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, our data suggest that clinicians should be aware of the greater risk of susceptibility to severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with exudative AMD. Our findings provide an improved understanding of the relationship between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and chronic neurological disorders.

19.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179832

RESUMO

Background: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. Findings: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). Interpretation: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. Funding: National Research Foundation of Korea.

20.
J Autoimmun ; 122: 102681, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139631

RESUMO

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) events have been reported after vaccination with adenoviral COVID-19 vector vaccines. This study aimed to compare the clinical presentations and courses of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) between the two adenoviral vector vaccines, Ad26.COV.2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Astra-Zeneca). We found that CVT after Ad26.COV.2.S vaccination presents later with similar symptoms compared to CVT after administration of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, albeit with more thrombosis and intracerebral hemorrhage, lower D-dimer and aPTT levels but similar mortality. These findings could help guide clinical assessment and management of CVT after COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
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