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Blood Adv ; 5(5): 1403-1411, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666650


Imatinib is the mainstay of treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in Tanzania. Monitoring molecular response to therapy by real-time polymerase chain reaction at defined milestones is necessary for early detection of treatment failure. However, this assay is not routinely performed in Tanzania; therefore, the depth of molecular response among patients with CML is not known. A total of 158 patients with previously diagnosed CML who received imatinib treatment were recruited from January 2019 and followed up through October 2020 at Ocean Road Cancer Institute. Information was obtained at the time of diagnosis and follow-up. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes to measure the BCR/ABL ratio on the Gene Xpert system for molecular response determination. The median age of the 158 adult patients was 45 years (range, 18-86). By reference to established treatment milestones, only 37 (23.4%) achieved optimal molecular response. Signs of advanced-stage disease, in particular the need for red cell transfusions before diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.4; 95% CI, 1.32-9.17) and cytopenias (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.03-4.96) necessitating drug interruptions were statistically validated predictors of treatment failure on multivariate, multinomial logistic regression. Patient survival at the 22-month follow-up was lowest, with 78.6% (95% CI, 69.4-85.4) in the failure-to-respond category and highest in patients achieving optimal response 97.0% (95% CI, 80.9-99.6). In summary, the majority of patients with CML treated with imatinib in Tanzania do not obtain deep molecular response. This outcome can be attributed to late diagnosis, the development of cytopenias requiring multiple drug interruptions, and poor adherence to treatment.

Case Rep Hematol ; 2019: 1742472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929921


Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited hemoglobinopathy leading to several serious organ complications and early death. It is mostly found in equatorial countries like Tanzania. Extradural hematoma (EDH) is a rare, but serious complication to SCD and may have debilitating consequences. Hitherto, there is no report of EDH in SCD where neuroimaging has been available before, during, and after such an event. Here, we describe a young female SCD patient who developed EDH that required surgical evacuation. She had made full recovery after three months. Neuroimaging performed two years prior to this event was unremarkable except for multiple small cerebral infarcts. On admission, neuroimaging revealed a subgaleal hematoma, possibly indicating disruption of the skull cortex due to increased hematopoiesis. Three months after evacuation of the hematoma, neuroimaging showed evidence of brain atrophy and the previously reported cerebral infarcts and multifocal bone infarction, but no vasculopathy. Possibly, disruption of the skull cortex with subsequent bleeding caused the EDH. As the differential diagnoses of neurological complications in SCD are many and some complications are reversible, neuroimaging should be performed without delay.

Case Rep Hematol ; 2018: 5253625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034890


Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) with blood transfusion an integral part in its management. Red cell exchange (RCE) transfusion is usually regarded as preferable to top-up transfusion, because it reduces the proportion of Hemoglobin (Hb) S while at the same time avoiding circulatory overload. Despite its obvious benefits, RCE is underutilized, particularly in low-resource settings which may be due to scarcity of blood products and of expertise in carrying out exchange transfusion. We report on a young woman with SCD with severe ACS who responded promptly and dramatically to a RCE of only 0.95 L (instead of the recommended 1.4 L) and had in the end an HbS level of 48% (instead of the recommended level below 30%). Limited RCE resulted in significant clinical improvement. We suggest that limited RCE may be of benefit than no RCE in SCD patients with ACS, particularly in settings where RCE is not available.