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1.
Nature ; 530(7591): 465-8, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26863188

RESUMO

Although the oxidation of water is efficiently catalysed by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (refs 1 and 2), it remains one of the main bottlenecks when aiming for synthetic chemical fuel production powered by sunlight or electricity. Consequently, the development of active and stable water oxidation catalysts is crucial, with heterogeneous systems considered more suitable for practical use and their homogeneous counterparts more suitable for targeted, molecular-level design guided by mechanistic understanding. Research into the mechanism of water oxidation has resulted in a range of synthetic molecular catalysts, yet there remains much interest in systems that use abundant, inexpensive and environmentally benign metals such as iron (the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust and found in natural and synthetic oxidation catalysts). Water oxidation catalysts based on mononuclear iron complexes have been explored, but they often deactivate rapidly and exhibit relatively low activities. Here we report a pentanuclear iron complex that efficiently and robustly catalyses water oxidation with a turnover frequency of 1,900 per second, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of other iron-based catalysts. Electrochemical analysis confirms the redox flexibility of the system, characterized by six different oxidation states between Fe(II)5 and Fe(III)5; the Fe(III)5 state is active for oxidizing water. Quantum chemistry calculations indicate that the presence of adjacent active sites facilitates O-O bond formation with a reaction barrier of less than ten kilocalories per mole. Although the need for a high overpotential and the inability to operate in water-rich solutions limit the practicality of the present system, our findings clearly indicate that efficient water oxidation catalysts based on iron complexes can be created by ensuring that the system has redox flexibility and contains adjacent water-activation sites.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 54(17): 8529-35, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26280936

RESUMO

Proton conduction of the La(III)M(III) compounds, LaM(ox)3·10H2O (abbreviated to LaM; M = Cr, Co, Ru, La; ox(2-) = oxalate) is studied in view of their networks. LaCr and LaCo have a ladder structure, and the ladders are woven to form a channel network. LaRu and LaLa have a honeycomb sheet structure, and the sheets are combined to form a layer network. The occurrence of these structures is explained by the rigidness versus flexibility of [M(ox)3](3-) in the framework with large La(III). The channel networks of LaCr and LaCo show a remarkably high proton conductivity, in the range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) over 40-95% relative humidity (RH) at 298 K, whereas the layer networks of LaCr and LaCo show a lower proton conductivity, ∼3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) (40-95% RH, 298 K). Activation energy measurements demonstrate that the channels filled with water molecules serve as efficient pathways for proton transport. LaCo was gradually converted to La(III)Co(II)(ox)2.5·4H2O, which had no channel structure and exhibited a low proton conductivity of less than 1 × 10(-10) S cm(-1). The conduction-network correlation of LaCo(ox)2.5·4H2O is reported.

3.
Chemistry ; 20(40): 12864-73, 2014 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25145295

RESUMO

The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of three clathrate derivatives of the spin-crossover porous coordination polymer {Fe(pyrazine)[Pt(CN)4]} (1) with five-membered aromatic molecules furan, pyrrole, and thiophene is reported. The three derivatives have a cooperative spin-crossover transition with hysteresis loops 14-29 K wide and average critical temperatures Tc =201 K (1⋅fur), 167 K (1⋅pyr), and 114.6 K (1⋅thio) well below that of the parent compound 1 (Tc =295 K), confirming stabilization of the HS state. The transition is complete and takes place in two steps for 1⋅fur, while 1⋅pyr and 1⋅thio show 50 % spin transition. For 1⋅fur the transformation between the HS and IS (middle of the plateau) phases occurs concomitantly with a crystallographic phase transition between the tetragonal space groups P4/mmm and I4/mmm, respectively. The latter space group is retained in the subsequent transformation involving the IS and the LS phases. 1⋅pyr and 1⋅thio display the tetragonal P4/mmm and orthorhombic Fmmm space groups, respectively, in both HS and IM phases. Periodic calculations using density functional methods for 1⋅fur, 1⋅pyr, 1⋅thio, and previously reported derivatives 1⋅CS2 , 1⋅I, 1⋅bz(benzene), and 1⋅pz(pyrazine) have been carried out to investigate the electronic structure and nature of the host-guest interactions as well as their relationship with the changes in the LS-HS transition temperatures of 1⋅Guest. Geometry-optimized lattice parameters and bond distances in the empty host 1 and 1⋅Guest clathrates are in general agreement with the X-ray diffraction data. The concordance between the theoretical results and the experimental data also comprises the guest molecule orientation inside the host and intermolecular distances. Furthermore, a general correlation between experimental Tc and calculated LS-HS electronic energy gap was observed. Finally, specific host-guest interactions were studied through interaction energy calculations and crystal orbital displacement (COD) curve analysis.

4.
Small ; 8(9): 1314-9, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22383363

RESUMO

Magnetic bimetallic CoPt nanoparticles are synthesized in the solvent channels of hen egg white lysozyme crystals by the reduction of Co(2+) and Pt(2+) ions pre-organized on the interior surface of the solvent channels. By using different lysozyme crystal systems, the magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles can be controlled.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Muramidase/química , Nanopartículas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fenômenos Magnéticos
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(11): 5083-9, 2012 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22364147

RESUMO

A quasielastic neutron scattering and solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy study of the polymeric spin-crossover compound {Fe(pyrazine)[Pt(CN)(4)]} shows that the switching of the rotation of a molecular fragment--the pyrazine ligand--occurs in association with the change of spin state. The rotation switching was examined on a wide time scale (10(-13)-10(-3) s) by both techniques, which clearly demonstrated the combination between molecular rotation and spin-crossover transition under external stimuli (temperature and chemical). The pyrazine rings are seen to perform a 4-fold jump motion about the coordinating nitrogen axis in the high-spin state. In the low-spin state, however, the motion is suppressed, while when the system incorporates benzene guest molecules, the movements of the system are even more restricted.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(22): 8600-5, 2011 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21526852

RESUMO

Precise control of spin transition temperature (T(c)) is one of the most important challenges in molecular magnetism. A Hofmann-type porous coordination polymer {Fe(pz)[Pt(II)(CN)(4)]} (1; pz = pyrazine) exhibited cooperative spin transition near room temperature (T(c)(up) = 304 K and T(c)(down) = 284 K) and its iodine adduct {Fe(pz)[Pt(II/IV)(CN)(4)(I)]} (1-I), prepared by oxidative addition of iodine to the open metal sites of Pt(II), raised the T(c) by 100 K. DSC and microscopic Raman spectra of a solid mixture of 1-I and 1 revealed that iodine migrated from 1-I to 1 through the grain boundary after heating above 398 K. We have succeeded in precisely controlling the iodine content of {Fe(pz)[Pt(CN)(4)(I)(n)]} (1-In; n = 0.0-1.0), which resulted in consecutive modulation of T(c) in the range 300-400 K while maintaining the hysteresis width. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that iodine migration in the solid mixture was triggered by the spin transition of 1-I. The magnetically bistable porous framework decorating guest interactive open-metal-site in the pore surface makes it possible to modulate T(c) ad arbitrium through unique postsynthetic method using iodine migration.

7.
Nat Chem ; 2(8): 633-7, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20651724

RESUMO

Porous coordination polymers are materials formed from metal ions that are bridged together by organic linkers and that can combine two seemingly contradictory properties-crystallinity and flexibility. Porous coordination polymers can therefore create highly regular yet dynamic nanoporous domains that are particularly promising for sorption applications. Here, we describe the effective selective sorption of dioxygen and nitric oxide by a structurally and electronically dynamic porous coordination polymer built from zinc centres and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as a linker. In contrast to a variety of other gas molecules (C(2)H(2), Ar, CO(2), N(2) and CO), O(2) and NO are accommodated in its pores. This unprecedented preference arises from the concerted effect of the charge-transfer interaction between TCNQ and these guests, and the switchable gate opening and closing of the pores of the framework. This system provides further insight into the efficient recognition of small gas molecules.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Óxido Nítrico/química , Oxigênio/química , Polímeros/química , Adsorção , Gases/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nitrilos/química , Porosidade
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(37): 13516-22, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19715318

RESUMO

The oxalate-bridged bimetallic complexes {NH(prol)(3)}[M(II)Cr(III)(ox)(3)] (M(II) = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II)) with hydrophilic tri(3-hydroxypropyl)ammonium (NH(prol)(3)(+)) were prepared by a new synthetic procedure, and the effects of the NH(prol)(3)(+) ion upon the structure, magnetism, and electrical conduction were studied. An X-ray crystallographic study of the MnCr dihydrate, {NH(prol)(3)}[MnCr(ox)(3)].2H(2)O, was performed. Crystal data: hexagonal, P6(3), a = b = 9.3808(14) A, c = 15.8006(14) A, Z = 2. The structure comprises oxalate-bridged bimetallic layers interleaved by NH(prol)(3)(+) ions. The ions assume a tripodal configuration and are hydrogen bonded to the bimetallic layers together with water molecules, giving rise to a short interlayer separation (7.90 A) and unsymmetrical faces to the bimetallic layer. Cryomagnetic studies demonstrate ferromagnetic ordering with transition temperature of 5.5 K for the MnCr complex, 9.0 K for the FeCr complex, and 10.0 K for the CoCr complex. The interlayer magnetic interaction is negligibly weak in all of the complexes despite the short interlayer separation. A slow magnetization is observed in all the complexes. This is explained by spin canting associated with the unsymmetrical feature of the bimetallic layer. The complexes show proton conduction of 1.2 x 10(-10) to 4.4 x 10(-10) S cm(-1) under 40% relative humidity (RH) and approximately 1 x 10(-4) S cm(-1) under 75% RH. On the basis of water adsorption/desorption profiles, the conduction under 40% RH is mediated through the hydrogen-bonded network formed by the bimetallic layer, NH(prol)(3)(+) ions, and water molecules (two per MCr). Under 75% RH, additional water molecules (three per MCr) are concerned with the high proton conduction. This is the first example of a metal complex system exhibiting coexistent ferromagnetism and proton conduction.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 48(26): 4767-71, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19294711

RESUMO

The ins and outs of spin: Using the microporous coordination polymer {Fe(pz)[Pt(CN)(4)]} (1, pz=pyrazine), incorporating spin-crossover subunits, two-directional magnetic chemo-switching is achieved at room temperature. In situ magnetic measurements following guest vapor injection show that most guest molecules transform 1 from the low-spin (LS) state to the high-spin (HS) state, whereas CS(2) uniquely causes the reverse HS-to-LS transition.

13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (1): 45-7, 2006 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16353087

RESUMO

The variable temperature magnetic susceptibility, X-ray crystallography, and Mössbauer and Raman spectra of a new dinuclear complex-based one-dimensional coordination polymer [[Fe(II)2(NCS)2(mu-bpypz)2](micro-4,4'-bpy)].MeOH demonstrated a steep one-step [HS-HS] to [LS-LS] spin transition.

14.
Chemistry ; 11(22): 6616-28, 2005 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16130158

RESUMO

Novel triply hydrogen bonded suprastructures based on [M(tdpd)2(L)2]2- (H2tdpd=1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-5,6-dioxo-2,3-pyrazinedicarbonitrile, L=solvent) and melamine-analogous cations have been synthesized and characterized. The use of anions containing two AAA sets from [M(tdpd)2(L)2]2- together with cations containing one DDD set (A=hydrogen-bond acceptor, D=hydrogen-bond donor) leads to the formation of complementary triply hydrogen bonded modules in the solid state. In all cases, the building module is further extended via additional hydrogen-bonding interactions to produce a tape, and tapes are assembled into sheets. These results show that a hydrogen-bonded module consisting of different kinds of building blocks, one of which is a metal complex that includes hydrogen-bond acceptor sites and the other is a hydrogen-bond donor molecule, will be attractive for constructing metal-containing supramolecular systems by the self-assembly technique.


Assuntos
Engenharia Química/métodos , Cobre/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Níquel/química , Nitrilos/química , Compostos Organometálicos , Pirazinas/química , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química
15.
Dalton Trans ; (4): 740-3, 2005 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15702186

RESUMO

Two series of pyrazolato bridged dinuclear NCS and NCBH3 diiron(II) complexes with various types of 3- or 4-substituted pyridines, [{Fe(NCS or NCBH3)(X-py)}2(mu-bpypz)2], were prepared and their variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities were measured. There were found linear correlations of the spin-crossover temperatures Tc not only between the NCS and NCBH3 complexes with the corresponding substituted pyridines, but also between the Tc and the Hammett constants, supporting the electronic substituent effect of the coordinated pyridine rather than a steric effect. The ligand field and the interelectronic repulsion parameters together with the thermodynamic data and/or cooperativity factor were discussed in relation with their spin-crossover behavior.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; (24): 2892-3, 2004 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15599459

RESUMO

The variable temperature magnetic susceptibility, X-ray crystallography, and IR and Raman spectra of a new dinuclear complex [{Fe(II)(NCBH(3))(4-phpy)}(2) mu-bpypz)(2)] demonstrated the first two-step spin-crossover associated with a 1 : 1 mixture of high-spin pair [HS-HS] and low-spin pair [LS-LS] at the plateau.

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