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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 108296, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794889

RESUMO

Inflammation modulation is currently considered a promising therapeutic strategy to counteract the burden of cardiovascular disease. Amentoflavone (AME) is a natural biflavone with two apigenin molecules that, possess promising anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AME on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that AME significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α after hypoxia (H) 12 h/reoxygenation (R) 4 h treatment, and significantly increased the cell survival rate of H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H/R and inhibited their apoptosis rate. AME (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g.) or a positive control drug diltiazem (DIZ) (16 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g.) was used as pretreatment for 7 days; the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) model was established. TTC staining results showed that the infarct volume was significantly reduced after AME and DIZ treatment. Oral administration of AME dose-dependently ameliorated I/R injury-induced increase in pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and levels of LDH and CK-MB. Results of TUNEL and HE staining showed that the I/R model had more induced apoptosis, but could be effectively reduced by pretreatment with AME. After surgery, the heart of the rat was examined via western blotting to detect inflammation-related proteins. Compared with the sham group, the p-AKT in the I/R group was significantly reduced and the content of p-NF-κBp65 was significantly increased. However, these changes could be reversed by AME treatment. DIZ treatment exerted similar beneficial effects in I/R rats as the high dose of AME did. This study highlights the excellent therapeutic potential of AME for managing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

2.
J Plant Physiol ; 268: 153572, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839101

RESUMO

Reproductive development is critical for completion of plant life cycle and realization of crop yield potential. Reproductive organs comprise multiple distinctive or even transgenerational tissues, which are symplasmically disconnected from each other for protection and better control of nutrition and development. Cell wall invertases (CWINs) and sugar transporters are often specifically or abundantly expressed in these apoplasmic interfaces to provide carbon nutrients and sugar signals to developing pollens, endosperm and embryo. Emerging evidence shows that some of those genes were indeed targeted for selection during crop domestication. In this Opinion paper, I discuss the functional significance of the localized expression of CWINs and sugar transporters in reproductive organs followed by an analysis on how their spatial patterning may be regulated at the molecular levels and how the localized CWIN activity may be exploited for improvement of reproductive output.

3.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652413

RESUMO

Warming nights are correlated with declining wheat growth and yield. A key determinant of plant biomass, respiration consumes O2 as it produces ATP and releases CO2 and is typically reduced under warming to maintain metabolic efficiency. We compared the response of respiratory O2 and CO2 flux to multiple night and day warming treatments in wheat leaves and roots, using one commercial (Mace) and one breeding cultivar grown in controlled environments. We also examined the effect of night warming and a day heatwave on the capacity of the ATP-uncoupled alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway. Under warm nights plant biomass fell, respiratory CO2 release measured at a common temperature was unchanged (indicating higher rates of CO2 release at prevailing growth temperature), respiratory O2 consumption at a common temperature declined, and AOX pathway capacity increased. The uncoupling of CO2 and O2 exchange and enhanced AOX pathway capacity suggest a reduction in plant energy demand under warm nights (lower O2 consumption), alongside higher rates of CO2 release under prevailing growth temperature (due to a lack of downregulation of respiratory CO2 release). Less efficient ATP synthesis, teamed with sustained CO2 flux, could thus be driving observed biomass declines under warm nights.

4.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 99(10): 1057-1068, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492212

RESUMO

G (1-5)-NH2, G (1-7)-NH2, and G (1-9) are the active fragments of ghrelin. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effects, their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and the receptor mechanism(s) of these fragments using the tail withdrawal test in male Kunming mice. The antinociceptive effects of these fragments (2, 6, 20, and 60 nmol/mouse) were tested at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after intravenous (i.v.) injection. These fragments induced dose- and time-related antinociceptive effects relative to saline. Using the near infrared fluorescence imaging experiments, our results showed that these fragments could cross the brain-blood barrier and enter the brain. The antinociceptive effects of these fragments were completely antagonized by naloxone (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v.); however, naloxone methiodide (intraperitoneal, i.p.), which is the peripheral restricted opioid receptor antagonist, did not antagonize these antinociceptive effects. Furthermore, the GHS-R1α antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (i.c.v.) completely antagonized these antinociceptive effects, too. These results suggested that these fragments induced antinociceptive effects through central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α. In conclusion, our studies indicated that these active fragments of ghrelin could cross the brain-blood barrier and enter the brain and induce antinociceptive effects through central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α after intravenous injection.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 701152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276753

RESUMO

Orchids are among the most endangered in the plant kingdom. Lack of endosperm in their seeds renders orchids to depend on nutrients provided by orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) for seed germination and seedling formation in the wild. OMF that parasitize in germination seeds is an essential element for orchid seedling formation, which can also help orchid reintroduction. Considering the limitations of the previous orchid reintroduction technology based on seed germination-promoting OMF (sgOMF) sourced from orchid roots, an innovative approach is proposed here in which orchid seeds are directly co-sown with sgOMF carrying ecological specificity from protocorms/seedlings. Based on this principle, an integrative and practical procedure concerning related ecological factors is further raised for re-constructing long-term and self-sustained orchid populations. We believe that this new approach will benefit the reintroduction of endangered orchids in nature.

7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183757

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, mainly due to metastasis, which is strongly associated with cancer stemness. Our previous studies showed that the eradication of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) may be related to the activation of dopamine D1 receptor (D1DR). This study aimed to explicitly demonstrate the target-role of D1DR activation in antimetastatic therapy and to investigate the potential efficacy and the underlying D1DR-related mechanisms of QAP14, a new oral compound. 4T1, MDA-MB-231, and D1DR-knockout 4T1 (4T1-D1DR) cells were selected for in vitro study, while 4T1 and 4T1-D1DR cells were further used to establish a mouse allograft model for in vivo study. Our results showed that D1DR is abundantly expressed in both 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells and that knocking out D1DR in 4T1 cells accelerated migration and invasion in vitro as well as lung metastasis in vivo. QAP14 inhibited colony formation, cell motility, mammosphere formation and CSC frequency, induced CSC apoptosis and D1DR expression, and increased cAMP/cGMP levels. Additionally, QAP14 showed inhibitory effects on tumor growth and lung metastasis with acceptable safety in vivo. Knocking out D1DR almost completely abolished the efficacy, confirming that QAP14 exhibits its anti-CSC and antimetastatic effects through D1DR activation. The underlying mechanisms involved suppression of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and consequent downregulation of both epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and cancer stemness. In summary, our findings suggest a potential candidate compound, QAP14, as well as a potential target, D1DR, for metastatic breast cancer therapy.

8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(3): 690-695, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IKAROS family Zinc finger 3 (IKZF3) gene and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. METHODS: The peripheral blood samples from 286 children with ALL and 382 healthy children were collected and divided into ALL group and control group, respectively. The genotypes of IKZF3 gene at rs62066988 C > T and rs12946510 C > T were detected by quantitative PCR with TaqMan detection system, and their correlation with ALL was analyzed. RESULTS: The distribution frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotypes at rs62066988 in ALL group were 58.39%, 37.06% and 4.55%, respectively, while those in control group were 69.19%, 27.68% and 3.13%, respectively. The distribution frequencies of CC, CT and TT genotypes at rs12946510 in ALL group were 58.16%, 34.75% and 7.09%, respectively, while those in control group were 55.76%, 37.43% and 6.81%, respectively. Compared with the control group, the distribution frequency of CT/TT genotype at rs62066988 was significantly increased in the ALL group (OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.16-2.19, P=0.004). However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of rs12946510 C > T polymorphism between ALL group and control group. CONCLUSION: The CT/TT genotype of IKZF3 at the site of rs62066988 is associated with the increased risk of ALL in children.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética
9.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(3): 559-562, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present two cases of fetal akinesia detected by first trimester ultrasound with noticing reduced fetal movements. CASE REPORT: Both of the two cases presented with reduced fetal movements. Fetal microarray results were normal. Follow-up sonographic examinations showed that Case 1 had structural anomalies with reduced fetal movements, and Case 2 had findings of reduced fetal movements and olyhydramnios. Case 1 ended with termination of pregnancy, and was confirmed to suffer from distal arthrogryposis (DA) type 5D (DA5D) with two pathogenic ECEL1 variants, NM_004826: c.110_155del46 (p.F37Cfs∗151) and c.633G > C (p.W211C). Case 2 continued to term. However, the infant developed breathing problems and severe hypotonia after birth, and died at 3 months. Nemaline myopathy was diagnosed with two NEB variants, NM_001271208.1: c.3255+1G > T and c.7165delA (p.W211C) detected in the patient. CONCLUSION: The first trimester ultrasound can detect clues that lead to the diagnosis of fetal akinesias presenting with reduced or absent fetal movements. Our results would be useful in counselling parents of affected pregnancies and in alerting physicians to plan the appropriate follow-up investigations for such cases.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Movimento Fetal/genética , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/genética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Aborto Eugênico , Adulto , Artrogripose/embriologia , Artrogripose/genética , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Miopatias da Nemalina/diagnóstico , Miopatias da Nemalina/embriologia , Miopatias da Nemalina/genética , Gravidez
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(28): 37978-37994, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728608

RESUMO

This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of different concentrations (23, 90, 360 mg/kg BW) of atrazine (ATZ) on immune function in BALB/c mice. Some parameters of general immunotoxicity, humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and non-specific immunity were tested. The studies showed that the high-dose ATZ induced a significant reduction in the final body weight of mice, the absolute and relative weights of spleen, the counts of white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte (LYM), monocyte (MON), and the number of splenocyte. An increase in the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and cholesterol (CHO) in the high-dose ATZ group was observed. Pathological examination showed that the medium- and high-doses of ATZ caused atrophy and destruction of thymus, spleen, and hepatorenal toxicity. The serum interleukin-5(IL-5) level of mice and the number of plaque-forming cell (PFC) in spleen cells in the high-dose ATZ group decreased significantly while there was a significant increase of the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the high-dose ATZ group when compared to the negative control group. In the high-dose ATZ group, the proliferation ability of T and B lymphocytes as well as the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were significantly decreased. The low-dose ATZ (23 mg/kg BW) caused a significant decrease in the number of WBC and neutrophil (NEUT), as well as the proportion of polychromatic and normoblast. In summary, we thought the low-dose ATZ has a slight effect on the immune system; it can be preliminarily concluded that the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of atrazine is 23 mg/kg BW in mice. Atrazine can cause immunotoxicity mainly through cellular and humoral immunity pathways.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço
11.
Plant J ; 106(4): 1058-1074, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650173

RESUMO

Cell wall invertase (CWIN) hydrolyses sucrose into glucose and fructose in the extracellular matrix and plays crucial roles in assimilate partitioning and sugar signalling. However, the molecular regulators controlling CWIN gene transcription remain unknown. As the first step to address this issue, we performed bioinformatic and transgenic studies, which identified a cohort of transcription factors (TFs) modulating CWIN gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Comprehensive bioinformatic analyses identified 18 TFs as putative regulators of the expression of AtCWIN2 and AtCWIN4 that are predominantly expressed in Arabidopsis reproductive organs. Among them, MYB21, ARF6, ARF8, AP3 and CRC were subsequently shown to be the most likely regulators of CWIN gene expression based on molecular characterization of the respective mutant of each candidate TF. More specifically, the obtained data indicate that ARF6, ARF8 and MYB21 regulate CWIN2 expression in the anthers and CWIN4 in nectaries, anthers and petals, whereas AP3 and CRC were determined primarily to regulate the transcriptional activity of CWIN4. TF-promoter interaction assays demonstrated that ARF6 and ARF8 directly control CWIN2 and CWIN4 transcription with AP3 activating CWIN4. The involvement of ARF8 in regulating CWIN4 expression was further supported by the finding that enhanced CWIN4 expression partially recovered the short silique phenotype displayed by the arf8-3 mutant. The identification of the five TFs regulating CWIN expression serves as a launching pad for future studies to dissect the upstream molecular network underpinning the transcription of CWINs and provides a new avenue, potentially, to engineer assimilate allocation and reproductive development for improving seed yield.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 615104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746754

RESUMO

Background: Brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) is a promising effective target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BDNF, which has a high molecular weight, has difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The study aimed to prepare microbubbles loading brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) retrovirus (MpLXSN-BDNF), to verify the characteristics of the microbubbles, and to study the therapeutic effect of the microbubbles combined with ultrasound on the opening of the blood-brain barrier in an AD rat model. Methods: 32 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, ultrasound + pLXSN-EGFP microbubble group (U + MpLXSN-BDNF), ultrasound + pLXSN-BDNF microbubble group, and ultrasound + microbubble + pLXSN-BDNF virus group (U + MpLXSN-BDNF), with eight rats in each group. At the same time, the left hippocampus of rats was irradiated with low-frequency focused ultrasound guided by MRI to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The effects of BDNF overexpression on AD rats were evaluated behaviorally before and 1 month after the treatment. The number of acetylcholinesterase (ChAT)-positive cells and the content of acetylcholine (ACh) in brain tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. IF staining of synaptic spines and Western blot of synaptophysin presented herein detected synaptic density recovery. Results: Signal intensity enhancement at the BBB disruption sites could be observed on the MR images. The behavioral evaluation showed that the times of crossing the original platform in the U + MpLXSN-BDNF group increased significantly after treatment. Immunohistochemistry and HPLC revealed that the number of ChAT-positive neurons and the contents of ACh in the brain were significantly decreased in the treated groups compared with the controls. IF staining of synaptic spines and Western blot data of synaptophysin showed that the U + MpLXSN-BDNF group can recover the synaptic loss better by BDNF supplementation than the other treatment groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound combined with viral microbubbles carrying BDNF can increase the transfection efficiency of brain neurons, promote the high expression of exogenous gene BDNF, and play a therapeutic role in the AD model rats.

13.
Prev Vet Med ; 187: 105161, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological characteristics about regional and age difference of human rabies in the past fourteen years in China, and provide a reliable epidemiology basis for further control and prevention of human rabies. METHODS: The database of "China Public Health Science Data Center" affiliated Chinese CDC was searched with the key words of "rabies" or "epidemiology" or "morbidity" or "mortality" from 2004 to 2018 and the corresponding data about human rabies cases was collected referred to regional and age difference for describing the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies. RESULTS: In this study, a total of nearly 26,315 rabies cases (1754 ± 253) and 25,691 rabies-related deaths (1712 ± 255) (Mean ± SE) were reported, and a decreasing trend about the morbidity and mortality of human rabies existed from 0.2039 and 0.2039 (1/100,000) in 2004 to 0.0304 and 0.0295 in 2018. Otherwise, regional difference of human rabies prevalence significantly existed, and juvenile and middle-aged population especially in 50-60 years old were more easily attacked and infected with rabies (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study proved that human rabies still is a major public health problem in China though a decreasing trend about the morbidity and mortality of human rabies existed in the past fourteen years.


Assuntos
Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Prevalência , Raiva/mortalidade , Raiva/virologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443220

RESUMO

Sugar transport across tonoplasts is essential for maintaining cellular sugar homeostasis and metabolic balance in plant cells. It remains unclear, however, how this process is regulated among different classes of sugar transporters. Here, we identified a tonoplast H+/glucose symporter, MdERDL6-1, from apples, which was highly expressed in fruits and exhibited expression patterns similar to those of the tonoplast H+/sugar antiporters MdTST1 and MdTST2. Overexpression of MdERDL6-1 unexpectedly increased not only glucose (Glc) concentration but also that of fructose (Fru) and sucrose (Suc) in transgenic apple and tomato leaves and fruits. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and expression analyses showed an up-regulation of TST1 and TST2 in the transgenic apple and tomato lines overexpressing MdERDL6-1 Further studies established that the increased sugar concentration in the transgenic lines correlated with up-regulation of TST1 and TST2 expression. Suppression or knockout of SlTST1 and SlTST2 in the MdERDL6-1-overexpressed tomato background reduced or abolished the positive effect of MdERDL6-1 on sugar accumulation, respectively. The findings demonstrate a regulation of TST1 and TST2 by MdERDL6-1, in which Glc exported by MdERDL6-1 from vacuole up-regulates TST1 and TST2 to import sugars from cytosol to vacuole for accumulation to high concentrations. The results provide insight into the regulatory mechanism of sugar accumulation in vacuoles mediated by the coordinated action of two classes of tonoplast sugar transporters.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA-Seq , Sacarose/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
15.
New Phytol ; 229(4): 1844-1851, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858773

RESUMO

Cotton fiber is the most important source of cellulose for the global textile industry. These hair-like single-celled trichomes develop from ovule epidermis. They are classified into long spinnable lint and short fuzz. A key objective in the cotton industry is to breed elite cultivars with fuzzless seeds carrying high lint yield. Molecular basis underlying lint and fuzz initiation remains obscure. Recent studies indicate fiber initiation is under the control of MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complex. Based on molecular genetic studies and gene expression patterns linking fiber phenotypes, we propose that specific but different sets of MBW genes are required to precisely regulate the initiation of the lint and fuzz fibers. Emerging evidence further points to sugar signaling as a 'hair-tonic' to boost fiber initiation through interaction with MBW complex and auxin signaling. An integrative model is provided as a conceptual framework for future studies to dissect the molecular network responsible for cotton fiber initiation.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
J Mol Neurosci ; 71(5): 1061-1069, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226577

RESUMO

Hypoxia-inducible factor-3α (HIF-3α), a member of HIF family, can mediate adaptive responses to low oxygen and ischemia. It is believed that HIF plays crucial roles in stroke-related diseases. However, there are no reports on the association between HIF-3α genetic variants and ischemic stroke (IS) susceptibility. Therefore, we examined the association between HIF-3α gene polymorphisms (rs3826795, rs2235095, and rs3764609) and IS risk. The study population included 302 controls and 310 patients with ischemic stroke. Three polymorphisms in HIF-3α (rs3826795, rs2235095, and rs3764609) were genotyped using SNPscan technique. Our study showed a strong association of rs3826795 in HIF-3α with the risk of IS. The genotype and allele frequencies were shown to differ between the two groups. The rs3826795 in an intron of HIF-3α was related to a prominent increased IS risk (AA vs GG adjusted odd ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 1.10-4.44; P = 0.03; AA vs AG/GG OR = 1.74, 95% CI, 1.02-2.97, P = 0.04; A vs G OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.05-2.07, P = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis suggested that rs3826795 posed a risk factor for IS in addition to common factors. Furthermore, when compared to controls, increased levels of homocysteic acid and level of non-esterified fatty acid were found in the cases (P < 0.01). However, no significant association was found between rs2235095 or rs3264609 and IS risk. These findings indicated that the rs3826795 polymorphism may be a potential target for predicting the risk of IS.

17.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(7): 2331-2346, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283881

RESUMO

Climate change and future warming will significantly affect crop yield. The capacity of crops to dynamically adjust physiological processes (i.e., acclimate) to warming might improve overall performance. Understanding and quantifying the degree of acclimation in field crops could ensure better parameterization of crop and Earth System models and predictions of crop performance. We hypothesized that for field-grown wheat, when measured at a common temperature (25°C), crops grown under warmer conditions would exhibit acclimation, leading to enhanced crop performance and yield. Acclimation was defined as (a) decreased rates of net photosynthesis at 25°C (A25 ) coupled with lower maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcmax 25 ), (b) reduced leaf dark respiration at 25°C (both in terms of O2 consumption Rdark _O2 25 and CO2 efflux Rdark _CO2 25 ) and (c) lower Rdark _CO2 25 to Vcmax 25 ratio. Field experiments were conducted over two seasons with 20 wheat genotypes, sown at three different planting dates, to test these hypotheses. Leaf-level CO2 -based traits (A25 , Rdark _CO2 25 and Vcmax 25 ) did not show the classic acclimation responses that we hypothesized; by contrast, the hypothesized changes in Rdark_ O2 were observed. These findings have implications for predictive crop models that assume similar temperature response among these physiological processes and for predictions of crop performance in a future warmer world.

18.
Neurotoxicology ; 83: 40-50, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359004

RESUMO

Lanthanum is a rare-earth element that has been used in various fields including medicine, agriculture and industry. Previously, in utero lanthanum exposure to dams was shown to alter neurobehavior and neurotransmitter levels in rat offspring; however, the effects of postweaning exposure to lanthanum on neurological behavior is still limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of postweaning exposure to lanthanum on neurological behavior during early adulthood in rats. Rats were orally exposed to 0, 2, 20, 60 mg/kg BW of lanthanum nitrate from postnatal day (PND) 24 to PND60. Our results indicated that lanthanum treatment significantly decreased body weight and food intake. Morris water maze test results showed that lanthanum significantly decreased escape latency and travel distance. Lanthanum treatment also significantly decreased grip strength, hindlimb strength, and running time & distance in motor activity test. Further results showed that lanthanum treatment significantly decreased plasma neurotransmitter levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine as well as the number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. These results suggest that postweaning exposure to lanthanum have adverse effects on neurobehaviors and the central nervous system, with no-observed-adverse-effect level at 2 mg/kg BW and benchmark dose lower confidence limit at 1.7 mg/kg BW.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lantânio/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Fuga/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Front Genet ; 11: 592596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193736

RESUMO

Early fruit development is critical for determining crop yield. Cell wall invertase (CWIN) and sugar transporters both play important roles in carbon allocation and plant development. However, there is little information about the relationship between CWIN and those functionally related sugar transporters during fruit development. By using transgenic tomato with an elevated CWIN activity, we investigated how an increase in CWIN activity may regulate the expression of sugar transporter genes during fruit development. Our analyses indicate that CWIN activity may be under tight regulation by multiple regulators, including two invertase inhibitors (INVINHs) and one defective CWIN (deCWIN) in tomato ovaries prior to anthesis. Among the sugar transporters, expression of SlSWEET12c for sucrose efflux and SlHT2 for hexose uptake was enhanced by the elevated CWIN activity at 10 and 15 days after anthesis of tomato fruit development, respectively. The findings show that some specific sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs) and hexose transporters (HTs) respond to elevate CWIN activity probably to promote rapid fruit expansion when sucrose efflux from phloem and hexose uptake by parenchyma cell are in high demand. The analyses provide new leads for improving crop yield by manipulating CWIN-responsive sugar transporters, together with CWIN itself, to enhance fruit development and sugar accumulation.

20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 189: 113487, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759036

RESUMO

QAP14 is a novel anti-cancer compound exhibiting good efficacy and safety in preclinical study. To investigate its pharmacokinetic properties, a rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify the concentration of QAP14 in rat plasma. QAP14 was separated on ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column with a gradient elution. Erlotinib was selected as internal standard and plasma samples were prepared by precipitation with acetonitrile. In the pharmacokinetic study, rats were treated with QAP14 at 2.4 mg/kg (i.v.) or 6 mg/kg (p.o.). This method provided good linearity in the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL in rat plasma. The accuracy, precision, matrix effect, recovery, stability and carryover fulfilled the criteria. The pharmacokinetic profiles of QAP14 in rats were described by non-compartmental analysis. The oral bioavailability was 50.29 %. The assay is reliable and requires only little sample volume, and the pharmacokinetic properties of QAP14 in rats may provide reference for future studies.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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