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1.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 15(2): 77-80, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226621

RESUMO

http://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2046-2484/video/15-2-reading-yoo a video presentation of this article http://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2046-2484/video/15-2-interview-yoo an interview with the author Answer questions and earn https://www.wileyhealthlearning.com/Activity/7036145/disclaimerspopup.aspx.

2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the current estimates of the disease burden of Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection in the setting of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) are emerging. AIMS: We examined the recent trends and predictors of hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality from C. difficile infection among hospitalizations with ESLD in the USA. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the National Inpatient Sample, 2005-2014. We defined ESLD and C. difficile infection using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors that impacted hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: The prevalence of coding for C. difficile infection in decompensated cirrhosis increased from 1.3% in 2005 to 2.7% in 2014, with an annual rate of 7.8%. In hospitalizations with hepatocellular carcinoma, C. difficile infection increased steadily from 1.0 to 1.7% with an annual incremental rate of 6.4%. Among hospitalizations with ESLD, each passing 2-year period, increasing age, female, higher Charlson index, accompanying infection, hepatorenal syndrome, and ascites were associated with C. difficile infection. Although C. difficile infection was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality during hospitalization with decompensated cirrhosis (odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.44-1.63), the proportion of in-hospital mortality during hospitalization with C. difficile infection and decompensated cirrhosis decreased from 15.4% in 2005 to 11.1% in 2014, with an annual rate of - 3.1% (95% CI - 5.7% to - 0.3%). CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of C. difficile infection in hospitalized patients with ESLD increased approximately twofold, the in-hospital mortality decreased significantly during the past decade.

3.
Liver Int ; 40(4): 815-824, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Healthy diet has been recommended for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not clear whether improving diet quality can prevent mortality. We aim to assess the impact of quality of diet on NAFLD and mortality in subjects with and without NAFLD. METHODS: We performed cohort study using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1988 to 1994 and linked mortality data through 2015. We used the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores to define diet quality, with higher HEI scores (Q4) indicating better adherence to dietary recommendations. NAFLD was defined as ultrasonographic hepatic steatosis. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that subjects with higher diet quality were inversely associated with NAFLD in a dose-dependent manner. During the median follow-up of 23 years, having a higher diet quality was associated with reduction in risk of all-cause mortality in the age, sex, Race/ethnicity-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (Q4, HR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.52-0.68) and the multivariate model (Q4, HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.71-0.92). Higher diet quality was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality in subjects without NAFLD; however, this protective association with diet quality was not noted in those with NAFLD. Furthermore, a high diet quality was associated with a lower risk for cancer-related mortality in the total population and among those without NAFLD. This association was not noted in those with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: High diet quality was inversely associated with NAFLD and was positively associated with a lower risk for cancer-related and all-cause mortality in those without NAFLD.

4.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(4): 990-1002, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) can lead to sudden and severe hepatic decompensation necessitating recurrent hospitalizations. We evaluated the trends, predictors, and healthcare cost burden of AH-related readmissions in the USA. METHODS: Utilizing the National Readmissions Database 2010-2014, we performed a retrospective longitudinal analysis to identify the index readmission with AH for up to 90 days after discharge. Annual trends of 30- and 90-day AH-related readmissions were calculated. Predictors of 30- and 90-day readmission were determined by multivariate logistic regression. Annual healthcare cost burden associated with AH-linked readmissions was estimated. RESULTS: Of the 21,572 (unweighted: 50,769) AH-related hospitalizations, 4917 (22.8%) and 7890 (36.6%) were readmitted in 30 and 90 day, respectively, with rates that were statistically unchanged from 2010 to 2014. Predictors of 30-day readmissions included female gender, hepatitis C virus infection, cirrhosis, ascites, acute kidney injury, urinary tract infection, history of bariatric surgery, chronic pancreatitis, and high medical comorbidity index. Acute pancreatitis and palliative care consultation were associated with a lower risk of 30-day readmission. Predictors of 90-day readmission were similar to risk factors for 30-day readmission. From 2010 to 2014, the annual cost (and total hospitalization days) burden increased in 2014 to $164 million (22,244 days) and $321 million (42,772 days) for 30- and 90-day AH-related readmissions, respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite relatively stable trends in AH-related readmission, the total LOS and cost has been rising. A target-directed approach with a focus on high-risk subpopulations may help understand the unique challenges associated with the rising cost of AH-related readmissions.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Palliat Med ; 23(1): 97-106, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397615

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) have a high risk for readmission. We studied the role of palliative care consultation (PCC) in ESLD-related readmissions with a focus on health care resource utilization in the United States. Methods: We performed a retrospective longitudinal analysis on patients surviving hospitalizations with ESLD from January 2010 to September 2014 utilizing the Nationwide Readmissions Database with a 90-day follow-up after discharge. We analyzed annual trends in PCC among patients with ESLD. We matched PCC to no-PCC (1:1) using propensity scores to create a pseudorandomized clinical study. We estimated the impact of PCC on readmission rates (30- and 90-day), and length of stay (LOS) and cost during subsequent readmissions. Results: Of the 67,480 hospitalizations with ESLD, 3485 (5.3%) received PCC, with an annual increase from 3.6% to 6.7% (p for trend <0.01). The average 30- and 90-day annual readmission rates were 36.2% and 54.6%, respectively. PCC resulted in a lower risk for 30- and 90-day readmissions (hazard ratio: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.47 and 0.38, 95% CI: 0.34-0.42, respectively). On subsequent 30- and 90-day readmissions, PCC was associated with decreased LOS (5.6- vs. 7.4 days and 5.7- vs. 6.9 days, p < 0.01) and cost (US $48,752 vs. US $75,810 and US $48,582 vs. US $69,035, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Inpatient utilization of PCC for ESLD is increasing annually, yet still remains low in the United States. More importantly, PCC was associated with a decline in readmission rates resulting in a lower burden on health care resource utilization and improvement in cost savings during subsequent readmissions.

6.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 50(5): 590-598, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the relationship between depression and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not clearly defined. AIM: To determine whether depression is associated with NAFLD and NAFLD-related advanced fibrosis in a large population sample. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the 2007-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database among adults (20 years or older) in the United States (US). Depression and functional impairment due to depression were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). NAFLD was defined by utilising the US fatty liver index (USFLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the fatty liver index (FLI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. The presence and absence of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were defined by Fibrosis-4 score. RESULTS: Of the 10 484 subjects (mean age 47.0 years; 48.8% men), the prevalence of depression and functional impairment due to depression was higher in subjects with NAFLD than in those without. Compared to subjects without depression, those with depression were 1.6-2.2-fold more likely to have NAFLD. In our multivariate analyses, depression_med was associated with increased risk of NAFLD using USFLI (odds ratio [OR] 1.48 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.87), HSI (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.04-2.19) and FLI (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.65-2.48), respectively. The addition of diabetes, obesity and lipid profile to the model reduced the ORs for depression, but the significance persisted. Depression was not associated with NAFLD-related advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample of US adults, depression was independently associated with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/psicologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 1055-1066.e11, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Trends of mortality associated with extrahepatic complications of chronic liver disease might be changing. We studied trends in mortality from extrahepatic complications of viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States. METHODS: We performed a population-based study using US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics mortality records from 2007 through 2017. We identified trends in age-standardized mortality using Joinpoint trend analysis with estimates of annual percent change. RESULTS: The liver-related mortality among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased from 2007 through 2013 and then decreased once patients began receiving treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, from 2014 through 2017. Among patients with HCV infection, the age-standardized mortality for extrahepatic cancers was 2.6%, for cardiovascular disease was 1.9%, and for diabetes was 3.3%. Among individuals with hepatitis B virus infection, liver-related mortality decreased steadily from 2007 through 2017. During the study, age-standardized mortality from hepatitis B virus-related extrahepatic complications increased by an average of 2.0% each year. Although liver-related mortality from ALD continued to increase, mortality from extrahepatic complications of ALD did not change significantly during the 11-year study. Among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the cause of death was most frequently cardiovascular disease, which increased gradually over the study period, whereas liver-related mortality increased rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of US Census and the National Center for Health Statistics mortality records, we found that after widespread use of DAA agents for treatment of viral hepatitis, cause-specific mortality from extrahepatic cancers increased, whereas mortality from cardiovascular disease or diabetes increased only among patients with HCV infection. These findings indicate the need to reassess risk and risk factors for extrahepatic cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in individuals successfully treated for HCV infection with DAA agents.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Hepatite B Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatite C Crônica/mortalidade , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Censos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Hepatol ; 18(5): 679-684, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164267

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Three fourths of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected adult patients in the United States (US) are born between 1945 and 1965, also known as baby boomers (BB). Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is raising in BB due to their advancing age and prolonged HCV infection. We evaluated inpatient hospitalization and mortality in BB associated with HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective cohort study utilizing the Healthcare Utilization Project-National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) database. From 2003 to 2012, top five primary cancer related hospitalization and mortality among BB were studied. RESULTS: Among 48,733 hospitalizations related to HCC in HCUP-NIS database from 2003 to 2012, BB accounted for 49.6% (24,210) whereas non-BB 50.4% (24,523). Within BB cohort, the top five cancers with the highest proportion of hospitalizations were HCC (46%), prostate (43%), kidney (41%), pancreas (33%), and bladder (21%). From 2003 to 2012, the proportion of HCC related hospitalizations represented by BB almost doubled (33.5 to 57.8%) whereas there was one-third reduction (66.4 to 42.1%) among non-BB. Similarly, HCC-related inpatient mortality in BB decreased by 28% (6.1 to 2.7 per 100,000 hospitalization) but it remained unchanged in non-BB (11.1 to 10.6). HCC accounted for 2nd highest mortality (4960 total deaths) among hospitalized BB behind pancreatic cancer. HCC related to HCV was disproportionately higher in BB compared to non-BB (50.6% vs. 19%; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: HCC ranks number one among the top five cancers with highest proportion of inpatient burden. Future studies should focus on understanding the underlying reasons for this ominous trend.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Pacientes Internados , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Liver Int ; 39(7): 1335-1342, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relationship between bisphenol A (BPA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is undefined. We studied the impact of BPA on NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014 among adults in the United States (US). NAFLD was diagnosed using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the US fatty liver index (USFLI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver diseases. The first sample using HSI consisted of 7605 adults. The second sample using USFLI consisted of 3631 participants with availability of fasting data. RESULTS: Of the first 7605 participants (mean age 47 years, 48.4% male), the prevalence of NAFLD and abnormally elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was correlated with urinary BPA levels (P < 0.05). Compared to the reference group with lowest quartile of urinary BPA levels, those with the third and fourth quartiles were 81% and 53% more likely to develop NAFLD defined by HSI. In a multivariate model, the ORs for NAFLD in the third and fourth quartiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.39-2.04) and 1.44 (95% CI 1.19-1.76) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In the second sample using USFLI, high BPA levels (fourth quartile) remained an independent predictor of NAFLD (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.98, P for trend = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of urinary BPA were associated with NAFLD in a nationally representative sample of adults in the US. The pathophysiology remains unclear and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fenóis/urina , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/urina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Transplantation ; 103(1): 131-139, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has recently become the leading indication for liver transplantation. METHODS: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry, we examined temporal trends in adult liver transplant waitlist (WL) registrants and recipients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to ALD from 2007 to 2016. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2016, ALD accounted for 20.4% (18 399) of all CLD WL additions. The age-standardized ALD WL addition rate was 0.459 per 100 000 US population in 2007; nearly doubled to 0.872 per 100 000 US population in 2016 and increased with an average annual percent change of 47.56% (95% confidence interval, 30.33% to 64.72%).The ALD WL addition rate increased over twofold among young (18-39 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) adults during the study period. Young adult ALD WL additions presented with a higher severity of liver disease including Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score compared to middle aged and older adults (≥60 years). The number of annual ALD WL deaths readily rose from 2014 to 2016, despite an overall annual decline in all CLD WL deaths. Severe hepatic encephalopathy, low body mass index (<18.5) and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors for 1-year WL mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Alcoholic liver disease-related WL registrations and liver transplantation have increased over the past decade with a disproportionate increase in young and middle-aged adults. These subpopulations within the ALD cohort need to be evaluated in future studies to improve our understanding of factors associated with these alarming trends.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 53(2): 120-126, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351155

RESUMO

GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of inpatient outcomes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) related to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: With all-cause mortality increasing in patients undergoing PCIs, outcomes for GIB associated with PCI may be adversely impacted. STUDY: Using the National Inpatient Sample (2007 to 2012), we performed a nested case-control study assessing inpatient outcomes including incidence and mortality for PCI-related GIB hospitalizations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors for GIB incidence and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 9332 (1.2%) of PCI hospitalizations were complicated by GIB with the age-adjusted incidence rate increasing 13% from 2007 (11.3 GIB per 1000 PCI) to 2012 (12.8). Patients ≥75 years of age experienced the steepest incline in GIB incidence, which increased 31% during the study period. Compared with non-GIB patients, mean length of stay (9.4 d vs. 3.3 d) and median cost of care ($29,236 vs. $17,913) was significantly higher. Significant demographic risk factors for GIB included older age and comorbid risk factors included gastritis or duodenitis, and Helicobacter pylori infection.In total, 1044 (11%) of GIB patients died during hospitalization with the GIB mortality rate increasing 30% from 2007 (95 deaths per 1000 GIB) to 2012 (123). Older age had the strongest association with inpatient mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient incidence and mortality for PCI-related GIB has been increasing particularly with a large increase in incidence among older patients. A multidisciplinary approach focused on risk-stratifying patients may improve preventable causes of GIB.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(11): 2379-2381, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458247

RESUMO

The pathogenetic pathways leading to increasing prevalence of advanced fibrosis in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and resulting in higher rates of liver-related and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the United States are multifactorial.1 The negative health impact of "low-normal" thyroid function, which is defined as a higher level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) within the euthyroid reference range, may be comparable with overt and subclinical hypothyroidism.2-4 We reported a strong association between biopsy-proven advanced fibrosis in NAFLD with increasing TSH levels in a dose-dependent manner even within the euthyroid reference range.5 To generalize our findings across all ethnicities, we examined the association of both low-normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism with advanced fibrosis in the US general population.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tireotropina/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Diseases ; 6(4)2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282916

RESUMO

As a chronic disease encompassing a wide spectrum of liver-related histologic damage, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a global epidemic with significant impacts on all-cause morbidity and mortality. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus predispose individuals to NAFLD and related complications. Therefore, timely intervention with anti-diabetic medications may prevent and delay the development of NAFLD or have a therapeutic implication. The focus of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting the efficacy of anti-diabetic medications in the treatment of NAFLD. While many of these anti-diabetic agents have shown to improve biochemical parameters, their effect on hepatic histology is limited. Among anti-diabetic medications, only thiazolidinediones and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists demonstrate significant improvement in hepatic histology.

16.
Diseases ; 6(4)2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274326

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by histological evidence of hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration and hepatic fibrosis in the absence of significant alcohol use and other known causes of chronic liver diseases. NAFLD is subdivided into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFL is generally benign but can progress to NASH, which carries a higher risk of adverse outcomes including cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and death if liver transplantation is not pursued in a timely fashion. Currently, lifestyle modifications including healthy diet and increased physical activity/exercise culminating in weight loss of 5% to >10% is the cornerstone of treatment intervention for patients with NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD who fail to obtain this goal despite the help of dietitians and regimented exercise programs are left in a purgatory state and remain at risk of developing NASH-related advance fibrosis. For such patients with NAFLD who are overweight and obese, healthcare providers should consider a trial of FDA-approved anti-obesity medications as adjunct therapy to provide further preventative and therapeutic options as an effort to reduce the risk of NAFLD-related disease progression.

17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 63(6): 1647-1653, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) implemented the Share 35 policy in June 2013 to prioritize the sickest patients awaiting liver transplantation (LT). However, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score does not incorporate hepatic encephalopathy (HE), an independent predictor of waitlist mortality. AIM: To evaluate the impact of severe HE (grade 3-4) on waitlist outcomes in MELD ≥ 30 patients. METHODS: Using the OPTN/UNOS database, we evaluated LT waitlist registrants from 2005-2014. Demographics, comorbidities, and waitlist survival were compared between four cohorts: MELD 30-34 with severe HE, MELD 30-34 without severe HE, MELD ≥ 35 with severe HE, and MELD ≥ 35 without severe HE. RESULTS: Among 10,003 waitlist registrants studied, 41.6% had MELD score 30-34 and 58.4% had MELD ≥ 35. Patients with severe HE had a higher 90-day waitlist mortality in both MELD 30-34 (severe HE 71.1% vs. no HE 56.6%; p < 0.001) and MELD ≥ 35 subgroups (severe HE 85% versus no HE 74.2%; p < 0.001). MELD 30-34 patients with severe HE had similar 90-day waitlist mortality as MELD ≥ 35 patients without severe HE (71.1 vs. 74.2%, respectively; p = 0.35). On multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, MELD ≥ 30 patients had 58% greater risk of 90-day waitlist mortality than those without severe HE (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.53-1.62; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients awaiting LT with MELD score of 30-34 and severe HE should receive priority status for organ allocation with exception MELD ≥ 35.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Listas de Espera , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/mortalidade , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera/mortalidade
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(6): 965-973.e2, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data on the differences in ethnicity and race among patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT) are limited. We evaluated liver transplant waitlist trends and outcomes based on ethnicity and race in patients with PBC in the United States. METHODS: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry, we collected data on patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist, and performed analysis with a focus on ethnicity and race-based variations clinical manifestations, waitlist mortality and LT rates from 2000 to 2014. Outcomes were adjusted for demographics, complications of portal hypertension, and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at time of waitlist registration. RESULTS: Although the number of white PBC waitlist registrants and additions decreased from 2000 to 2014, there were no significant changes in the number of Hispanic PBC waitlist registrants and additions each year. The proportion of Hispanic patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist increased from 10.7% in 2000 to 19.3% in 2014. Hispanics had the highest percentage of waitlist deaths (20.8%) of any ethnicity or race evaluated. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, Hispanic patients with PBC had the lowest overall rate for undergoing LT (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0. 60-0.83; P < .001) and a significantly higher risk of death while on the waitlist, compared to whites (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15-1.74; P < .001). Furthermore, Hispanic patients with PBC had the highest proportion of waitlist removals due to clinical deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from UNOS registry focusing on outcomes, we observed differences in rates of LT and liver transplant waitlist mortality of Hispanic patients compared with white patients with PBC. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of ethnicity and race-based differences in progression of PBC.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Biliar/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/terapia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Listas de Espera , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(3): 315-322, 2018 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391754

RESUMO

Since the advent of direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has evolved at a rapid pace. In contrast to prior regimen involving ribavirin and pegylated interferon, these newer agents are highly effective, well-tolerated, have shorter course of therapy and safer essentially in all HCV patients including those with advanced liver disease and following liver transplantation. Clinicians caring for HCV-infected patients on the liver transplant (LT) waitlist are often faced with a dilemma whether to treat HCV infection before or after liver transplantation. Sustained virological response (SVR) rates following HCV treatment may improve hepatic function sufficiently enough to negate the need for LT in certain patients. On the other hand, the decrease in MELD without improvement in quality of life in certain patients may lead to delay or dropout from potentially curative LT surgery list. In this context, our review focuses on the approach to and optimal timing of DAA-based treatment of HCV infection in LT candidates in the peri-transplant period.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Antivirais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Doença Hepática Terminal/economia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa , Polietilenoglicóis , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Fatores de Tempo , Listas de Espera
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