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1.
Cell Tissue Res ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582866

RESUMO

Ovaries are the primary physiological source of female sex hormones, which play a crucial role in maintaining ovarian cycle, determining secondary sexual characteristics and preparing the endometrium for implantation. In vitro follicle engineering has been used to investigate follicle development, including ovarian hormone production and gamete maturation. To engineer functional follicles, culture and expansion of the primary ovarian cells are essential. However, the phenotypic and functional characteristics of primary ovarian cells are often lost during culture. The objective of this study is to develop an optimized culture system for maintaining ovarian cell growth and functionality. Granulosa cells (GCs) and theca cells (TCs) were isolated from female rats. The addition of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) to the basal culture media significantly enhanced the secretion of estradiol from GCs and androstenedione from TCs. Serum concentrations of 5% and 10% had a similar role in promoting ovarian cell expansion and secretion of estradiol and androstenedione hormones from both types of cells. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15), BMP7 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) enhanced GC proliferation and estradiol production, respectively. Among them, the effect of bFGF was most significant. bFGF also enhanced TC proliferation. When GCs and TCs were cultured in 5% serum, gonadotropin and bFGF-containing medium, they proliferated exponentially throughout the culture period of up to 40 days while maintaining their functional characteristics. Taken together, these results indicate that our medium formula is optimal for maximizing proliferation of functionally differentiated ovarian cells.

2.
Acta Biomater ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524561

RESUMO

Establishing an adequate vascularization of three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered tissues remains a critical challenge. We previously fabricated a vascular scaffold using the vascular corrosion casting technique, which provides a similar 3D geometry of native kidney vasculature. In this study, we functionalized the collagen vascular scaffold with a controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF vascular scaffold) to further promote vascularization. The VEGF vascular scaffold showed improved angiogenic capability in 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D in vitro settings. Implantation of the VEGF vascular scaffold seeded with human renal cells into a rat kidney demonstrated enhanced implant vascularization and reduced apoptosis of implanted human renal cells. Hybrid renal tubule-like structures composed of implanted human and migrated host renal cells were formed. This work highlights the critical role of early vascularization of the geometrically mimetic vascular scaffold using the VEGF incorporated vascular scaffold in reducing apoptosis of implanted cells as well as the formation of renal tissue structures.

3.
Reprod Sci ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511540

RESUMO

Although menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective approach to managing the loss of ovarian activity, serious side effects have been reported. Cell-based therapy is a promising alternative for MHT. This study constructed engineered ovarian cell spheroids and investigated their endocrine function. Theca and granulosa cells were isolated from ovaries of 10-week-old rats. Two types of engineered ovarian cell spheroids were fabricated through forced aggregation in microwells, multilayered spheroids with centralized granulosa aggregates surrounded by an outer layer of theca cells and mixed ovarian spheroids lacking spatial rearrangement. The ovarian cell spheroids were encapsulated into a collagen gel. Non-aggregated ovarian cells served as controls. The endocrine function of the engineered ovarian spheroids was assessed over 30 days. The structure of the spheroids was well maintained during culture. The secretion of 17ß-estradiol from both types of engineered ovarian cell spheroids was higher than in the control group and increased continuously in a time-dependent manner. Secretion of 17ß-estradiol in the multi-layered ovarian cell spheroids was higher than in the non-layered constructs. Increased secretion of progesterone was detected in the multi-layered ovarian cell spheroids at day 5 of culture and was sustained during the culture period. The initial secretion level of progesterone in the non-layered ovarian cell spheroids was similar to those from the controls and increased significantly from days 21 to 30. An in vitro rat model of engineered ovarian cell spheroids was developed that was capable of secreting sex steroid hormones, indicating that the hormone secreting function of ovaries can be recapitulated ex vivo and potentially adapted for MHT.

4.
J Surg Res ; 257: 246-251, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training diverse house staff, including those who are underrepresented in medicine, is vital to provide high-quality patient care for the communities that we serve. In 2018, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education announced new common program requirements for systematic efforts to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. However, questions remain about how to implement such efforts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) data from eight residency programs spanning two recruitment cycles (2017-2018, 2018-2019) was reviewed. The number of candidates at each stage in the process (applicant, invited to interview, interviewed, and matched) was examined by self-identified race or ethnicity. These data were presented to residency program directors at our Graduate Medical Education committee meeting before the next recruitment cycle. Data were analyzed following the 2019-20 residency match. Odds ratios and Pearson's chi-squared test were used to assess statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 10,445 and 10,982 medical students applied to our 8 core residency programs in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Medical students who applied and self-identified as Asian, Black or African American, and Hispanic or Latino or Spanish origin had lower odds of being invited to interview than those who self-identified as White. After data presentation, the odds of inviting Black or African American applicants to interview increased significantly. The odds of attending an interview once invited were the same across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sharing ERAS data patterns with residency program directors was associated with a significant year over year change in interviewee diversity. Structured analysis of institutional ERAS data can provide insight into the resident selection process and may be a useful tool to improve house staff diversity.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Candidatura a Emprego , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
5.
Acta Biomater ; 121: 237-249, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321220

RESUMO

Damages in pelvic floor muscles often cause dysfunction of the entire pelvic urogenital system, which is clinically challenging. A bioengineered skeletal muscle construct that mimics structural and functional characteristics of native skeletal muscle could provide a therapeutic option to restore normal muscle function. However, most of the current bioengineered muscle constructs are unable to provide timely innervation necessary for successful grafting and functional recovery. We previously have demonstrated that post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) clusters can be pre-formed on cultured skeletal muscle myofibers with agrin treatment and suggested that implantation of AChR clusters containing myofibers could accelerate innervation and recovery of muscle function. In this study, we develop a 3-dimensional (3D) bioprinted human skeletal muscle construct, consisting of multi-layers bundles with aligned and AChR clusters pre-formed human myofibers, and investigate the effect of pre-formed AChR clusters in bioprinted skeletal muscle constructs and innervation efficiency in vivo. Agrin treatment successfully pre-formed functional AChR clusters on the bioprinted muscle constructs in vitro that increased neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation in vivo in a transposed nerve implantation model in rats. In a rat model of pelvic floor muscle injury, implantation of skeletal muscle constructs containing the pre-formed AChR clusters resulted in functional muscle reconstruction with accelerated construct innervation. This approach may provide a therapeutic solution to the many challenges associated with pelvic floor reconstruction resulting from the lack of suitable bioengineered tissue for efficient innervation and muscle function restoration.

6.
Acta Biomater ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227486

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting of patient-specific auricular cartilage constructs could aid in the reconstruction process of traumatically injured or congenitally deformed ear cartilage. To achieve this, a hydrogel-based bioink is required that recapitulates the complex cartilage microenvironment. Tissue-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM)-based hydrogels have been used as bioinks for cell-based 3D bioprinting because they contain tissue-specific ECM components that play a vital role in cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. In this study, porcine auricular cartilage tissues were isolated and decellularized, and the decellularized cartilage tissues were characterized by histology, biochemical assay, and proteomics. This cartilage-derived dECM (cdECM) was subsequently processed into a photo-crosslinkable hydrogel using methacrylation (cdECMMA) and mixed with chondrocytes to create a printable bioink. The rheological properties, printability, and in vitro biological properties of the cdECMMA bioink were examined. The results showed cdECM was obtained with complete removal of cellular components while preserving major ECM proteins. After methacrylation, the cdECMMA bioinks were printed in anatomical ear shape and exhibited adequate mechanical properties and structural integrity. Specifically, auricular chondrocytes in the printed cdECMMA hydrogel constructs maintained their viability and proliferation capacity and eventually produced cartilage ECM components, including collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The potential of cell-based bioprinting using this cartilage-specific dECMMA bioink is demonstrated as an alternative option for auricular cartilage reconstruction.

8.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 14(3): 504-509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250689

RESUMO

Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disorder that can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the terminal ileum near the ileocecal valve. Crohn's disease can be characterized by transmural inflammation and deep fissuring ulcers that predispose to fistula formation and "skip" lesions separated by normal segments of bowel. While often affecting the terminal ileum near the ileocecal valve, Crohn's disease presenting primarily in the appendix is a rare entity. In part due to its low prevalence, cases of appendiceal Crohn's disease can be confused for acute, non-Crohn's-related appendicitis on initial presentation. Although there are published cases of primary appendiceal Crohn's disease in the medical literature, in most cases the diagnosis is made retrospectively following appendectomy for presumed appendicitis. We report on a case of Crohn's disease that was diagnosed pre-operatively, primarily involved the appendix, and which progressed radiographically despite medical therapy and resolution of clinical symptoms. Unique management issues related to this case include the appropriateness of systemic therapy for disease isolated to the appendix, an inability to endoscopically obtain tissue for a definitive diagnosis, and the decision to proceed with surgery in an asymptomatic patient with progressive disease on imaging. Intraoperatively, the appendix was severely inflamed and densely adherent to the left pelvic side wall and adjacent to the left ovary and fallopian tube. A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Pathology demonstrated acute appendicitis as well as marked mural chronic inflammation and epithelioid granulomas, consistent with Crohn's disease. Surgical resection may be the most appropriate treatment for Crohn's disease primarily involving the appendix, obviating the need for systemic therapy and minimizing the risk for appendiceal perforation and fistula formation.

9.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 17(6): 787-800, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237567

RESUMO

Microfluidic technologies have emerged as a powerful tool that can closely replicate the in-vivo physiological conditions of organ systems. Assisted reproductive technology (ART), while being able to achieve successful outcomes, still faces challenges related to technical error, efficiency, cost, and monitoring/assessment. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the uses of microfluidic devices in the culture, maintenance and study of ovarian follicle development for experimental and therapeutic applications. We discuss existing microfluidic platforms for oocyte and sperm selection and maintenance, facilitation of fertilization by in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplastimc sperm injection, and monitoring, selection and maintenance of resulting embryos. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of future integration of these technologies onto a single platform and the limitations facing the development of these systems. In spite of these challenges, we envision that microfluidic systems will likely evolve and inevitably revolutionize both fundamental, reproductive physiology/toxicology research as well as clinically applicable ART.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017447

RESUMO

It is often critical to improve the limited regenerative capacity of the peripheral nerves and direct neural growth towards specific targets, such as surgically implanted bioengineered constructs. One approach to accomplish this goal is to use extrinsic neurotrophic factors. The candidate factors first need to be identified and characterized in in vitro tests for their ability to direct the neurite growth. Here, we present a simple guidance assay that allows to assess the chemotactic effect of signaling molecules on the growth of neuronal processes from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using only standard tissue culture materials. We used this technique to quantitatively determine the combined and individual effects of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on neurite outgrowth. We demonstrated that these two neurotrophic factors, when applied in a 1:1 combination, but not individually, induced directed growth of neuronal processes towards the source of the gradient. This chemotactic effect persists without significant changes over a wide (10-fold) concentration range. Moreover, we demonstrated that other, more general growth parameters that do not evaluate growth in a specific direction (such as, neurite length and trajectory) were differentially affected by the concentration of the CNTF/GNDF mixture. Furthermore, GDNF, when applied individually, did not have any chemotactic effect, but caused significant neurite elongation and an increase in the number of neurites per ganglion.

11.
Tissue Eng Part A ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928068

RESUMO

Bioink printability persists as a limiting factor toward many bioprinting applications. Printing parameter selection is largely user-dependent, and the effect of cell density on printability has not been thoroughly investigated. Recently, methods have been developed to give greater insight into printing outcomes. This study aims to further advance those methods and apply them to study the effect of printing parameters (feedrate and flowrate) and cell density on printability. Two printed structures, a crosshatch and five-layer tube, were established as printing standards and utilized to determine the printing outcomes. Acellular bioinks were printed using a testing matrix of feedrates of 37.5, 75, 150, 300, and 600 mm/min and flowrates of 21, 42, 84, 168, and 336 mm3/min. Structures were also printed with cell densities of 5, 10, 20, and 40 × 106 cell/mL at 150 mm/min and 84 mm3/min. Only speed ratios (defined as flowrate divided by feedrate) from 0.07 to 2.24 mm2 were suitable for analysis. Increasing speed ratio dramatically increased the height, width, and wall thickness of tubular structures, but did not influence radial accuracy. For crosshatch structures, the area of pores and the frequency of broken filaments were decreased without impacting pore shape (Pr). Within speed ratios, feedrate and flowrate had negligible, inconsistent effects. Cell density did not affect any printing outcomes despite slight rheological changes. Printing outcomes were dominated by the speed ratio, with feedrate, flowrate, and cell density having little impact on printing outcomes when controlling for speed ratio within the ranges tested. The relevance of these results to other bioinks and printing conditions requires continued investigation by the bioprinting community, as well as highlight speed ratio as a key variable to report and suggest that rheology is a more sensitive measure than printing outcomes. Impact statement Cell-based 3D bioprinting strategies have a great promise to bioengineer clinically relevant tissue constructs. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that affect the printability of cell-laden hydrogel bioinks is mandatory. This study investigated the effects of printing parameters and cell density on the printing outcomes, which could provide a significant impact on further bioink development and bioprinting applications.

12.
Chem Rev ; 120(19): 11093-11127, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885956

RESUMO

The field of tissue engineering has advanced over the past decade, but the largest impact on human health should be achieved with the transition of engineered solid organs to the clinic. The number of patients suffering from solid organ disease continues to increase, with over 100 000 patients on the U.S. national waitlist and approximately 730 000 deaths in the United States resulting from end-stage organ disease annually. While flat, tubular, and hollow nontubular engineered organs have already been implanted in patients, in vitro formation of a fully functional solid organ at a translatable scale has not yet been achieved. Thus, one major goal is to bioengineer complex, solid organs for transplantation, composed of patient-specific cells. Among the myriad of approaches attempted to engineer solid organs, 3D bioprinting offers unmatched potential. This review highlights the structural complexity which must be engineered at nano-, micro-, and mesostructural scales to enable organ function. We showcase key advances in bioprinting solid organs with complex vascular networks and functioning microstructures, advances in biomaterials science that have enabled this progress, the regulatory hurdles the field has yet to overcome, and cutting edge technologies that bring us closer to the promise of engineered solid organs.

13.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751101

RESUMO

Full-thickness skin wounds are a significant clinical burden in the United States. Skin bioprinting is a relatively new technology that is under investigation as a new treatment for full-thickness injuries, and development of hydrogels with strong physical and biological characteristics are required to improve both structural integrity of the printed constructs while allowing for a more normal extracellular matrix milieu. This project aims to evaluate the physical and biological characteristics of fibrinogen hydrogel supplemented with decellularized human skin-derived extracellular matrix (dsECM). The hybrid hydrogel improves the cell viability and structural strength of bioprinted skin constructs. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the hybrid hydrogel is composed of both swelling bundles interlocked in a fibrin network, similar to healthy human skin. This hybrid hydrogel has improved rheological properties and shear thinning properties. Extrusion-based printing of the fibrinogen hydrogel + dsECM demonstrates significant improvement in crosshatch pore size. These findings suggest that incorporating the properties of dsECM and fibrinogen hydrogels will improve in vivo integration of the bioprinted skin constructs and support of healthy skin wound regeneration.

14.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 35(12): 2283-2291, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Small bowel leiomyosarcoma (SB LMS) is a rare disease with few studies characterizing its outcomes. This study aims to evaluate surgical outcomes for patients with SB LMS. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried from 2004 to 2016 to identify patients with SB LMS who underwent surgical resection. The primary outcome was overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 288 patients with SB LMS who had undergone surgical resection were identified. The median age was 63, and the majority of patients were female (56%), White (82%), and had a Charlson comorbidity score of zero (76%). Eighty-one percent of patients had negative margins following surgical resection. Fourteen percent of patients had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen percent of patients received chemotherapy and 3% of patients received radiation. One-year overall survival was 77% (95% CI: 72-82%) and 5-year overall survival was 43% (95% CI: 36-49%). Higher grade (HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.10-3.55, p = 0.02) and metastatic disease at diagnosis (HR: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.45-4.55, p = 0.001) were independently associated with higher risk of death. CONCLUSION: SB LMS is a rare disease entity, with treatment centering on complete surgical resection. Our results demonstrate that overall survival is higher than previously thought. Timely diagnosis to allow for complete surgical resection is key, and investigation into the possible role of chemotherapy or radiation therapy is needed.

15.
Biomaterials ; 258: 120267, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781325

RESUMO

Stem cell-based tissue engineering has the potential to use as an alternative for autologous tissue grafts; however, the contribution of the scaffold degradation along with the transplanted stem cells to in vivo tissue regeneration remains poorly understood. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has great potential to monitor implants while avoiding autofluorescence from the adjacent host tissue. To utilize NIR imaging for in vivo monitoring of scaffold degradation and cell tracking, we synthesized 800-nm emitting NIR-conjugated PCL-ran-PLLA-ran-PGA (ZW-PCLG) copolymers with three different degradation rates and labeled 700-nm emitting lipophilic pentamethine (CTNF127) on the human placental stem cells (CT-PSCs). The 3D bioprinted hybrid constructs containing the CT-PSC-laden hydrogel together with the ZW-PCLG scaffolds demonstrate that NIR fluorescent imaging enables tracking of in vivo scaffold degradation and stem cell fate for bone regeneration in a rat calvarial bone defect model. This NIR-based monitoring system can be effectively utilized to study cell-based tissue engineering applications.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716728

RESUMO

Objective: One of the leading causes of death following traumatic injury is exsanguination. Biological material-based hemostatic agents such as fibrin, thrombin, and albumin have a high risk for causing infection. Synthetic peptide-based hemostatic agents offer an attractive alternative. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of h9e peptide as an effective hemostatic agent in both in vitro and in vivo models. Approach: In vitro blood coagulation kinetics in the presence of h9e peptide was determined as a function of gelation time using a dynamic rheometer. In vivo hemostatic effects were studied using the Wistar rat model. Results were compared to those of the commercial hemostatic product Celox™, a chitosan-based product. Adhesion of h9e peptide was evaluated using the platelet adhesion test. Biocompatibility of h9e peptide was studied in vivo using a mouse model. Results: After h9e peptide solution was mixed with blood, gelation started immediately, increased rapidly with time, and reached more than 100 Pa within 3 s. Blood coagulation strength increased as h9e peptide wt% concentration increased. In the rat model, h9e peptide solution at 5% weight concentration significantly reduced both bleeding time and blood loss, outperforming Celox. Preliminary pathological studies indicate that h9e peptide solution is biocompatible and did not have negative effects when injected subcutaneously in a mouse model. Innovation: For the first time, h9e peptide was found to have highly efficient hemostatic effects by forming nanoweb-like structures, which act as a preliminary thrombus and a surface to arrest bleeding 82% faster compared to the commercial hemostatic agent Celox. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that h9e peptide is a promising hemostatic biomaterial, not only because of its greater hemostatic effect than commercial product Celox but also because of its excellent biocompatibility based on the in vivo mouse model study.

19.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 14(10): 1394-1402, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652851

RESUMO

Human placental stem cells (PSCs) enhance histological and functional recovery in a rodent erectile dysfunction (ED) model. We tested the hypothesis that bioactive factors secreted by PSC (i.e., the secretome) mediate functional recovery and that acellular-conditioned media (CM) from PSC culture (PSC-CM) could be used independently to facilitate functional and histological recovery. To identify factors relative to efficacy of PSC, a comparison of CM from PSC and three additional human stem cell populations was performed. CM from human PSC, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs), adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was assayed using a semi-quantitative human cytokine antibody array. Male rats, after surgically created ED by neurovascular injury, were randomly divided into four groups: vehicle control (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]), PSC, PSC-CM, and serum-free media control (SFM) as control. Functional data on intracorporal and mean arterial pressure were obtained, and histological architecture was examined 6 weeks after single injection. PSCs were found to secrete at least 27 cytokines and growth factors at a significantly higher level than the other three cell types. Either single injection of PSC-CM or PSC significantly improved erectile functional recovery and histological architecture compared with SFM or PBS. Injection of the secretome isolated from human PSC improves erectile functional recovery and histological structure in a rat model of neurovascular injury-induced ED. Further characterization of the unique protein expression within the PSC-CM may help to identify the potential for a novel injectable cell-free therapeutic for applicable patients.

20.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary small bowel non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare disease representing 2% of small intestine malignancies. There is limited data delineating the optimal treatment for these heterogeneous tumors. We aim to examine relationships between different treatment modalities and surgical outcomes in patients with small bowel lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with stage I-III small bowel lymphoma in 2004-2015 who underwent surgery were identified in the National Cancer Database. Two cohorts were created based on systemic chemotherapy treatment status. The primary outcome was overall survival. An adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of treatment strategy on survival. RESULTS: 2283 patients met inclusion criteria Of these patients, 826 patients (36%) underwent surgical resection alone, and 1457 patients (64%) underwent resection with systemic chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was associated with improved overall survival in unadjusted (5-year overall survival, 55% versus 70%) and adjusted analysis (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.47-0.63, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Patients with small bowel lymphoma have a low five-year overall survival after surgery. Chemotherapy is associated with improved survival, although one third of patients do not receive this therapy. Several other clinical factors are identified that are also associated with overall survival, including histology subtype, margin status, age, and medical comorbidities. This information can help with prognostication and potentially aid in treatment decision-making.

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