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1.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(10): 1895-1905, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300975

RESUMO

Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IR-MPD) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations has been employed to study the activation of molecular oxygen and ethylene co-adsorbed on a free gold dimer cation Au2+. Both studied complexes, Au2O2(C2H4)+ and Au2O2(C2H4)2+, show distinct features of both intact O2 and ethylene co-adsorbed on the cluster. However, the ethylene C=C double bond is activated, increasing in length by up to 0.07 Å compared with the free molecule, and the red shift of the O-O vibration frequency increases with the number of adsorbed ethylene molecules, indicating a small but increasing activation of the O-O bond. The small O2 activation and the rather weak interaction between O2 and C2H4 are also reflected in the calculated electronic structure of the co-adsorption complexes which shows only a small occupation of the empty anti-bonding O2 2π*2p orbital as well as the localization of most of the Kohn-Sham orbitals on O2 and C2H4, respectively, with only limited mixing between O2 and C2H4 orbitals. The results are compared with theoretical studies on neutral AuxO2(C2H4) (x = 3, 5, 7, 9) complexes.

2.
Acc Chem Res ; 51(12): 3104-3113, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462479

RESUMO

Silver and gold molecular nanoparticles (mNPs) are a relatively new class of molecular materials of fundamental interest. They are high-nuclearity metal-organic compounds, with ligated metal cores, where the different character of bonding in the ligand shell and metal core gives rise to many of the unique properties of these materials. Research has primarily focused on gold mNPs, due to their good stability and the ease with which they may be synthesized and processed. To understand these materials as a general class, however, it will be necessary to broaden research efforts to other metals. Gold and silver are isoelectronic and have the same atomic radius, making the comparison of gold and silver mNPs attractive. The optical and chemical differences of the two metals provide useful contrasts, however, as well as a means to access a wider range of properties. In this Account, we focus on the synthesis, structure, and reactivity of silver mNPs. First, we review the origins and history of the field, from the ill-defined gas-phase metal clusters of the 1980s to the precisely defined mNPs of 1996 and onward. Next, we discuss the role of silver as a complement to gold mNPs in the effort to generalize lessons learned from either material and extend them into new metals. The synthesis of silver mNPs is covered in some detail, noting the choices made as the chemistry and the materials were developed. The importance of coordinating solvents and thermodynamic stability are also noted. The need to reduce solvent use is discussed and a new approach to achieving this goal is presented. Next, the structures of silver mNPs are discussed, including the Ag44 and Ag17 archetypes, and focusing on the successful de novo structure prediction of the latter. Structure and prediction of ligand shell motifs are also discussed. Finally, the postsynthetic chemistry and reactivity of silver mNPs are presented, including some of the first efforts to elucidate reaction mechanisms, beginning in 2012. Silver nanoparticles are gaining in popularity, particularly compared with gold, as the potential for silver to make a technological and economic impact is recognized. The superior optical properties of silver already make it a valuable material for plasmonics, but this may also translate to molecular species for nonlinear optics, sensors, and optoelectronics. The higher reactivity may also lead to a greater diversity of chemistry for silver compared to gold, including as an important broad-spectrum antimicrobial. Conversely, the "ultrastability" of the Ag44 archetype has already enabled unprecedented scale up with molecular precision, and may lead to the first industrial-scale production of metal mNPs. Clearly, silver mNPs are one of the most promising and significant new materials being studied today.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(50): 504001, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465551

RESUMO

The interaction of ethylene with free gold clusters of different sizes and charge states has been previously shown theoretically to involve two different adsorption modes of the C2H4 molecule, namely: the di-σ- and π-bonded ethylene adsorption configurations. Here, we present the first experimental investigation of the structure of a series of gas-phase gold-ethylene complexes, [Formula: see text]. By employing infrared multiple-photon dissociation spectroscopy in conjunction with first-principles calculations it is revealed that up to three C2H4 molecules preferably bind to gold cations in a π-bonded configuration. The binding of all ethylene molecules is found to be dominated by partial electron donation from the ethylene molecules to the gold clusters leading to an activation of the C-C bond. The cooperative action of multiple coadsorbed C2H4 on [Formula: see text] is shown to enable additional charge back-donation and an enhanced C-C bond activation. In contrast, the strong C-H bond is not weakened and the experimental spectra do not give any indication for C-H bond dissociation. The possible correlations of the C-C bond stretch vibration with the C-C bond length and the net charge transfer are discussed.

4.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 74(Pt 7): 987-993, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002900

RESUMO

Crystals of M4Au12Ag32(p-MBA)30 bimetallic monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs), where p-MBA is p-mercapto-benzoic acid and M+ is a counter-cation (M = Na, Cs) have been grown and their structure determined. The mol-ecular structure of triacontakis[(4-carboxylatophenyl)sulfanido]dodecagolddotriacontasilver, Au12Ag32(C7H5O2S)30 or C210H150Ag32Au12O60S30, exhib-its point group symmetry at 100 K. The overall diameter of the MPC is approximately 28 Å, while the diameter of the Au12Ag20 metallic core is 9 Å. The structure displays ligand bundling and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding, which gives rise to a framework structure with 52% solvent-filled void space. The positions of the M+ cations and the DMF solvent mol-ecules within the void space of the crystal could not be determined. Three out of the five crystallographically independent ligands in the asymmetric unit cell are disordered over two sets of sites. Comparisons are made to the all-silver M4Ag44(p-MBA)30 MPCs and to expectations based on density functional theory.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(31): 8953-7, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356301

RESUMO

Ethylene hydrogenation was investigated on size-selected Pt13 clusters supported on three amorphous silica (a-SiO2 ) thin films with different stoichiometries. Activity measurements of the reaction at 300 K revealed that on a silicon-rich and a stoichiometric film, Pt13 exhibits a similar activity to that of Pt(111), in line with the known structure insensitivity of the reaction. On an oxygen-rich film, a threefold increased rate was measured. Pulsing ethylene at 400 K, then measuring the activity at 300 K, resulted in complete loss of activity on the silicon-rich surface compared to only marginal losses on the other surfaces. The measured reactivity trends correlate with charging characteristics of a Pt13 cluster on the SiO2 films, predicted through first-principle calculations. The results reveal that the stoichiometry-dependent charging by the support can be used to tune the selectivity of reaction pathways during a catalytic hydrogenation reaction.

7.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10389, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26817713

RESUMO

The sensitivity, or insensitivity, of catalysed reactions to catalyst structure is a commonly employed fundamental concept. Here we report on the nature of nano-catalysed ethylene hydrogenation, investigated through experiments on size-selected Ptn (n=8-15) clusters soft-landed on magnesia and first-principles simulations, yielding benchmark information about the validity of structure sensitivity/insensitivity at the bottom of the catalyst size range. Both ethylene-hydrogenation-to-ethane and the parallel hydrogenation-dehydrogenation ethylidyne-producing route are considered, uncovering that at the <1 nm size-scale the reaction exhibits characteristics consistent with structure sensitivity, in contrast to structure insensitivity found for larger particles. The onset of catalysed hydrogenation occurs for Ptn (n ≥ 10) clusters at T>150 K, with maximum room temperature reactivity observed for Pt13. Structure insensitivity, inherent for specific cluster sizes, is induced in the more active Pt13 by a temperature increase up to 400 K leading to ethylidyne formation. Control of sub-nanometre particle size may be used for tuning catalysed hydrogenation activity and selectivity.

8.
Sci Adv ; 2(11): e1601609, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138537

RESUMO

Fathoming the principles underpinning the structures of monolayer-coated molecular metal nanoparticles remains an enduring challenge. Notwithstanding recent x-ray determinations, coveted veritable de novo structural predictions are scarce. Building on recent syntheses and de novo structure predictions of M3Au x Ag17-x (TBBT)12, where M is a countercation, x = 0 or 1, and TBBT is 4-tert-butylbenzenethiol, we report an x-ray-determined structure that authenticates an a priori prediction and, in conjunction with first-principles theoretical analysis, lends force to the underlying forecasting methodology. The predicted and verified Ag(SR)3 monomer, together with the recently discovered Ag2(SR)5 dimer and Ag3(SR)6 trimer, establishes a family of unique mount motifs for silver thiolate nanoparticles, expanding knowledge beyond the earlier-known Au-S staples in thiol-capped gold nanoclusters. These findings demonstrate key principles underlying ligand-shell anchoring to the metal core, as well as unique T-like benzene dimer and cyclic benzene trimer ligand bundling configurations, opening vistas for rational design of metal and alloy nanoparticles.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(36): 11550-3, 2015 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301320

RESUMO

Although silver nanoparticles are of great fundamental and practical interest, only one structure has been determined thus far: M4Ag44(SPh)30, where M is a monocation, and SPh is an aromatic thiolate ligand. This is in part due to the fact that no other molecular silver nanoparticles have been synthesized with aromatic thiolate ligands. Here we report the synthesis of M3Ag17(4-tert-butylbenzene-thiol)12, which has good stability and an unusual optical spectrum. We also present a rational strategy for predicting the structure of this molecule. First-principles calculations support the structural model, predict a HOMO-LUMO energy gap of 1.77 eV, and predict a new "monomer mount" capping motif, Ag(SR)3, for Ag nanoparticles. The calculated optical absorption spectrum is in good correspondence with the measured spectrum. Heteroatom substitution was also used as a structural probe. First-principles calculations based on the structural model predicted a strong preference for a single Au atom substitution in agreement with experiment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
10.
Nat Mater ; 13(8): 807-11, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24705383

RESUMO

Self-assembled nanoparticle superlattices-materials made of inorganic cores capped by organic ligands, of varied structures, and held together by diverse binding motifs-exhibit size-dependent properties as well as tunable collective behaviour arising from couplings between their nanoscale constituents. Here, we report the single-crystal X-ray structure of a superlattice made in the high-yield synthesis of Na(4)Ag(44)(p-MBA)(30) nanoparticles, and find with large-scale quantum-mechanical simulations that its atomically precise structure and cohesion derive from hydrogen bonds between bundledp-MBA ligands. We also find that the superlattice's mechanical response to hydrostatic compression is characterized by a molecular-solid-like bulk modulus B(0) = 16.7 GPa, exhibiting anomalous pressure softening and a compression-induced transition to a soft-solid phase. Such a transition involves ligand flexure, which causes gear-like correlated chiral rotation of the nanoparticles. The interplay of compositional diversity, spatial packing efficiency, hydrogen-bond connectivity, and cooperative response in this system exemplifies the melding of the seemingly contrasting paradigms of emergent behaviour 'small is different' and 'more is different'.

11.
Nature ; 501(7467): 399-402, 2013 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24005327

RESUMO

Noble-metal nanoparticles have had a substantial impact across a diverse range of fields, including catalysis, sensing, photochemistry, optoelectronics, energy conversion and medicine. Although silver has very desirable physical properties, good relative abundance and low cost, gold nanoparticles have been widely favoured owing to their proved stability and ease of use. Unlike gold, silver is notorious for its susceptibility to oxidation (tarnishing), which has limited the development of important silver-based nanomaterials. Despite two decades of synthetic efforts, silver nanoparticles that are inert or have long-term stability remain unrealized. Here we report a simple synthetic protocol for producing ultrastable silver nanoparticles, yielding a single-sized molecular product in very large quantities with quantitative yield and without the need for size sorting. The stability, purity and yield are substantially better than those for other metal nanoparticles, including gold, owing to an effective stabilization mechanism. The particular size and stoichiometry of the product were found to be insensitive to variations in synthesis parameters. The chemical stability and structural, electronic and optical properties can be understood using first-principles electronic structure theory based on an experimental single-crystal X-ray structure. Although several structures have been determined for protected gold nanoclusters, none has been reported so far for silver nanoparticles. The total structure of a thiolate-protected silver nanocluster reported here uncovers the unique structure of the silver thiolate protecting layer, consisting of Ag2S5 capping structures. The outstanding stability of the nanoparticle is attributed to a closed-shell 18-electron configuration with a large energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, an ultrastable 32-silver-atom excavated-dodecahedral core consisting of a hollow 12-silver-atom icosahedron encapsulated by a 20-silver-atom dodecahedron, and the choice of protective coordinating ligands. The straightforward synthesis of large quantities of pure molecular product promises to make this class of materials widely available for further research and technology development.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 4(6): 975-981, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23687562

RESUMO

Determination of the total structure of molecular nanocrystals is an outstanding experimental challenge that has been met, in only a few cases, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Described here is an alternative approach that is of most general applicability and does not require the fabrication of a single crystal. The method is based on rapid, time-resolved nanobeam electron diffraction (NBD) combined with high-angle annular dark field scanning/transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images in a probe corrected STEM microscope, operated at reduced voltages. The results are compared with theoretical simulations of images and diffraction patterns obtained from atomistic structural models derived through first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method is demonstrated by application to determination of the structure of the Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 cluster.

13.
Chemphyschem ; 14(6): 1272-82, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23508895

RESUMO

A discrete sequence of bare gold clusters of well-defined nuclearity, namely Au25(+), Au38(+) and Au102(+), formed in a process that starts from gold-bound adducts of the protein lysozyme, were detected in the gas phase. It is proposed that subsequent to laser desorption ionization, gold clusters form in the gas phase, with the protein serving as a confining growth environment that provides an effective reservoir for dissipation of the cluster aggregation and stabilization energy. First-principles calculations reveal that the growing gold clusters can be electronically stabilized in the protein environment, achieving electronic closed-shell structures as a result of bonding interactions with the protein. Calculations for a cluster with 38 gold atoms reveal that gold interaction with the protein results in breaking of the disulfide bonds of the cystine units, and that the binding of the cysteine residues to the cluster depletes the number of delocalized electrons in the cluster, resulting in opening of a super-atom electronic gap. This shell-closure stabilization mechanism confers enhanced stability to the gold clusters. Once formed as stable magic number aggregates in the protein growth medium, the gold clusters become detached from the protein template and are observed as bare Au(n)(+) (n=25, 38, and 102) clusters.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Muramidase/química , Elétrons , Gases/química , Ouro/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Muramidase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(2): 504-17, 2013 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23289925

RESUMO

The preparation of gold nanomolecules with sizes other than Au(25)(SR)(18), Au(38)(SR)(24), Au(102)(SR)(44), and Au(144)(SR)(60) has been hampered by stability issues and low yields. Here we report a procedure to prepare Au(67)(SR)(35), for either R = -SCH(2)CH(2)Ph or -SC(6)H(13), allowing high-yield isolation (34%, ~10-mg quantities) of the title compound. Product high purity is assessed at each synthesis stage by rapid MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry (MS), and high-resolution electrospray-ionization MS confirms the Au(67)(SR)(35) composition. Electronic properties were explored using optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-visible-NIR regions) and electrochemistry (0.74 V spacing in differential-pulsed-voltammetry), modes of ligand binding were studied by NMR spectroscopy ((13)C and (1)H), and structural characteristics of the metal atom core were determined by powder X-ray measurements. Models featuring a Au(17) truncated-decahedral inner core encapsulated by the 30 anchoring atoms of 15 staple-motif units have been investigated with first-principles electronic structure calculations. This resulted in identification of a structure consistent with the experiments, particularly, the opening of a large gap (~0.75 eV) in the (2-) charge-state of the nanomolecule. The electronic structure is analyzed within the framework of a superatom shell model. Structurally, the Au(67)(SR)(35) nanomolecule is the smallest to adopt the complete truncated-decahedral motif for its core with a surface structure bearing greater similarity to the larger nanoparticles. Its electronic HOMO-LUMO gap (~0.75 eV) is nearly double that of the larger Au(102) compound and it is much smaller than that of the Au(38) one. The intermediary status of the Au(67)(SR)(35) nanomolecule is also reflected in both its optical and electrochemical characteristics.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 51(52): 13114-8, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23154932

RESUMO

A golden opportunity: the total structure of a Au(36)(SR)(24) nanocluster reveals an unexpected face-centered-cubic tetrahedral Au(28) kernel (magenta). The protecting layer exhibits an intriguing combination of binding modes, consisting of four regular arch-like staples and the unprecedented appearance of twelve bridging thiolates (yellow). This unique protecting network and superatom electronic shell structure confer extreme stability and robustness.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Elétrons , Conformação Molecular , Teoria Quântica
16.
Nano Lett ; 12(11): 5907-12, 2012 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23057656

RESUMO

Soft-landing of size-selected Pd(n) (n ≤ 20) nanoclusters on a Moiré-patterned surface of graphene adsorbed on Ru(0001) leads to controlled formation of a truly monodisperse cluster-assembled material. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations allow identification of selective adsorption sites, characterization of size-dependent cluster isomers, and exploration of interconversion processes between isomeric forms that manifestly influence cluster surface mobility. Surface-assembled cluster superstructures may be employed in nanocatalytic applications, as well as in fundamental investigations of physical factors controlling bonding, structure, isomerism, and surface mobilities of surface-supported clusters.

17.
Nano Lett ; 12(11): 5861-6, 2012 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23094944

RESUMO

A cluster obtained in high yield from the reduction of a silver-thiolate precursor, Ag-SCH(2)CH(2)Ph, exhibited a single sharp peak near 25 kDa in the matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrum (MALDI MS) and a well-defined metal core of ~2 nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cluster yields a single fraction in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Increased laser fluence fragments the cluster until a new peak near 19 kDa predominates, suggesting that the parent cluster-Ag(152)(SCH(2)CH(2)Ph)(60)-evolves into a stable inorganic core-Ag(152)S(60). Exploiting combined insights from investigations of clusters and surface science, a core-shell structure model was developed, with a 92-atom silver core having icosahedral-dodecahedral symmetry and an encapsulating protective shell containing 60 Ag atoms and 60 thiolates arranged in a network of six-membered rings resembling the geometry found in self-assembled monolayers on Ag(111). The structure is in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data. The protective layer encapsulating this silver cluster may be the smallest known three-dimensional self-assembled monolayer. First-principles electronic structure calculations show, for the geometry-optimized structure, the development of a ~0.4 eV energy gap between the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied states, originating from a superatom 90-electron shell-closure and conferring stability to the cluster. The optical absorption spectrum of the cluster resembles that of plasmonic silver nanoparticles with a broad single feature peaking at 460 nm, but the luminescence spectrum shows two maxima with one attributed to the ligated shell and the other to the core.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(18): 7690-9, 2012 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22519644

RESUMO

Combining temperature-programmed reaction measurements, isotopic labeling experiments, and first-principles spin density functional theory, the dependence of the reaction temperature of catalyzed carbon monoxide oxidation on the oxidation state of Pd(13) clusters deposited on MgO surfaces grown on Mo(100) is explored. It is shown that molecular oxygen dissociates easily on the supported Pd(13) cluster, leading to facile partial oxidation to form Pd(13)O(4) clusters with C(4v) symmetry. Increasing the oxidation temperature to 370 K results in nonsymmetric Pd(13)O(6) clusters. The higher symmetry, partially oxidized cluster is characterized by a relatively high activation energy for catalyzed combustion of the first CO molecule via a reaction of an adsorbed CO molecule with one of the oxygen atoms of the Pd(13)O(4) cluster. Subsequent reactions on the resulting lower-symmetry Pd(13)O(x) (x < 4) clusters entail lower activation energies. The nonsymmetric Pd(13)O(6) clusters show lower temperature-catalyzed CO combustion, already starting at cryogenic temperature.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(25): 8939-51, 2009 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19462980

RESUMO

Small gas-phase gold cluster cations are essentially inert toward molecular oxygen. Preadsorption of molecular hydrogen, however, is found to cooperatively activate the binding of O(2) to even-size Au(x)(+) (x = 2, 4, 6) clusters. Measured temperature- and reaction-time-dependent ion intensities, obtained by ion trap mass spectrometry, in conjunction with first-principles density-functional theory calculations, reveal promotion and activation of molecular oxygen by preadsorbed hydrogen. These processes lead to the formation of a hydroperoxo intermediate on Au(4)(+) and Au(6)(+) and culminate in the dissociation of O(2) via the release of H(2)O. Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanisms involving the coadsorption of both of the reactant molecules are discussed for both cluster sizes, and an alternative Eley-Rideal mechanism involving hydrogen molecules adsorbed on a Au(6)(+) cluster reacting with an impinging gaseous oxygen molecule is analyzed. Structural fluctionality of the gold hexamer cation, induced by the adsorption of hydrogen molecules, and resulting in structural isomerization from a ground-state triangular structure to an incomplete hexagonal one, is theoretically predicted. Bonding of H(2) on cationic gold clusters is shown to involve charge transfer to the clusters. This serves to promote the bonding of coadsorbed oxygen through occupation of the antibonding 2pi* orbitals, resulting in excess electronic charge accumulation on the adsorbed molecule and weakening of the O-O bond. The theoretical results for hydrogen saturation coverages and reaction characteristics between the coadsorbed hydrogen and oxygen molecules are found to agree with the experimental findings. The joint investigations provide insights regarding hydrogen and oxygen cooperative adsorption effects and consequent reaction mechanisms.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(2): 538-48, 2009 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19140792

RESUMO

Control and tunability of the catalytic oxidation of CO by gold clusters deposited on MgO surfaces grown on molybdenum, Mo(100), to various thicknesses are explored through temperature-programmed reaction measurements on mass-selected 20-atom gold clusters and via first-principles density functional theory calculations. Au(20) was chosen because in the gas phase it is characterized as an extraordinarily stable tetrahedral-pyramidal structure. Dependencies of the catalytic activities and microscopic reaction mechanisms on the thickness and stoichiometry of the MgO films and on the dimensionalities and structures of the adsorbed gold clusters are demonstrated and elucidated. Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms and reaction barriers corresponding to observed low- and high-temperature CO oxidation reactions are calculated and analyzed. These reactions involve adsorbed O(2) molecules that are activated to a superoxo- or peroxo-like state through partial occupation of the antibonding orbitals. In some cases, we find activated, dissociative adsorption of O(2) molecules, adsorbing at the cluster peripheral interface with the MgO surface. The reactant CO molecules either adsorb on the MgO surface in the cluster proximity or bind directly to the gold cluster. Along with the oxidation reactions on stoichiometric ultrathin MgO films, we also study reactions catalyzed by Au(20) nanoclusters adsorbed on relatively thick defect-poor MgO films supported on Mo and on defect-rich thick MgO surfaces containing oxygen vacancy defects.

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