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1.
Med Phys ; 47(1): 272-281, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677156

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High energetic carbon (C-) ion beams undergo nuclear interactions with tissue, producing secondary nuclear fragments. Thus, at depth, C-ion beams are composed of a mixture of different particles with different linear energy transfer (LET) values. We developed a technique to enable isolation of DNA damage response (DDR) in mixed radiation fields using beam line microscopy coupled with fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs). METHODS: We imaged live cells on a coverslip made of FNTDs right after C-ion, proton or photon irradiation using an in-house built confocal microscope placed in the beam path. We used the FNTD to link track traversals with DNA damage and separated DNA damage induced by primary particles from fragments. RESULTS: We were able to spatially link physical parameters of radiation tracks to DDR in live cells to investigate spatiotemporal DDR in multi-ion radiation fields in real time, which was previously not possible. We demonstrated that the response of lesions produced by the high-LET primary particles associates most strongly with cell death in a multi-LET radiation field, and that this association is not seen when analyzing radiation induced foci in aggregate without primary/fragment classification. CONCLUSIONS: We report a new method that uses confocal microscopy in combination with FNTDs to provide submicrometer spatial-resolution measurements of radiation tracks in live cells. Our method facilitates expansion of the radiation-induced DDR research because it can be used in any particle beam line including particle therapy beam lines. CATEGORY: Biological Physics and Response Prediction.

2.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(5): 1119-1125, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study seeks to identify biological factors that may yield a therapeutic advantage of proton therapy versus photon therapy. Specifically, we address the role of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) in the survival of cells in response to clinical photon and proton beams. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We irradiated HT1080, M059K (DNA-PKcs+/+), and HCC1937 human cancer cell lines and their isogenic counterparts HT1080-shDNA-PKcs, HT1080-shRAD51IND, M059J (DNA-PKcs-/-), and HCC1937-BRCA1 (BRCA1 complemented) to assess cell clonogenic survival and γ-H2AX radiation-induced foci. Cells were irradiated with either clinically relevant photons or 1 of 3 proton linear energy transfer (LET) values. RESULTS: Our results indicate that NHEJ deficiency is more important in dictating cell survival than proton LET. Cells with disrupted HR through BRCA1 mutation showed increased radiosensitivity only for high-LET protons whereas RAD51 depletion showed increased radiosensitivity for both photons and protons. DNA double strand breaks, assessed by γ-H2AX radiation-induced foci, showed greater numbers after 24 hours in cells exposed to higher LET protons. We also observed that NHEJ-deficient cells were unable to repair the vast majority of double strand breaks after 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1 mutation significantly sensitizes cells to protons, but not photons. Loss of NHEJ renders cells hypersensitive to radiation, whereas the relative importance of HR increases with LET across several cell lines. This may be attributable to the more clustered damage induced by higher LET protons, which are harder to repair through NHEJ. This highlights the importance of tumor biology in dictating treatment modality and suggests BRCA1 as a potential biomarker for proton therapy response. Our data also support the use of pharmacologic inhibitors of DNA repair to enhance the sensitivity to different radiation types, although this raises issues for normal tissue toxicity.

3.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(5): 2164-2175.e1, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Past studies are inconsistent with regard to the role of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in lung tumorigenesis. This is due, in part, to differential tumorigenesis based on tumor-derived versus immune-derived matrix metalloproteinase 12 expression. Our study aims to thoroughly dissect the role of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in lung tumorigenesis. METHODS: We tested matrix metalloproteinase 12 expression and the association with prognosis using a tissue array and a published non-small cell lung cancer gene expression database. In addition, we characterized the contribution of matrix metalloproteinase 12 to tumor propagation in the lung using a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. RESULTS: Tumor cells of a diverse set of human lung cancers stained positive for matrix metalloproteinase 12, and high matrix metalloproteinase 12 mRNA levels in the tumor were associated with reduced survival. The lung microenvironment stimulated endogenous production of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in lung cancer cells (human 460 lung cancer cell line, Lewis lung carcinoma). In vitro, matrix metalloproteinase 12 knockout Lewis lung carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma cells had the same proliferation rate, but Lewis lung carcinoma showed increased invasiveness. In vivo, deficiency of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in Lewis lung carcinoma cells, but not in the host, reduced tumor growth and invasiveness. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that tumor cell-derived matrix metalloproteinase 12 promotes tumor propagation in the lung and that in the context of pulmonary malignancies matrix metalloproteinase 12 should further be tested as a potential novel therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais
4.
J Psychol ; 152(1): 1-24, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161208

RESUMO

Building on the approach/inhibition theory of power and the situated focus theory of power, we examine the roles of positional and personal power on altruism and incivility in workplace dyads. Results from a field study in daycare centers showed that legitimate power (a dimension of positional power) was positively associated with incivility. In contrast, personal power-referent power and expert power-was positively associated altruism and was negatively associated with incivility. Referent power was a stronger predictor of both altruism and incivility for individuals with low humility than those with high humility. Coercive power was a stronger predictor of incivility for individuals with high humility than those with low humility.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Incivilidade , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(12): 1170-1174, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613321

RESUMO

BMS-823778 (2), a 1,2,4-triazolopyridinyl-methanol derived analog, was identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme (IC50 = 2.3 nM) with >10,000-fold selectivity over 11ß-HSD-2. Compound 2 exhibits robust acute pharmacodynamic effects in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 = 0.6 mg/kg) and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (ED50 = 34 mg/kg). Compound 2 also showed excellent inhibition in an ex vivo adipose DIO mouse model (ED50 = 5.2 mg/kg). Oral bioavailability ranges from 44% to 100% in preclinical species. Its favorable development properties, pharmacokinetics, high adipose-to-plasma concentration ratio, and preclinical pharmacology profile have prompted the evaluation of 2 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in phase 2 clinical trials.

6.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 4932-4948, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537398

RESUMO

BMS-816336 (6n-2), a hydroxy-substituted adamantyl acetamide, has been identified as a novel, potent inhibitor against human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) enzyme (IC50 3.0 nM) with >10000-fold selectivity over human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2). 6n-2 exhibits a robust acute pharmacodynamic effect in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 0.12 mg/kg) and in DIO mice. It is orally bioavailable (%F ranges from 20 to 72% in preclinical species) and has a predicted pharmacokinetic profile of a high peak to trough ratio and short half-life in humans. This ADME profile met our selection criteria for once daily administration, targeting robust inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme for the first 12 h period after dosing followed by an "inhibition holiday" so that the potential for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation might be mitigated. 6n-2 was found to be well-tolerated in phase 1 clinical studies and represents a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other human diseases modulated by glucocorticoid control.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/química , Adamantano/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Obesos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(16): 4855-4864, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400429

RESUMO

Purpose: To reconcile the heterogeneity of thymic epithelial tumors (TET) and gain deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of TETs, we set out to establish a clinically relevant molecular classification system for these tumors.Experimental Design: Molecular subgrouping of TETs was performed in 120 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas using a multidimensional approach incorporating analyses of DNA mutations, mRNA expression, and somatic copy number alterations (SCNA), and validated in two independent cohorts.Results: Four distinct molecular subtypes of TETs were identified. The most commonly identified gene mutation was a missense mutation in General Transcription Factor II-I (GTF2I group), which was present in 38% of patients. The next group was identified by unsupervised mRNA clustering of GTF2I wild-type tumors and represented TETs enriched in expression of genes associated with T-cell signaling (TS group; 33%). The remaining two groups were distinguished by their degree of chromosomal stability (CS group; 8%) or instability (CIN group; 21%) based upon SCNA analyses. Disease-free survival and overall survival were favorable in the GTF2I group and unfavorable in the CIN group. These molecular subgroups were associated with TET histology and clinical features including disease-free survival. Finally, we demonstrate high expression of PD1 mRNA and correlation of PD1 and CD8A in the TS subgroup.Conclusions: Molecular subtyping of TETs is associated with disease-free and overall survival. Classification of TETs by a molecular framework could aid in the refinement of staging and in the discovery and development of rational treatment options for patients with TETs. Clin Cancer Res; 23(16); 4855-64. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias do Timo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/classificação , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/classificação , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Emerg Med ; 69(6): 718-725.e4, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28041825

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. METHODS: We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. RESULTS: We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, P<.05). In the pigs, the drugs attenuated an increase in the plasma lactate concentration within 5 minutes postantidote injection (difference: plasma lactate, saline solution-treated versus nitrite- or thiosulfate-treated 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.27]). CONCLUSION: We conclude that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate administered by intramuscular injection are effective against severe cyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care.


Assuntos
Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Cianetos/envenenamento , Nitrito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Nitrito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Tiossulfatos/administração & dosagem , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antídotos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Camundongos , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória , Nitrito de Sódio/farmacologia , Sus scrofa , Tiossulfatos/farmacologia
9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(3): 778-788, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27496865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinomas with mutations in the EGFR have unprecedented initial responses to targeted therapy against the EGFR. Over time, however, these tumors invariably develop resistance to these drugs. We set out to investigate alternative treatment approaches for these tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To investigate the immunologic underpinnings of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, we utilized a bitransgenic mouse model in which a mutant human EGFR gene is selectively expressed in the lungs. RESULTS: EGFR oncogene-dependent progression and remission of lung adenocarcinoma was respectively dependent upon the expansion and contraction of alveolar macrophages, and the mechanism underlying macrophage expansion was local proliferation. In tumor-bearing mice, alveolar macrophages downregulated surface expression of MHC-II and costimulatory molecules; increased production of CXCL1, CXCL2, IL1 receptor antagonist; and increased phagocytosis. Depletion of alveolar macrophages in tumor-bearing mice resulted in reduction of tumor burden, indicating a critical role for these cells in the development of EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma. Treatment of mice with EGFR-targeting clinical drugs (erlotinib and cetuximab) resulted in a significant decrease in alveolar macrophages in these mice. An activated alveolar macrophage mRNA signature was dominant in human EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas, and the presence of this alveolar macrophage activation signature was associated with unfavorable survival among patients undergoing resection for EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the inevitability of failure of targeted therapy in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), these data suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting alveolar macrophages in EGFR-mutant NSCLC have the potential to mitigate progression and survival in this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 23(3); 778-88. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Genes erbB-1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/fisiologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Ácido Clodrônico/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/biossíntese , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/biossíntese , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Sintéticos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Uteroglobina/genética
10.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(4): 370-379, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27631586

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cyanide is a major chemical threat, and cyanide ingestion carries a higher risk for a supra-lethal dose exposure compared to inhalation but provides an opportunity for effective treatment due to a longer treatment window and a gastrointestinal cyanide reservoir that could be neutralized prior to systemic absorption. We hypothesized that orally administered cobinamide may function as a high-binding affinity scavenger and that gastric alkalinization would reduce cyanide absorption and concurrently increase cobinamide binding, further enhancing antidote effectiveness. METHODS: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five groups and were given a lethal dose of oral cyanide poisoning (50 mg). The survival time of animals was monitored with oral cyanide alone, oral cyanide with gastric alkalinization with oral sodium bicarbonate buffer (500 mg), and in combination with either aquohydroxocobinamide or dinitrocobinamide (250 mM). Red blood cell cyanide concentration, plasma cobinamide, and thiocyanate concentrations were measured from blood samples. RESULTS: In cyanide ingested animals, oral sodium bicarbonate alone significantly prolonged survival time to 20.3 ± 8.6 min compared to 10.5 ± 4.3 min in saline-treated controls, but did not lead to overall survival. Aquohydroxocobinamide and dinitrocobinamide increased survival time to 64 ± 41 (p < 0.05) and 75 ± 16.4 min (p < 0.001), respectively. Compared to aquohydroxocobinamide, dinitrocobinamide showed greater systemic absorption and reduced blood pressure. Dinitrocobinamide also markedly increased the red blood cell cyanide concentration. Under all conditions, the plasma thiocyanate concentration gradually increased with time. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a promising new approach to treat high-dose cyanide ingestion, with gastric alkalinization alone and in combination with oral cobinamide for treating a supra-lethal dose of orally administered cyanide in rabbits.


Assuntos
Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Cobamidas/uso terapêutico , Cianetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Cianetos/envenenamento , Administração Oral , Análise de Variância , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobamidas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Análise Espectral , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tiocianatos/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Med Chem ; 58(4): 1750-9, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650735

RESUMO

Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Cobamidas/farmacologia , Cianetos/envenenamento , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/química , Células COS , Cobamidas/administração & dosagem , Cobamidas/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiossulfatos/administração & dosagem , Tiossulfatos/química , Tiossulfatos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(21): 5045-9, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25266782

RESUMO

A previous disclosure from this lab highlighted the discovery of pyridyl amides as potent 11ß-HSD1 inhibitors. In order to build additional novelty and polarity into this chemotype, replacement of the hydrogen-bonding carbonyl (CO) pharmacophore with the bioisosteric sulfonyl (SO2) group was examined. Despite initial comparisons suggesting the corresponding sulfonamides exhibited weaker activity versus their carbonyl counterparts, further optimization was performed in an effort to identify various potent and unique leads for the program. Judicious incorporation of polar moieties resulted in the identification of compounds with enhanced potency and lipophilicity profiles, resulting in leads with superior aqueous solubility and liver microsomal stability.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
13.
J Biomed Opt ; 19(5): 055001, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24788369

RESUMO

A major need exists for methods to assess organ oxidative metabolic states in vivo. By contrasting the responses to cyanide (CN) poisoning versus hemorrhage in animal models, we demonstrate that diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) can detect cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) redox states. Intermittent decreases in inspired O2 from 100% to 21% were applied before, during, and after CN poisoning, hemorrhage, and resuscitation in rabbits. Continuous DOS measurements of total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxidized and reduced CcO from muscle were obtained. Rabbit hemorrhage was accomplished with stepwise removal of blood, followed by blood resuscitation. CN treated rabbits received 0.166 mg/min NaCN infusion. During hemorrhage, CcO redox state became reduced concurrently with decreases in oxyhemoglobin, resulting from reduced tissue oxygen delivery and hypoxia. In contrast, during CN infusion, CcO redox state decreased while oxyhemoglobin concentration increased due to CN binding and reduction of CcO with resultant inhibition of the electron transport chain. Spectral absorption similarities between hemoglobin and CcO make noninvasive spectroscopic distinction of CcO redox states difficult. By contrasting physiological perturbations of CN poisoning versus hemorrhage, we demonstrate that DOS measured CcO redox state changes are decoupled from hemoglobin concentration measurement changes.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/química , Hemodinâmica , Análise Espectral/métodos , Animais , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Oxiemoglobinas/química , Coelhos , Cianeto de Sódio/toxicidade
14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(2): 654-60, 2014 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24360604

RESUMO

A series of 2-adamantylmethyl tetrazoles bearing a quaternary carbon at the 2-position of the adamantane ring (i.e. structure A) have been designed and synthesized as novel, potent, and selective inhibitors of human 11ß-HSD1 enzyme. Based on the SAR and the docking experiment, we report for the first time a tetrazole moiety serving as the active pharmacophore for inhibitory activity of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme. Optimization of two regions of A, R(1) and R(2) respectively, was explored with a focus on improving the inhibitory activity (IC50) and the microsomal stability in both human and mouse species. These efforts led to the identification of 26, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of human 11ß-HSD1 with a favorable development profile.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/síntese química , Tetrazóis/síntese química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Adamantano/farmacologia , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/farmacologia
15.
J Appl Psychol ; 97(5): 1059-67, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22800188

RESUMO

Drawing on the social interaction model, we examine the mediating role that the customer's display of positive emotions plays on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. We also examine the moderating role that the customer's personality traits-agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability-play on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The results show that the customer's display of positive emotions mediates the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. In addition, the customer's personality traits moderate the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The customer's display of positive emotions depends less on the employee's display of positive emotions when the customer has high levels of agreeableness and emotional stability than when the customer has low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Relações Interpessoais , Sorriso , Adulto , Comércio , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 21(22): 6693-8, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21983444

RESUMO

Derived from the HTS hit 1, a series of hydroxyisoquinolines was discovered as potent and selective 11ß-HSD1 inhibitors with good cross species activity. Optimization of substituents at the 1 and 4 positions of the isoquinoline group in addition to the core modifications, with a special focus on enhancing metabolic stability and aqueous solubility, resulted in the identification of several compounds as potent advanced leads.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Biomed Opt Express ; 2(2): 243-54, 2011 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21339870

RESUMO

Smoke inhalation injury is frequently accompanied by cyanide poisoning that may result in substantial morbidity and mortality, and methods are needed to quantitatively determine extent of airway injury. We utilized a 3-D endoscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) constructed with a swept-source laser to investigate morphological airway changes following smoke and cyanide exposure in rabbits. The thickness of the mucosal area between the epithelium and cartilage in the airway was measured and quantified. 3-D endoscopic FD-OCT was able to detect significant increases in the thickness of the tracheal walls of the rabbit beginning almost immediately after smoke inhalation injuries which were similar to those with combined smoke and cyanide poisoning.

18.
Comp Med ; 60(4): 263-71, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20819375

RESUMO

Serologic screening for infectious disease in sentinel mice from rodent colonies is expensive and labor-intensive, often involving multiple assays for several different infectious agents. Previously, we established normal reference ranges for the protein fractions of several laboratory strains of mice by using a commercially available agarose system of protein electrophoresis. In the current study, we address protein fractionation and quantitation of acute phase proteins (APP) in mice experimentally infected with Sendai virus or mouse parvovirus. We further investigate this methodology by using samples from sentinel mice from colonies with endemic infection. All study groups showed significant increases in gamma globulins. Various other protein fractions showed mild variable changes; significant differences were not detected for individual APP. These results contrast the significant changes observed in APP and protein electrophoresis by using the standard methods of inducing inflammatory responses through injection of complete Freund adjuvant or LPS. These present data suggest that although quantitation of individual APP may not be helpful, gamma globulin levels may reflect infection in laboratory mice and provide a possible adjunct to traditional screening methods.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Respirovirus/metabolismo , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Respirovirus/diagnóstico , gama-Globulinas/análise
19.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 48(4): 387-90, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19653947

RESUMO

Protein electrophoresis is a common proven technique to determine the protein components of plasma or serum in human, veterinary, and laboratory animal medicine. Changes in albumin and globulin protein levels can provide early and valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. Here we describe a preliminary analysis of the distribution of serum protein fractions in adult BALB/c, C57BL/6, and CD1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats and describe the changes in protein values from birth to maturity in BALB/c mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Quantifiable changes in the electrophoretic profile were apparent in mice with chronic-active dermatitis.


Assuntos
Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/normas , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Animais , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/métodos , Dermatite/sangue , Dermatite/diagnóstico , Dermatite/veterinária , Globulinas/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prognóstico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Valores de Referência , Doenças dos Roedores/sangue , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Albumina Sérica/análise
20.
Org Lett ; 6(25): 4775-8, 2004 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15575683

RESUMO

[reaction: see text] A simple, efficient, and high-yielding synthesis of quinazolin-4-ylamine and thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamine derivatives is reported under microwave irradiation conditions. Reaction conditions including temperature, solvent, and reaction time have been studied. An efficient parallel workup procedure was developed to generate a small library (23 compounds) in a short time period.

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