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1.
Adv Mater ; 33(44): e2103974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

2.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4374, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272375

RESUMO

Self-powered implantable devices have the potential to extend device operation time inside the body and reduce the necessity for high-risk repeated surgery. Without the technological innovation of in vivo energy harvesters driven by biomechanical energy, energy harvesters are insufficient and inconvenient to power titanium-packaged implantable medical devices. Here, we report on a commercial coin battery-sized high-performance inertia-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (I-TENG) based on body motion and gravity. We demonstrate that the enclosed five-stacked I-TENG converts mechanical energy into electricity at 4.9 µW/cm3 (root-mean-square output). In a preclinical test, we show that the device successfully harvests energy using real-time output voltage data monitored via Bluetooth and demonstrate the ability to charge a lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, we successfully integrate a cardiac pacemaker with the I-TENG, and confirm the ventricle pacing and sensing operation mode of the self-rechargeable cardiac pacemaker system. This proof-of-concept device may lead to the development of new self-rechargeable implantable medical devices.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Marca-Passo Artificial , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cães , Eletricidade , Gravitação , Movimento (Física) , Próteses e Implantes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3693, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140490

RESUMO

Air-transmitted pathogens may cause severe epidemics showing huge threats to public health. Microbial inactivation in the air is essential, whereas the feasibility of existing air disinfection technologies meets challenges including only achieving physical separation but no inactivation, obvious pressure drops, and energy intensiveness. Here we report a rapid disinfection method toward air-transmitted bacteria and viruses using the nanowire-enhanced localized electric field to damage the outer structures of microbes. This air disinfection system is driven by a triboelectric nanogenerator that converts mechanical vibration to electricity effectively and achieves self-powered. Assisted by a rational design for the accelerated charging and trapping of microbes, this air disinfection system promotes microbial transport and achieves high performance: >99.99% microbial inactivation within 0.025 s in a fast airflow (2 m/s) while only causing low pressure drops (<24 Pa). This rapid, self-powered air disinfection method may fill the urgent need for air-transmitted microbial inactivation to protect public health.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Nanofios/química , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vibração , Vírus/ultraestrutura
5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(10): 1228-1238, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183859

RESUMO

Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Animais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos , Tecnologia sem Fio
6.
Adv Mater ; 33(25): e2100026, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984170

RESUMO

Recently developed methods for transforming 2D patterns of thin-film materials into 3D mesostructures create many interesting opportunities in microsystems design. A growing area of interest is in multifunctional thermal, electrical, chemical, and optical interfaces to biological tissues, particularly 3D multicellular, millimeter-scale constructs, such as spheroids, assembloids, and organoids. Herein, examples of 3D mechanical interfaces are presented, in which thin ribbons of parylene-C form the basis of transparent, highly compliant frameworks that can be reversibly opened and closed to capture, envelop, and mechanically restrain fragile 3D tissues in a gentle, nondestructive manner, for precise measurements of viscoelastic properties using techniques in nanoindentation. Finite element analysis serves as a design tool to guide selection of geometries and material parameters for shape-matching 3D architectures tailored to organoids of interest. These computational approaches also quantitate all aspects of deformations during the processes of opening and closing the structures and of forces imparted by them onto the surfaces of enclosed soft tissues. Studies of cerebral organoids by nanoindentation show effective Young's moduli in the range from 1.5 to 2.5 kPa depending on the age of the organoid. This collection of results suggests broad utility of compliant 3D mesostructures in noninvasive mechanical measurements of millimeter-scale, soft biological tissues.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5990, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239608

RESUMO

Bioresorbable electronic stimulators are of rapidly growing interest as unusual therapeutic platforms, i.e., bioelectronic medicines, for treating disease states, accelerating wound healing processes and eliminating infections. Here, we present advanced materials that support operation in these systems over clinically relevant timeframes, ultimately bioresorbing harmlessly to benign products without residues, to eliminate the need for surgical extraction. Our findings overcome key challenges of bioresorbable electronic devices by realizing lifetimes that match clinical needs. The devices exploit a bioresorbable dynamic covalent polymer that facilitates tight bonding to itself and other surfaces, as a soft, elastic substrate and encapsulation coating for wireless electronic components. We describe the underlying features and chemical design considerations for this polymer, and the biocompatibility of its constituent materials. In devices with optimized, wireless designs, these polymers enable stable, long-lived operation as distal stimulators in a rat model of peripheral nerve injuries, thereby demonstrating the potential of programmable long-term electrical stimulation for maintaining muscle receptivity and enhancing functional recovery.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Poliuretanos/química , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos , Regeneração , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia
9.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 21(1): 683-688, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061840

RESUMO

Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) that enable the conversion of a given mechanical energy into electrical energy at high efficiency have been very important in practice. Since the given mechanical energy is involuntarily converted to secondary energy sources (light, heat, and sound during triboelectrification), the significant amount of energy being converted is lost. Various studies have thus been continuously carried out to overcome this issue. Since the first TENGs found in 2012, various developments in TENGs have been made: (1) the mechanical-electrical energy conversion characteristics of potential organic/inorganic material groups have been introduced, (2) the integration into the device structure considering the diversity of mechanical energy, and (3) user friendly and industrial application platforms have been aggressively studied. Despite the remarkable progress and improvement of TENGs, their mechanical-electrical conversion efficiency is still quite low. We therefore need to discover and develop materials that can be converted to improve efficiency. Here, we outline the recent progress made in a group of high polarity triboelectric materials that exploit surface charge density and charge transfer properties. We also review the recent boosting powering TENGs. The aim of this work is to provide insight into the future direction and strategies for highly enhanced powering TENGs through material research.

10.
Science ; 365(6452): 491-494, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371614

RESUMO

A major challenge for implantable medical systems is the inclusion or reliable delivery of electrical power. We use ultrasound to deliver mechanical energy through skin and liquids and demonstrate a thin implantable vibrating triboelectric generator able to effectively harvest it. The ultrasound can induce micrometer-scale displacement of a polymer thin membrane to generate electrical energy through contact electrification. We recharge a lithium-ion battery at a rate of 166 microcoulombs per second in water. The voltage and current generated ex vivo by ultrasound energy transfer reached 2.4 volts and 156 microamps under porcine tissue. These findings show that a capacitive triboelectric electret is the first technology able to compete with piezoelectricity to harvest ultrasound in vivo and to power medical implants.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Próteses e Implantes , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Pele , Suínos
11.
Adv Mater ; 31(34): e1802898, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809883

RESUMO

Recently, sustainable green energy harvesting systems have been receiving great attention for their potential use in self-powered smart wireless sensor network (WSN) systems. In particular, though the developed WSN systems are able to advance public good, very high and long-term budgets will be required in order to use them to supply electrical energy through temporary batteries or connecting power cables. This report summarizes recent significant progress in the development of hybrid nanogenerators for a sustainable energy harvesting system that use natural and artificial energies such as solar, wind, wave, heat, machine vibration, and automobile noise. It starts with a brief introduction of energy harvesting systems, and then summarizes the different hybrid energy harvesting systems: integration of mechanical and photovoltaic energy harvesters, integration of mechanical and thermal energy harvesters, integration of thermal and photovoltaic energy harvesters, and others. In terms of the reported hybrid nanogenerators, a systematic summary of their structures, working mechanisms, and output performances is provided. Specifically, electromagnetic induction, triboelectric, piezoelectric, photovoltaic, thermoelectric, and pyroelectric effects are reviewed on the basis of the individual and hybrid power performances of hybrid nanogenerators and their practical applications with various device designs. Finally, the perspectives on and challenges in developing high performance and sustainable hybrid nanogenerator systems are presented.

12.
Adv Mater ; 29(29)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585262

RESUMO

Recently, piezoelectricity has been observed in 2D atomically thin materials, such as hexagonal-boron nitride, graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Specifically, exfoliated monolayer MoS2 exhibits a high piezoelectricity that is comparable to that of traditional piezoelectric materials. However, monolayer TMD materials are not regarded as suitable for actual piezoelectric devices due to their insufficient mechanical durability for sustained operation while Bernal-stacked bilayer TMD materials lose noncentrosymmetry and consequently piezoelectricity. Here, it is shown that WSe2 bilayers fabricated via turbostratic stacking have reliable piezoelectric properties that cannot be obtained from a mechanically exfoliated WSe2 bilayer with Bernal stacking. Turbostratic stacking refers to the transfer of each chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown WSe2 monolayer to allow for an increase in degrees of freedom in the bilayer symmetry, leading to noncentrosymmetry in the bilayers. In contrast, CVD-grown WSe2 bilayers exhibit very weak piezoelectricity because of the energetics and crystallographic orientation. The flexible piezoelectric WSe2 bilayers exhibit a prominent mechanical durability of up to 0.95% of strain as well as reliable energy harvesting performance, which is adequate to drive a small liquid crystal display without external energy sources, in contrast to monolayer WSe2 for which the device performance becomes degraded above a strain of 0.63%.

13.
Adv Mater ; 27(37): 5553-8, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26292202

RESUMO

Negatively polarized ferroelectric polymer ß-P(VDF-TrFE) shows higher positive triboelectric properties than skin, which could lead to new medical applications. Kelvin force microscope measurements and triboelectric nanogenerator characterizations are performed to demonstrate this new property. In addition, how many negative charges are exchanged by contact electrification between the negatively polarized ß-P(VDF-TrFE) and the skin is estimated.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica , Eletricidade , Polímeros/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Eletrodos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/síntese química , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Oscilometria , Polímeros/síntese química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Compostos de Vinila/síntese química , Compostos de Vinila/química
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