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1.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 206-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of gallbladder polyp measurements using transabdominal US and the factors that affect reliability. METHODS: From November 2017 to February 2018, two radiologists measured the maximum diameter of 91 gallbladder polyps using transabdominal US. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were determined using 95% Bland-Altman limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The effects of image settings, polyp location, and polyp size were evaluated by comparing ICCs using z tests. RESULTS: The intraobserver agreement rates were 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.939-0.973) for observer 1 and 0.962 (95% CI, 0.943-0.975) for observer 2. The ICCs between the two observers were 0.963 (95% CI, 0.926-0.979) for the first measurement and 0.973 (95% CI, 0.950-0.984) for the second measurement. The 95% limits of agreement on repeated measurements were 22.3-25.2% of the mean, and those between the two observers were 25.5-34.2% of the mean. ICCs for large polyps (≥ 5 mm) were significantly higher than those for small polyps (< 5 mm). There were no significant differences in the ICCs between image settings and polyp location. CONCLUSIONS: Polyp size measurements using transabdominal US are highly repeatable and reproducible. Polyp size significantly affects the reliability of measurement. Diameter changes of approximately less than 25% may fall within the measurement error; this should be considered while interpreting the change in size during follow-up US, especially for small polyps. KEY POINTS: • Gallbladder polyp size measurement using transabdominal US is highly repeatable and reproducible. • Diameter changes of approximately less than 25% should be interpreted carefully, especially in small polyps.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(4): 359-e105, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of canine pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) are uncommon in the veterinary literature. Rarer still are cases describing dogs with both skin lesions and internal organ involvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of canine PG with skin and internal organ involvement. ANIMALS: A client-owned dog. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Complete blood count, serum chemistry, C-reactive protein and SNAP cPL tests, and abdominal ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration of the spleen were performed. RESULTS: The dog was treated with oral prednisolone and ciclosporin. After three months of therapy, ultrasonography revealed normalization of the spleen and resolution of skin lesions. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with skin lesions compatible with PG should be screened carefully for internal organ involvement. Ciclosporin may be a useful treatment for the immediate and long-term management of canine PG.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/veterinária , Pioderma Gangrenoso/veterinária , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Baço/patologia , Animais , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pioderma Gangrenoso/complicações , Pioderma Gangrenoso/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111874, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986520

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Dendropanax morbifera Leveille (DM) has been used in traditional medicines for infectious and skin diseases, and dysmenorrhea. It exhibits a diverse therapeutic potential including anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: Despite promising health benefits of DM, knowledge of its potential adverse effects is very limited. The current study focused on the investigation of subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of extract obtained from DM according to the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a toxicological evaluation of DM extracts using 14-day repeated-dose toxicity study and 13-week repeated-dose toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats administered orally at doses of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The clastogenicity of DM extract was also evaluated by in vitro chromosome aberration assay and in vivo micronucleus assay. RESULTS: Assessment of subchronic toxicity of DM extract by oral administration in rats revealed unremarkable treatment-related findings with respect to food/water consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. Accordingly, the level of no-observed-adverse-effect for DM extract in 13-week subchronic toxicity study was considered to be 2000 mg/kg/day in rats. The data observed from in vitro chromosome aberration assay and in vivo micronucleus assay exclude any clastogenicity of DM extract. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the oral consumption of DM extract has no adverse effects in humans and represents a safe traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnoliopsida/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 95: 115-123, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501463

RESUMO

Cinnamomum cassia has been widely used as a natural product to treat diseases in Asia due to its diverse pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor effects. Despite its ethnomedicinal benefits, little information regarding its toxicity is currently available. The aim of this study was to evaluate its potential long-term toxicity and genotoxicity in compliance with test guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. A 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study revealed that body weights of rats were normal after receiving cinnamon extract at up to 2000 mg/kg. High-dose intake of cinnamon extract (2000 mg/kg) showed potential nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity to both males and females as evidenced by obvious increases of kidney/liver weight along with a small but statistically elevation of total cholesterol level. Overall findings from genetic toxicity testing battery including Ames test, in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus assay, and in vivo bone marrow micronucleus assay indicated that cinnamon extract was not mutagenic or clastogenic. In conclusion, cinnamon extract may possess potential nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity at dose higher than its recommended daily safe dose. Further study is needed to clarify the mechanism involved in its induction of liver and kidney injury.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum aromaticum , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
5.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 92: 46-54, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108849

RESUMO

Ecklonia cava (EC) is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Despite its wide use and beneficial properties, comprehensive toxicological information regarding EC extract is currently limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and genotoxicity of enzymatic EC extract according to test guidelines published by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The acute oral LD50 values of this EC extract administered to rats and dogs were estimated to be more than 3000 mg/kg BW. In an oral 13-week toxicity study, changes in body weights of rats exposed to the EC extract up to 3000 mg/kg BW were found to be normal. In addition, repeated doses of EC extract failed to influence any systematic parameters of treatment-related toxic symptoms such as food/water consumption, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, or histopathology. These results indicated that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for the EC extract was 3000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats. Data obtained from Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, and micronucleus assay indicated that EC extract was not mutagenic or clastogenic. Taken together, these results support the safety of enzymatic EC extract as a potential therapeutic for human consumption against various diseases.


Assuntos
Laminaria/química , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica/métodos
6.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 89: 244-252, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802559

RESUMO

Koji products have been considered as an effective fermented food consumed in East Asia with many health benefits. Particularly, rice koji with Aspergillus terreus (RAT) has been reported to be able to prevent hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis through regulating cholesterol synthesis. Despite its biological activities, there is a lack of comprehensive information to give an assurance of its safety. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a series of toxicological studies (repeated dose oral toxicity and genotoxicity) according to test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Along with acute toxicity study using rats and beagle dogs, a 13-week toxicity study revealed no clear RAT-related toxic changes, including body weight, mortality, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, and histopathology after oral administration at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg BW. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of RAT was considered to be more than 2000 mg/kg BW/day in rats of both genders. In addition, potential genotoxicity was evaluated using a standard battery of tests (Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, and micronucleus assay) which revealed that RAT showed no genotoxicity. Accordingly, these results suggest that RAT is a safe and non-toxic functional food for human consumption at proper dose.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 87-95, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487065

RESUMO

Artemisia capillaris (AC) has been used as an alternative therapy in obesity, atopic dermatitis, and liver diseases through several biological activity including anti-steatotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Despite its ethnomedicinal benefits, no sufficient background information is available about the long-term safety and genotoxicity of the AC extract. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the 13-week subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the AC extract according to the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In the 13-week toxicity study using doses of 25, 74, 222, 667, and 2000 mg/kg body weight, oral administration of the AC extract in male and female rats did not result in any significant adverse effects in food/water consumption, body weight, mortality, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level in rats of both genders was established for the AC extract at 2000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose level tested. In addition, the AC extract was not genotoxic in a battery of tests including Ames test, in vitro chromosome aberration assay and in vivo micronucleus assay. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the AC extract is considered as a safe traditional medicine for human consumption.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Tamanho do Órgão , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
8.
Clin Imaging ; 44: 16-21, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the lesion conspicuity and diagnostic performance of three imaging data sets (T2WI, combined T2WI and DWI [combined DWI], contrast-enhanced (CE)-T1WI) in assessing perianal fistulas. METHODS: Two radiologists with 7 and 15years of experience assessed 28 fistulas from 24 patients in each image set. RESULTS: The lesion conspicuity was improved for only one reader after reading the combined DWI (P=0.0039) and CE-T1WI (P=0.0215). The accuracy was stationary for fistula type (reader 1, all 93%; reader 2, all 89%) or for direction of internal opening (96% for all sets; 92% for CE-T1WI). CONCLUSION: Although combined DWI and CE-T1WI might improve fistula conspicuity, they showed comparable diagnostic performance to T2WI.


Assuntos
Canal Anal , Fístula/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fístula Retal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Fístula/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fístula Retal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychooncology ; 26(11): 1922-1928, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28233366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate physical, psychosocial, and spiritual factors associated with happiness in breast cancer survivors during the reentry period. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study with 283 nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors who completed treatment within 1 year. We included survivors who completed questionnaires on happiness and health-related quality of life (QoL) 2 years after cancer diagnosis. Happiness and QoL was measured using the Subjective Happiness Scale and EORTC QLQ-C30, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find factors associated with happiness. RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 48.5 ± 7.8 years. Among the 283 survivors, 14.5%, 43.8%, 32.5%, and 2.1% reported being "very happy," "happy," "neutral," and "not happy at all," respectively. Happy survivors reported a better general health status and QoL (67.6 vs 49.6; P < .01), and fewer symptoms compared to unhappy survivors. Happy survivors were more likely to feel certain about the future (27.2% vs 11.9%, P < .01), have a strong purpose in life (22.4% vs 9.3%, P < .01), and feel hopeful (36.4% vs 8.5%, P < .01) compared to unhappy survivors. In a multivariate model, having purpose (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.42-4.40) and hope (OR = 4.07, 95% CI 2.23-7.45) in life were found to be associated with happiness. CONCLUSIONS: During the reentry period, breast cancer survivors who are hopeful and have a clear purpose in life are more likely to be happy than those who are not. Setting proper life goals might be beneficial to help breast cancer survivors who experience persistent QoL issues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo
10.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 41(4): 644-650, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP) on submillisievert low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for detecting hepatic metastases. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients having hepatic metastases underwent abdomen CT. Computed tomography protocol consisted of routine standard-dose portal venous phase scan (120 kVp) and 90-second delayed low-dose scan (80 kVp). The LDCT images were reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, respectively. Two readers recorded the number of hepatic metastases on each image set. RESULTS: A total of 105 metastatic lesions were analyzed. For reader 1, sensitivity for detecting metastases was stationary between FBP (49%) and ASIR (52%, P = 0.0697); however, sensitivity increased in MBIR (66%, P = 0.0035). For reader 2, it was stationary for all the following sets: FBP (65%), ASIR (68%), and MBIR (67%, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The MBIR and ASIR showed a limited sensitivity for detecting hepatic metastases in submillisievert LDCT.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 37: 79-87, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27596521

RESUMO

In an effort to explore the use of alternative methods to animal testing for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of medical devices, we evaluated representative contact lenses with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP) and an in vitro eye irritation test using the three-dimensionally-reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™. In addition, we compared the obtained results with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit eye irritation test (ISO10993-10). Along with the positive controls (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.02, 0.2, and 1%), the extracts of 4 representative contact lenses (soft, disposable, hard, and colored lenses) and 2 reference lenses (dye-eluting and BAK-coated lenses) were tested. All the lenses, except for the BAK-coated lens, were determined non-irritants in all test methods, while the positive controls yielded relevant results. More importantly, BCOP, EpiOcular™, and MCTT HCE™ yielded a consistent decision for all the tested samples, with the exception of 0.2% BAK in BCOP, for which no prediction could be made. Overall, all the in vitro tests correlated well with the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, and furthermore, the combination of in vitro tests as a tiered testing strategy was able to produce results similar to those seen in vivo. These observations suggest that such methods can be used as alternative assays to replace the conventional in vivo test method in the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of ophthalmic medical devices, although further study is necessary.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Lentes de Contato/efeitos adversos , Olho , Animais , Bovinos , Opacidade da Córnea , Epitélio/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Coelhos
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(38): 12605-14, 2016 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27585065

RESUMO

Primary arylamines are an important unit broadly found in synthetic, biological, and materials science. Herein we describe the development of a (NHC)Cu system that mediates a direct C-H amidation of (hetero)arenes by using N-chlorocarbamates or their sodio derivatives as the practical amino sources. A facile stoichiometric reaction of reactive copper-aryl intermediates with the amidating reagent led us to isolate key copper arylcarbamate species with the formation of a C-N bond. The use of (t)BuONa base made this transformation catalytic under mild conditions. The present (NHC)Cu-catalyzed C-H amidation works efficiently and selectively on a large scale over a range of arenes including polyfluorobenzenes, azoles, and quinoline N-oxides. Deprotection of the newly installed carbamate groups such as Boc and Cbz was readily performed to afford the corresponding primary arylamines.

13.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 42(9): 2334-40, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27321175

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the use of conventional ultrasound (US) and real-time elastography (RTE) in Kikuchi disease (KD, n = 48) and malignant cervical lymphadenopathy (n = 100) and to evaluate the role of RTE in patients suspected of having KD. In univariate analysis, conventional US revealed each benign feature more frequently in KD than in malignant lymphadenopathy (p < 0.05). However, a considerable number of cases (29, 60.4%) of KD were assessed as malignant with US. KD was assessed as benign by RTE more frequently than malignant lymphadenopathy (37 [77.1%] vs. 37 [37.0%], p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, perinodal hyper-echogenicity was predictive of KD (odds ratio: 67.25, confidence interval: 10.95-413.04, p < 0.001). There was a tendency for KD to be assessed as malignant with conventional US, but benign with RTE. RTE can help to avoid unnecessary biopsy in patients suspected of having KD on the basis of conventional US.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Linfadenite Histiocítica Necrosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
14.
Acta Radiol ; 57(2): 133-41, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25638800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As lymph node (LN) eradication is the prerequisite for clinical surveillance or local excision for patients who have achieved a complete response after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT), the radiological evaluation of LN eradication is important. PURPOSE: To evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of LN eradication after CRT in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-five consecutive patients (64 men, 31 women; mean age, 59 years; range, 32-82 years) who underwent pre- and post-CRT 1.5-T MRI with DWI (b = 0, 1000 s/mm(2)) were enrolled. To evaluate the added value of DWI in the evaluation of LN eradication after CRT, two radiologists first independently read the pre- and post-CRT T2-weighted (T2W) images and then read the combined T2W imaging set and the pre- and post-CRT DWIs with a 4-week interval. The radiologists recorded their confidence scores for LN eradication using a 5-point scale on a per-patient basis. The diagnostic performances were compared between the two reading sessions for each reader with pair-wise comparisons of receiver-operating characteristic curves. Histopathological reports served as the reference standards for LN eradication. RESULTS: The study population consisted of an LN-eradicated group (n = 66) and a non-eradicated group (n = 29). The diagnostic performances did not significantly differ between the two reading sessions for the two readers (AUCs for reader 1, 0.770 and 0.774, P = 0.8155; for reader 2, 0.794 and 0.798, P = 0.8588). CONCLUSION: Adding DWI to T2W imaging provided no additional diagnostic benefit for the evaluation of LN eradication following CRT in patients with LARC.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Metástase Linfática/radioterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 42(2): 223-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26576576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate ultrasound (US) findings in the cervicofacial area following injection of permanent facial fillers during a long-term follow-up period. METHODS: Fifty-seven consecutive patients with a history of previous facial filler injection were enrolled at a single institution between 2010 and 2014. All patients were female, and the mean age of the patients was 60.8 years. The mean follow-up period following injection of facial fillers was 16.6 years (range 2-30 years). We analyzed US findings in the face (injection site) and neck (noninjection site). RESULTS: In all patients, face US revealed a snowstorm appearance with strong posterior acoustic shadows and multifocal small anechoic lesions with posterior stepladder artifacts in the subcutaneous fat. Neck US demonstrated the same artifacts as those on the face through local spread of fillers in 14 patients (26.4 %) and abnormal cervical lymph nodes through lymphatic spread in 34 patients (59.6 %). In abnormal cervical lymph nodes, hyperechogenicity and multiple hyperechoic foci were observed in 26 (45.6 %) and 19 (33.3 %) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Various artifacts may be demonstrated on US in patients with injection of permanent facial fillers. When hyperechogenicity or multiple hyperehoic foci are seen in cervical lymph nodes, the possibility of migration of facial fillers to the cervical area should be considered.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Técnicas Cosméticas/efeitos adversos , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Silicones , Ultrassonografia
16.
Clin Imaging ; 39(6): 1046-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26278013

RESUMO

To evaluate the added value of the morphologic features of lymph nodes (LNs) on diffusion-weighted images (DWI), an interval reading was performed for the T2-weighted images (T2WI) and the combined image set (T2WI and DWI) using extracted imaging characteristics from 54 metastatic and 172 benign LNs in 44 patients with primary rectal cancer. The specificity and accuracy increased after adding DWI to T2WI for both readers (specificity: from 59% to 73% and from 41% to 68% for readers 1 and 2, respectively; accuracy: from 58% to 68% and from 44% to 64% for readers 1 and 2, respectively, P<.0001).


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 43(9): 556-62, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate gray-scale and color Doppler sonographic (US) features of complex fibroadenoma (FA), according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. METHODS: From 2010 through 2013, 586 women with FAs were seen; 101 (17%) of those lesions were diagnosed as complex FAs on percutaneous needle biopsy or surgery. Among the patients with complex FAs, 67 who had US examination results available were included in this study. In addition, the results from 98 women who had simple FAs were included as controls. US features were retrospectively analyzed by two breast radiologists in consensus for shape, margin, echogenicity, posterior acoustic pattern, boundary, orientation, and associated findings. They also reassessed the BI-RADS category for FAs. Color Doppler US examination results were classified according to the amount of vascularity as absent, moderate, or marked. RESULTS: Complex FA were larger than simple FAs were (14.5 cm versus 12.1 cm, p > 0.05). On univariate analysis, a round to irregular shape, an uncircumscribed margin, the presence of associated findings, and BI-RADS categorization as 4a and 4b were more frequently revealed in complex than in simple FAs (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor margin was a predictive factor for complex FA (odds ratio: 6.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-32.49, p < 0.05). On color Doppler US, the complex FAs had higher degrees of vascularity than simple FA (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Complex FAs, in comparison with simple FAs, tend to have more aggressive features and to be in higher BI-RADS categories on US examination.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibroadenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73(1): 303-10, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26188118

RESUMO

The rhizomes of Cimicifuga species, including Cimicifuga heracleifolia (CH), have been widely used as antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agents in oriental countries. However, information regarding its toxicity, especially long-term toxicity and genotoxicity, is limited. Therefore, we performed the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity assays of the CH extract in accordance with the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In a 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study, the CH extract did not influence body weight, food/water consumption, mortality, clinical signs, and urinalysis throughout the study. Noteworthy, the CH extract groups exhibited increased liver weights along with serum alanine transaminase activity rise at doses of 667 and 2000 mg/kg in females. No-observed-adverse-effect-level of the CH extract administered orally was concluded to be 2000 mg/kg body weight/day for male rats and 222 mg/kg body weight/day for female rats. The CH extract did not exert a mutagenic or clastogenic effect in Ames test, in vitro chromosome aberration assay and in vivo micronucleus assay. Overall findings of the subchronic toxicity study indicate for the first time that the CH extract may possess hepatotoxic potential in female rats, suggesting that further mechanistic studies should be performed to have more conclusive results on hepatotoxic potential of the CH extract.


Assuntos
Cimicifuga/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica/métodos
19.
J Appl Toxicol ; 35(6): 593-602, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572658

RESUMO

Therapeutic cancer vaccines promote immune responses by delivering tumour-specific antigens. Recently, we developed iron oxide (Fe3 O4 )-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) as carriers for antigen delivery into dendritic cells (DCs), and the CSNPs were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice to examine the systemic toxicity, tissue distribution and excretion of the CSNPs. The doses injected were 0, 4, 20 and 200 mg kg(-1) weekly for 4 weeks. No significant changes were observed after the CSNPs administration with respect to mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food intake, water consumption, urinalysis, haematology, serum biochemistry,and organ weights. A dose-dependent increase in granulomatous inflammation was observed at the injection site of the CSNP-treated animals, but no other histopathological lesions in other organs could be attributed to the CSNPs. The Zn concentration, which is an indicator for CSNPs, was not significantly higher in the sampled tissues, urine, or faeces after the CSNP injection. In contrast, the Zn concentration at the subcutaneous skin of the site injected with the CSNPs increased in a dose-dependent manner, along with a macroscopic deposition of the CSNPs. The CSNP residue at the injection site resulted in a foreign body response with the appearance of macrophage infiltration, but otherwise did not show any systemic distribution or toxicity at up to 200 mg kg(-1) during this study. In conclusion, CSNPs could be used as good antigen carriers for DC-based immunotherapy, although further study is needed to completely clear the residue of the CSNPs at the injection site.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Férricos/farmacocinética , Reação a Corpo Estranho/induzido quimicamente , Reação a Corpo Estranho/patologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Tecidual , Óxido de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Zinco/farmacocinética
20.
Acta Radiol ; 56(8): 899-907, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25118330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As there is increased concern over the radiation exposure particularly in adolescents and young adults, computed tomography (CT) dose reduction is needed in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PURPOSE: To evaluate the optimal strength of sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) to obtain the best image quality on a 30-mAs applied low-dose CT (LDCT 30mAs) and to compare the diagnostic performances of the LDCT 30mAs with different SAFIRE strengths with that of the 100-mAs applied LDCT (LDCT 100mAs) for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 102 consecutive patients (47 men, 55 women; mean age, 41.2 years; range, 15-82 years) with right lower quadrant pain underwent abdominal-pelvic CT, consisting of arterial phase LDCT 100mAs and portal venous phase LDCT30mAs under a fixed 120 kV. LDCT 30mAs images were reconstructed separately with five strength levels (S1-S5). Two blinded radiologists recorded scores for the subjective image quality of the LDCT 30mAs dataset (S0-S5) and confidence scores for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis on each dataset and LDCT 100mAs. CT image noise was measured for each set. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 58 patients with confirmed appendicitis and 44 without appendicitis. There was no significant difference in diagnostic performance between LDCT 100mAs and LDCT 30mAs with any strength for both readers (AUC for reader 1, LDCT 30mAs with S0-S5 = 0.97, LDCT 100mAs = 0.93, P = 0.0936; for reader 2, LDCT 30mAs with S0-S5 = 0.96, LDCT 100mAs = 0.97, P = 0.128). The measured noise decreased as the strength increased from S0 to S5 (mean, 20.8 > 17.7 > 15.6 > 13.5 > 11.5 > 9.5, P < 0.0001). However, overall subjective image quality on S3 was better than the other strengths for both readers (S0 < S1 < S2 < S3 > S4 > S5, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Although measured noise declined as SAFIRE strength increased, S3 seems optimal for the best subjective image quality on LDCT 30mAs. The diagnostic performance of LDCT 30mAs with any strength is comparable to that of LDCT 100mAs for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/diagnóstico por imagem , Apendicite/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Abdome Agudo/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Apendicite/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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