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1.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in Asian countries is variable despite being the most effective option for ovarian cancer risk reduction in BRCA mutation carriers. Exploration of factors which may impact the RRSO decision-making of BRCA mutation carriers from Malaysia, a developing country in Southeast Asia, was undertaken. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 28 Malaysian BRCA mutation carriers with a history of breast cancer were conducted in addition to observing their RRSO decision-making consultations in the clinic. RESULTS: The decision-making considerations among the carriers were centered around the overarching theme of "Negotiating cancer risk and womanhood priorities," with the following themes: (1) risk perception, (2) self-preservation, (3) motherhood obligation, and (4) the preciousness of marriage. Cognitive knowledge of BRCA risk was often conceptualized based on personal and family history of cancer, personal beliefs, and faith. Many women reported fears that RRSO would affect them physically and emotionally, worrying about the post-surgical impact on their motherhood responsibilities. Nevertheless, some reported feeling obliged to choose RRSO for the sake of their children. For some, their husband's support and approval were critical, with emotional well-being and sexuality reportedly perceived as important to sustaining married life. Despite reporting hesitancy toward RRSO, women's decisions about choosing this option evolved as their priorities changed at different stages of life. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing during clinic encounters with Malaysian women that RRSO decision-making involves negotiating the likelihood of developing cancer with the societal priorities of being a woman, mother, and wife may serve to support their decision-making.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in partner and localiser of BRCA2 (PALB2) confer increased risk to breast cancer, but relatively few studies have reported the prevalence in South-East Asian populations. Here, we describe the prevalence of rare variants in PALB2 in a population-based study of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy Chinese, Malay and Indian women from Malaysia and Singapore, and describe the functional impact of germline missense variants identified in this population. METHODS: Mutation testing was performed on germline DNA (n=15 768) using targeted sequencing panels. The functional impact of missense variants was tested in mouse embryonic stem cell based functional assays. RESULTS: PTVs in PALB2 were found in 0.73% of breast cancer patients and 0.14% of healthy individuals (OR=5.44; 95% CI 2.85 to 10.39, p<0.0001). In contrast, rare missense variants in PALB2 were not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Whereas PTVs were associated with later stage of presentation and higher-grade tumours, no significant association was observed with missense variants in PALB2. However, two novel rare missense variants (p.L1027R and p.G1043V) produced unstable proteins and resulted in a decrease in homologous recombination-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks. CONCLUSION: Despite genetic and lifestyle differences between Asian and other populations, the population prevalence of PALB2 PTVs and associated relative risk of breast cancer, are similar to those reported in European populations.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with BRCA mutations is clinically important to inform on the potential response to treatment and for risk management of patients and their relatives. However, traditional referral routes may not meet clinical needs, and therefore, mainstreaming cancer genetics has been shown to be effective in some high-income and high health-literacy settings. To date, no study has reported on the feasibility of mainstreaming in low-income and middle-income settings, where the service considerations and health literacy could detrimentally affect the feasibility of mainstreaming. METHODS: The Mainstreaming Genetic Counselling for Ovarian Cancer Patients (MaGiC) study is a prospective, two-arm observational study comparing oncologist-led and genetics-led counselling. This study included 790 multiethnic patients with ovarian cancer from 23 sites in Malaysia. We compared the impact of different method of delivery of genetic counselling on the uptake of genetic testing and assessed the feasibility, knowledge and satisfaction of patients with ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Oncologists were satisfied with the mainstreaming experience, with 95% indicating a desire to incorporate testing into their clinical practice. The uptake of genetic testing was similar in the mainstreaming and genetics arm (80% and 79%, respectively). Patient satisfaction was high, whereas decision conflict and psychological impact were low in both arms of the study. Notably, decisional conflict, although lower than threshold, was higher for the mainstreaming group compared with the genetics arm. Overall, 13.5% of patients had a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2, and there was no difference between psychosocial measures for carriers in both arms. CONCLUSION: The MaGiC study demonstrates that mainstreaming cancer genetics is feasible in low-resource and middle-resource Asian setting and increased coverage for genetic testing.

4.
Fam Cancer ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604745

RESUMO

The decision to have risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) by BRCA mutation carriers to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer is difficult. The choice involves trade-offs in terms of its risks and benefits. To date, understanding the decision-making needs of RRSO among Southeast Asian BRCA mutation carriers is limited. This study aimed to explore the decision-making needs of Malaysian BRCA mutation carriers as an exemplar for the Southeast Asian community. In-depth interviews and clinic observations were conducted with 31 BRCA mutation carriers and analysed thematically. The core theme identified was 'Coping with complex information and alleviating uncertainties' with the following subthemes: (1) the need for an adjustment period, (2) information support, (3) social support and, (4) religious support. We found that women required time to accept their BRCA mutation status before they were ready to make a risk-reducing choice; that understanding complex genetic information and multiple risk management options can be an overwhelming experience; and obtaining further information and a second opinion were challenging. Many described the need for experiential information from other peer-carriers who had undergone RRSO. Support from their spouse and family members was thought to be essential for them to feel reassured with their decision. Many relied on religion to positively cope with cancer risk and cancer worry; Muslim BRCA carriers sought religious guidance through prayers and Islamic fatwas to feel more certain about their RRSO decision. These findings underscore the importance of the provision of resources and support that includes input from peers, husband, family members and religion to underpin the decision-making needs of Malaysian BRCA mutation carriers considering RRSO.

5.
J Genet Couns ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245177

RESUMO

The vast majority of studies assessing communication of BRCA1/2 results with relatives and family uptake of BRCA1/2 testing have been conducted in Western societies, and a dearth of studies have been conducted in Asia among relatives of diverse carriers of pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline variants. This study aimed to present rates of BRCA1/2 result disclosure by probands and probands' motivators and barriers of family communication and predictive testing uptake among eligible relatives. It also examined patterns of disclosure and testing uptake among different types of relatives. Eighty-seven carriers with either breast or ovarian cancer, who had previously been found to be carriers of a pathogenic variant in BRCA1/2, were interviewed over the phone using a semi-structured interview guide. Fifty-six percent of patients were Chinese, 21% were Indian, and 23% were Malay. It was found that 62.0% of eligible first- and second-degree relatives were informed by the proband about the testing result and that 11.5% of eligible first- and second-degree relatives had genetic testing. First-degree relatives were more likely to have been informed and tested compared to second-degree relatives, as were sisters compared to brothers. The low rates of family communication and testing uptake documented in this study suggest that interventions should focus on encouraging probands to inform male and second-degree relatives and targeting such relatives to increase informed decisions and accessibility to testing. Promotion strategies should be culturally sensitive to optimize outcomes.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(2): 183-197, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291341

RESUMO

The profession of genetic counseling (also called genetic counselling in many countries) began nearly 50 years ago in the United States, and has grown internationally in the past 30 years. While there have been many papers describing the profession of genetic counseling in individual countries or regions, data remains incomplete and has been published in diverse journals with limited access. As a result of the 2016 Transnational Alliance of Genetic Counseling (TAGC) conference in Barcelona, Spain, and the 2017 World Congress of Genetic Counselling in the UK, we endeavor to describe as fully as possible the global state of genetic counseling as a profession. We estimate that in 2018 there are nearly 7000 genetic counselors with the profession established or developing in no less than 28 countries.


Assuntos
Conselheiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Congressos como Assunto , Conselheiros/educação , Conselheiros/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
8.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203469, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk factors have been examined extensively in Western setting and more developed Asian cities/countries. However, there are limited data on developing Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer risk factors and the change of selected risk factors across birth cohorts in Malaysian women. METHODS: An unmatched hospital based case-control study was conducted from October 2002 to December 2016 in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 3,683 cases and 3,980 controls were included in this study. Unconditional logistic regressions, adjusted for potential confounding factors, were conducted. The breast cancer risk factors were compared across four birth cohorts by ethnicity. RESULTS: Ever breastfed, longer breastfeeding duration, a higher soymilk and soy product intake, and a higher level of physical activity were associated with lower risk of breast cancer. Chinese had the lowest breastfeeding rate, shortest breastfeeding duration, lowest parity and highest age of first full term pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that breastfeeding, soy intake and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. With the increasing incidence of breast cancer there is an urgent need to educate the women about lifestyle intervention they can take to reduce their breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas de Soja/efeitos adversos
9.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 16(3): 395-406, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies showed that offering BRCA mutation testing to population subgroups at high risk of harbouring the mutation may be cost effective, yet no evidence is available for low- or middle-income countries (LMIC) and in Asia. We estimated the cost effectiveness of BRCA mutation testing in early-stage breast cancer patients with high pre-test probability of harbouring the mutation in Malaysia, an LMIC in Asia. METHODS: We developed a decision analytic model to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) accrued through BRCA mutation testing or routine clinical surveillance (RCS) for a hypothetical cohort of 1000 early-stage breast cancer patients aged 40 years. In the model, patients would decide whether to accept testing and to undertake risk-reducing mastectomy, oophorectomy, tamoxifen, combinations or neither. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) from the health system perspective. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: In the base case, testing generated 11.2 QALYs over the lifetime and cost US$4815 per patient whereas RCS generated 11.1 QALYs and cost US$4574 per patient. The ICER of US$2725/QALY was below the cost-effective thresholds. The ICER was sensitive to the discounting of cost, cost of BRCA mutation testing and utility of being risk-free, but the ICERs remained below the thresholds. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at a threshold of US$9500/QALY, 99.9% of simulations favoured BRCA mutation testing over RCS. CONCLUSIONS: Offering BRCA mutation testing to early-stage breast cancer patients identified using a locally-validated risk-assessment tool may be cost effective compared to RCS in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Genes BRCA1 , Testes Genéticos/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Cadeias de Markov , Mutação/genética , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 97-103, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is offered typically to selected women based on age of onset and family history of cancer. However, current internationally accepted genetic testing referral guidelines are built mostly on data from cancer genetics clinics in women of European descent. To evaluate the appropriateness of such guidelines in Asians, we have determined the prevalence of germ line variants in an unselected cohort of Asian patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. METHODS: Germ line DNA from a hospital-based study of 2575 unselected patients with breast cancer and 2809 healthy controls were subjected to amplicon-based targeted sequencing of exonic and proximal splice site junction regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 using the Fluidigm Access Array system, with sequencing conducted on a Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. Variant calling was performed with GATK UnifiedGenotyper and were validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Fifty-five (2.1%) BRCA1 and 66 (2.6%) BRCA2 deleterious mutations were identified among patients with breast cancer and five (0.18%) BRCA1 and six (0.21%) BRCA2 mutations among controls. One thousand one hundred and eighty-six (46%) patients and 97 (80%) carriers fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for genetic testing. CONCLUSION: Five per cent of unselected Asian patients with breast cancer carry deleterious variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2. While current referral guidelines identified the majority of carriers, one in two patients would be referred for genetic services. Given that such services are largely unavailable in majority of low-resource settings in Asia, our study highlights the need for more efficient guidelines to identify at-risk individuals in Asia.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Malásia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 15, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs). METHODS: We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. RESULTS: Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 144(3): 635-42, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24578176

RESUMO

Although the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were discovered more than 20 years ago, there remains a gap in the availability of genetic counselling and genetic testing in Asian countries because of cost, access and inaccurate reporting of family history of cancer. In order to improve access to testing, we developed a rapid test for recurrent mutations in our Asian populations. In this study, we designed a genotyping assay with 55 BRCA1 and 44 BRCA2 mutations previously identified in Asian studies, and validated this assay in 267 individuals who had previously been tested by full sequencing. We tested the prevalence of these mutations in additional breast cancer cases. Using this genotyping approach, we analysed recurrent mutations in 533 Malaysian breast cancer cases with <10 % a priori risk, and found 1 BRCA1 (0.2 %) and 5 BRCA2 (0.9 %) carriers. Testing in a hospital-based unselected cohort of 532 Singaporean breast cancer cases revealed 6 BRCA1 (1.1 %) and 3 BRCA2 (0.6 %) carriers. Overall, 2 recurrent BRCA1 and 1 BRCA2 mutations in Malays, 3 BRCA1 and 2 BRCA2 mutations in Chinese and 1 BRCA1 mutation in Indians account for 60, 24 and 20 % of carrier families, respectively. By contrast, haplotype analyses suggest that a recurrent BRCA2 mutation (c.262_263delCT) found in 5 unrelated Malay families has at least 3 distinct haplotypes. Taken together, our data suggests that panel testing may help to identify carriers, particularly Asian BRCA2 carriers, who do not present with a priori strong family history characteristics.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Singapura/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 8(8): e73638, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23977390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. METHODS: We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. RESULTS: By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Família , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prevalência , Singapura
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 14(2): R66, 2012 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22507745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germline TP53 mutations cause an increased risk to early-onset breast cancer in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) families and the majority of carriers identified through breast cancer cohorts have LFS or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) features. However, in Asia and in many low resource settings, it is challenging to obtain accurate family history and we, therefore, sought to determine whether the presence of early-onset breast cancer is an appropriate selection criteria for germline TP53 testing. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with early-onset breast cancer (≤ 35 years) treated at University Malaya Medical Centre between 2003 and 2009, were analyzed for germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 by full DNA sequencing. Of the mutations identified, we examined their likely pathogenicity on the basis of prevalence in a case-control cohort, co-segregation analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor tissues. RESULTS: We identified 11 BRCA1 (11%) and 6 BRCA2 (6%) germline carriers among early-onset breast cancer patients. Of the 83 BRCA-negative patients, we identified four exonic variants and three intronic variants in TP53. Of these, two exonic variants are clinically relevant (E346X and p. G334_R335dup6) and two novel missense mutations (A138V and E285K) are likely to be clinically relevant, on the basis of co-segregation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Notably, E285K was found in two unrelated individuals and haplotype analyses suggest a founder effect. Two of the three intronic variants are likely benign based on their prevalence in a control population. Clinically relevant TP53 germline mutations were identified in three of the four patients (75%) with a family history of at least two LFS-linked cancers (breast, bone or soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumors or adrenocortical cancer); 1 of the 17 patients (6%) with a family history of breast cancer only, and 1 of the 62 patients (< 2%) with no family history of breast or LFS-linked cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports germline BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 mutations are found in early-onset breast cancer patients at 11%, 6% and 5% respectively, suggesting that TP53 mutation screening should be considered for these patients. However, we find that even in low resource Asian settings where family history is poorly reported, germline TP53 mutations are found predominantly among breast cancer patients with a family history of LFS-linked cancers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Malásia/epidemiologia , Malásia/etnologia , Sarcoma/genética
16.
Fam Cancer ; 10(2): 199-205, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21318382

RESUMO

Genetic counseling (GC) and genetic testing are vital risk management strategies in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndromes. Hitherto, cancer genetic testing amongst Asians has been described only in developed and high-income Asian countries. We studied the uptake and acceptance of GC and genetic testing services to Asian BRCA carriers in a middle-income country. A total of 363 patients were tested by full sequencing and large rearrangement analysis of both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in the Malaysian Breast Cancer (MyBrCa) Genetic Study. Of these, 49 index patients (13.5%) were found to carry deleterious mutations. GC pre- and post- result disclosures were provided and these groups of patients and their families were studied. GC and genetic testing were accepted by 82% of Malaysian patients at high risk for HBOC syndromes. However, risk assessment was limited by large, geographically dispersed, often polygamous or polyandrous families, and the lack of complete cancer registry. Cultural taboos about cancer diagnoses, social marginalization and lack of regulatory control of genetic discrimination were significant concerns. Only 78% of index patients informed their families of their risks and 11% of relatives came forward when offered free counseling and testing. Even when GC and genetic testing are provided at no cost, there remain significant societal and regulatory barriers to effective cancer genetic services in this underserved Asian population. Families believe there is a need for regulatory protection against genetic discrimination. Further studies are needed in the area of increasing awareness about the potential benefits of GC and genetic testing in Asians.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 124(2): 579-84, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20617377

RESUMO

Early studies of genetic predisposition due to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have focused largely on sequence alterations, but it has now emerged that 4-28% of inherited mutations in the BRCA genes may be due to large genomic rearrangements of these genes. However, to date, there have been relatively few studies of large genomic rearrangements in Asian populations. We have conducted a full sequencing and large genomic rearrangement analysis (using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification, MLPA) of 324 breast cancer patients who were selected from a multi-ethnic hospital-based cohort on the basis of age of onset of breast cancer and/or family history. Three unrelated individuals were found to have large genomic rearrangements: 2 in BRCA1 and 1 in BRCA2, which accounts for 2/24 (8%) of the total mutations detected in BRCA1 and 1/23 (4%) of the mutations in BRCA2 detected in this cohort. Notably, the family history of the individuals with these mutations is largely unremarkable suggesting that family history alone is a poor predictor of mutation status in Asian families. In conclusion, this study in a multi-ethnic (Malay, Chinese, Indian) cohort suggests that large genomic rearrangements are present at a low frequency but should nonetheless be included in the routine testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/etnologia , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
18.
PLoS One ; 3(4): e2024, 2008 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18431501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Asia, breast cancer is characterised by an early age of onset: In Malaysia, approximately 50% of cases occur in women under the age of 50 years. A proportion of these cases may be attributable, at least in part, to genetic components, but to date, the contribution of genetic components to breast cancer in many of Malaysia's ethnic groups has not been well-characterised. METHODOLOGY: Given that hereditary breast carcinoma is primarily due to germline mutations in one of two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, we have characterised the spectrum of BRCA mutations in a cohort of 37 individuals with early-onset disease (

Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idade de Início , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia
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