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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010491, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports show altered gut bacterial profiles are associated with helminth infected individuals. Our recently published molecular survey of clinical helminthiases in Thailand border regions demonstrated a more comprehensive picture of infection prevalence when Kato Katz microscopy and copro-qPCR diagnostics were combined. We revealed that Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were the most predominant helminth infections in these regions. In the current study, we have profiled the faecal and saliva microbiota of a subset of these helminth infected participants, in order to determine if microbial changes are associated with parasite infection. METHODS: A subset of 66 faecal samples from Adisakwattana et al., (2020) were characterised for bacterial diversity using 16S rRNA gene profiling. Of these samples a subset of 24 participant matched saliva samples were also profiled for microbiota diversity. Sequence data were compiled, OTUs assigned, and diversity and abundance analysed using the statistical software Calypso. RESULTS: The data reported here indicate that helminth infections impact on both the host gut and oral microbiota. The profiles of faecal and saliva samples, irrespective of the infection status, were considerably different from each other, with more alpha diversity associated with saliva (p-value≤ 0.0015). Helminth infection influenced the faecal microbiota with respect to specific taxa, but not overall microbial alpha diversity. Conversely, helminth infection was associated with increased saliva microbiota alpha diversity (Chao 1 diversity indices) at both the genus (p-value = 0.042) and phylum (p-value = 0.026) taxa levels, compared to uninfected individuals. Elevated individual taxa in infected individuals saliva were noted at the genus and family levels. Since Opisthorchis viverrini infections as a prominent health concern to Thailand, this pathogen was examined separately to other helminths infections present. Individuals with an O. viverrini mono-infection displayed both increases and decreases in genera present in their faecal microbiota, while increases in three families and one order were also observed in these samples. DISCUSSION: In this study, helminth infections appear to alter the abundance of specific faecal bacterial taxa, but do not impact on overall bacterial alpha or beta diversity. In addition, the faecal microbiota of O. viverrini only infected individuals differed from that of other helminth single and dual infections. Saliva microbiota analyses of individuals harbouring active helminth infections presented increased levels of both bacterial alpha diversity and abundance of individual taxa. Our data demonstrate that microbial change is associated with helminthiases in endemic regions of Thailand, and that this is reflected in both faecal and saliva microbiota. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an altered saliva microbiota in helminth infected individuals. This work may provide new avenues for improved diagnostics; and an enhanced understanding of both helminth infection pathology and the interplay between helminths, bacteria and their host.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009597, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310596

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminths, such as roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.), are gastrointestinal parasites that occur predominantly in low- to middle-income countries worldwide and disproportionally impact children. Depending on the STH species, health status of the host and infection intensity, direct impacts of these parasites include malnutrition, anaemia, diarrhoea and physical and cognitive stunting. The indirect consequences of these infections are less well understood. Specifically, gastrointestinal infections may exert acute or chronic impacts on the natural gut microfauna, leading to increased risk of post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders, and reduced gut and overall health through immunomodulating mechanisms. To date a small number of preliminary studies have assessed the impact of helminths on the gut microbiome, but these studies are conflicting. Here, we assessed STH burden in 273 pre-school and school-aged children in Tha Song Yang district, Tak province, Thailand receiving annual oral mebendazole treatment. Ascaris lumbricoides (107/273) and Trichuris trichiura (100/273) were the most prevalent species and often occurred as co-infections (66/273). Ancylostoma ceylanicum was detected in a small number of children as well (n = 3). All of these infections were of low intensity (<4,999 or 999 eggs per gram for Ascaris and Trichuris respectively). Using this information, we characterised the baseline gut microbiome profile and investigated acute STH-induced alterations, comparing infected with uninfected children at the time of sampling. We found no difference between these groups in bacterial alpha-diversity, but did observe differences in beta-diversity and specific differentially abundant OTUs, including increased Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides coprophilus, and reduced Bifidobacterium adolescentis, each of which have been previously implicated in STH-associated changes in the gut microfauna.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Tailândia/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(9): 741-748, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774039

RESUMO

Molecular studies of gastrointestinal infections or microbiotas require either rapid sample processing or effective interim preservation. This is difficult in remote settings in low-income countries, where the majority of the global infectious disease burden exists. Processing or freezing of samples immediately upon collection is often not feasible and the cost of commercial preservatives is prohibitive. We compared fresh freezing (the 'gold standard' method), with low-cost chemical preservation in (i) a salt-based buffer consisting of DMSO, EDTA and NaCl (DESS) or (ii) 2.5% potassium dichromate (PD), for soil-transmitted helminth detection and microbiota characterisation in pre-school and school-aged children from north-western Thailand. Fresh frozen samples were frozen at -20°C on collection and maintained at -80°C within ~3 days of collection until molecular analysis, with international shipping on dry ice. In contrast, chemically preserved samples were collected and stored at ~4°C, transported on wet ice and only stored at -20°C on arrival in Australia ~8 weeks after collection, with international shipping on wet ice. DESS and PD provided better sensitivity for STH diagnosis, estimating higher infection rates (>80% for Ascaris lumbricoides and >60% for Trichuris trichiura; versus 56% and 15% for these parasites in fresh frozen samples) and egg abundance (inferred as gene copy number estimates). All methods performed similarly for microbiota preservation, showing no significant differences in alpha-diversity based on overall richness or inverted Simpson's Index. All three methods performed similarly for RNA and protein preservation in a small subset of samples. Overall, DESS provided the best performance, with the added benefit of being non-toxic, compared with PD, hence making it particularly applicable for studies in remote and resource-poor settings.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Microbiota , Animais , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Solo , Trichuris
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 416, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under-regulated national borders in Southeast Asia represent potential regions for enhanced parasitic helminth transmission and present barriers to helminthiasis disease control. METHODS: Three Thailand border regions close to Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia were surveyed for clinical parasitic helminth disease. In-field microscopy was performed on stools from 567 individuals. Sub-samples were transported to Bangkok for molecular analysis comprising three multiplex qPCR assays. RESULTS: The overall helminth infection prevalence was 17.99% as assessed by Kato-Katz and 24.51% by qPCR. The combined prevalence of the two methods was 28.57%; the most predominant species detected were Opisthorchis viverrini (18.34%), hookworm (6.88%; Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.29%) and Trichuris trichiura (1.76%). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the value of molecular diagnostics for determining more precise prevalence levels of helminthiases in Southeast Asia. Availability of such accurate prevalence information will help guide future public health initiatives and highlights the need for more rigorous surveillance and timely intervention in these regions.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necator americanus/isolamento & purificação , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Patologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
5.
Parasitology ; 147(9): 972-984, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364103

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal helminth infection likely affects the gut microbiome, in turn affecting host health. To investigate the effect of intestinal parasite status on the gut microbiome, parasitic infection surveys were conducted in communities in Nan Province, Thailand. In total, 1047 participants submitted stool samples for intestinal parasite examination, and 391 parasite-positive cases were identified, equating to an infection prevalence of 37.3%. Intestinal protozoan species were less prevalent (4.6%) than helminth species. The most prevalent parasite was the minute intestinal fluke Haplorchis taichui (35.9%). Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA was conducted to investigate the gut microbiome profiles of H. taichui-infected participants compared with those of parasite-free participants. Prevotella copri was the dominant bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in the study population. The relative abundance of three bacterial taxa, Ruminococcus, Roseburia faecis and Veillonella parvula, was significantly increased in the H. taichui-infected group. Parasite-negative group had higher bacterial diversity (α diversity) than the H. taichui-positive group. In addition, a significant difference in bacterial community composition (ß diversity) was found between the two groups. The results suggest that H. taichui infection impacts the gut microbiome profile by reducing bacterial diversity and altering bacterial community structure in the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , População Rural , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(1): 57-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145728

RESUMO

During the mobile clinic activities in Tak Province, Thailand, Paragonimus sp. eggs were found in a fecal sample of a 72-year-old Karen resident. Paragonimus DNA was amplified from the stool sample and identified to P. heterotremus. The patient did not have any symptoms. Apparent pulmonary lesion was not found on the chest X-ray. The patient admitted habitual consumption of semi-cooked or roasted waterfall crabs for several years. The waterfall crabs collected from stream near the village were found negative for Paragonimus metacercariae. In northern Thailand, paragonimiasis remains as one of the public health concerns and should be ruled out for asymptomatic pulmonary patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Paragonimíase/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paragonimus/isolamento & purificação , Tailândia
7.
Infect Dis Health ; 24(2): 98-106, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis cause considerable morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially among children. To this end it, a cross-sectional survey to determine the pattern of Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis co-infection was undertaken among primary school pupils in Oduma Community in Enugu State, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh urine and stool samples were collected from pupils. The urine and stool samples were examined using sedimentation and Kat-Katz techniques respectively. RESULTS: Of the 236 pupils examined, 137 (58.1%) were found positive for at least one helminth infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH), with a prevalence rate of 40.3%, followed by Trichuris trichiura (15.3%) and hookworm (8.9%). Infection with Schistosoma haematobium was detected in 13.6% of the pupils while Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was 7.2%. Age group 4 -7 years recorded the highest prevalence for S. haematobium, A. lumbricoides, T. Trichiura and hookworm infections. Multiple infections were also recorded, with 22.9% having double infections and 2.5% having triple infections. The most common double infection was A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura (8.9%), while the most common triple infection was A. lumbricoides, S. haematobium and hookworm (1.7%). CONCLUSION: The results from the present study revealed an evident need for the systematic and sustained administration of school-based chemotherapy program targeting the control of STH infection and Schistosomiasis using Albendazole and Praziquantel respectively in the community, instead of a one-off approach that was carried out.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Solo/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urina/parasitologia
8.
Acta Parasitol ; 62(2): 393-400, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426425

RESUMO

Dogs have been bred since ancient times for companionship, hunting, protection, shepherding and other human activities. Some canine helminth parasites can cause significant clinical diseases in humans as Opisthorchis viverrini causing cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asian Countries. In this study, socio-cultural questionnaire, canine parasitological analysis, necropsy, parasite molecular confirmation and dog roaming data were evaluated in Savannakhet, Lao-PDR, a typical Mekong Basin area. Dog owners comprised 48.8% of the studied population, with 61.2% owning one dog, 25.1% 2 dogs, 8.5% 3 dogs and 1.8% owning more than 4 dogs. Data from GPS logger attached to dogs showed they walked from 1.4 to 13.3 km per day, covering an area of 3356.38m2 average, with a routine of accessing water sources. Thirteen zoonotic helminth species were observed. Causative agents of visceral and cutaneous larva migrans occurred in 44.1% and 70% of the samples respectively. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was detected in 44.1% of samples. Importantly, O. viverrini was found in 8.8% of samples. Besides the known importance of dogs in the transmission of Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp. and S. erinaceieuropaei, the observed roaming pattern of dogs confirmed it as an important host perpetuating O. viverrini in endemic areas; their routine access to waterbodies may spread O. viverrini eggs in a favorable environment for the fluke development, facilitating the infection of fishes, and consequently infecting humans living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, parasitic NTDs control programs in humans should be done in parallel with parasite control in animals, especially dogs, in the Mekong River basin area.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , População Rural , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/transmissão , Humanos , Vale do Mecom/epidemiologia , Rios
9.
Acta Trop ; 169: 1-7, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108370

RESUMO

Opisthorchiasis, which can lead to cholangiocarcinoma in cases of chronic infection, is a major public health problem in Southeast Asian countries. The trematode, Opisthorchis viverrini, is the causative agent of the disease. Accurate and rapid monitoring of O. viverrini is crucial for disease prevention and containment. Therefore, in this study we sought to develop a novel species-specific real-time PCR assay for detecting O. viverrini using environmental DNA (eDNA). The diagnostic sensitivity of the newly developed real-time PCR assay was similar to that of the traditional PCR assay for 50 fecal samples collected in Lao PDR (21 and 19 samples were positive by real-time PCR and traditional PCR, respectively). The efficacy of eDNA analysis and its applicability in the field were tested using a total of 94 environmental water samples collected from 44 sites in Savannakhet, Lao PDR during May and October 2015 and February 2016. O. viverrini eDNA was detected in five samples by real-time PCR, indicating the presence of the fluke in the area and the risk of infection for individuals consuming fish from these water sources. The application of eDNA analysis would facilitate the identification of O. viverrini endemic hotspots and contribute to the ecological control of opisthorchiasis, and this strategy can be applied to other eukaryotic water pathogens.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Opisthorchis/genética , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Água/parasitologia , Animais , Colangiocarcinoma/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(4): 543-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658609

RESUMO

In the present study, we report on the occurrence of paramphistomes, Fischoederius cobboldi and Paramphistomum epiclitum, in Lao PDR with the basis of molecular data. Parasite materials were collected from bovines bred in Ban Lahanam area, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR at Lahanam public market. Morphological observations indicated 2 different species of paramphistomes. The mitochondrial gene cox1 of the specimens was successfully amplified by PCR and DNA sequencing was carried out for diagnosis of 11 specimens. Pairwise alignment of cox1 sequences were performed and confirmed F. cobboldi and P. epiclitum infecting bovines in Laos. Although there were many limiting points, as the small number of worm samples, and the restricted access of the animal host materials, we confirmed for the first time that 2 species of paramphistomes, F. cobboldi and P. epiclitum, are distributed in Lao PDR. More studies are needed to confirm the paramphistome species present in Savannakhet and its hosts to clear the natural history of these parasites of ruminants in the region and measure the impact of this parasite infection in the life and health of the local people.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Rúmen/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Laos , Microscopia , Paramphistomatidae/anatomia & histologia , Paramphistomatidae/classificação , Paramphistomatidae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Parasitol Res ; 115(12): 4457-4470, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562899

RESUMO

Cathepsin L is a cysteine protease belonging to the papain family. In parasitic trematodes, cathepsin L plays essential roles in parasite survival and host-parasite interactions. In this study, cathepsin L of the lung fluke Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus (PpsCatL) was identified and its molecular biological and immunological features characterized. A sequence analysis of PpsCatL showed that the gene encodes a 325-amino-acid protein that is most similar to P. westermani cathepsin L. The in silico three-dimensional structure suggests that PpsCatL is a pro-enzyme that becomes active when the propeptide is cleaved. A recombinant pro-PpsCatL lacking the signal peptide (rPpsCatL), with a molecular weight of 35 kDa, was expressed in E. coli and reacted with P. pseudoheterotremus-infected rat sera. The native protein was detected in crude worm antigens and excretory-secretory products and was localized in the cecum and in the lamellae along the intestinal tract of the adult parasite. Enzymatic activity of rPpsCatL showed that the protein could cleave the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC after autocatalysis but was inhibited with E64. The immunodiagnostic potential of the recombinant protein was evaluated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and suggested that rPpsCatL can detect paragonimiasis with high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 95.6 %, respectively). This supports the further development of an rPpsCatL-ELISA as an immunodiagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Paragonimíase/parasitologia , Paragonimus/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/química , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Sequência de Bases , Catepsina L/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Paragonimíase/diagnóstico , Paragonimus/classificação , Paragonimus/genética , Paragonimus/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Alinhamento de Sequência
12.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 18(1): 21-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25502792

RESUMO

Samut Sakhon is a Thai province popular among immigrants attracted to work in factories and the Thai food industry, especially people from Myanmar. Poor personal-hygiene behaviors, crowded accommodation and limited sanitation, result in health problems among immigrant workers. Various infectious diseases among this group are seen and managed by Samut Sakhon General Hospital. The impact of intestinal parasitic infections on public health is well known; they can spread from infected immigrant areas to uninfected areas via close contact and fecal-oral transmission from contaminated food and water. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among 372 immigrant children at 8 child-daycare centers during their parents' work time, by physical examination, fecal examination, and examination of the environment around the centers. Physical examinations were generally unremarkable, except that head-lice and fingernail examinations were positive in two cases (0.8 %). The results showed intestinal parasitic infections to be highly prevalent, at 71.0 %. These infections comprised both helminths and protozoa: Trichuris trichiura (50.8 %), Enterobius vermicularis (25.2 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (15.3 %), hookworm (11.6 %), Giardia lamblia (10.2 %), Endolimax nana (3.5 %), Entamoeba coli (2.7 %), and Blastocystis hominis (0.5 %). The environmental survey found a small number of houseflies near the accommodation to be positive for helminthic eggs (0.2 %), including A. lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, hookworms, Taenia spp., and minute intestinal flukes. Regarding the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children, it has been conjectured whether they were infected, along with their parents, during their daily lives before or after settling in Thailand. Intestinal parasites among immigrant children may involve a significant epidemiological impact, since immigrant children can serve as carriers and transmitters of disease.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Enteropatias Parasitárias/etnologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exame Físico , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24968666

RESUMO

Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Necator americanus are medically important soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) occurring frequently worldwide including Thailand. Fecal examination using a microscope has been recommended as the gold standard for diagnosis of STH infections, but suffers from low sensitivity. Recently, highly sensitive and specific assays, such as multiplex quantitative PCR, has been established, but the high cost and need for special instruments are still barriers limiting their applications in routine diagnosis. Therefore, a conventional multiplex PCR assay, with its lower cost and greater simplicity, was developed, for the simultaneous detection of STHs in fecal samples. The multiplex PCR assay was species-specific to the three STHs, and could detect one copy of DNA target. Compared with microscopic examination of fecal samples, sensitivity and specificity of the multiplex PCR was 87% and 83%, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Necatoríase/diagnóstico , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/diagnóstico , Animais , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Necator americanus/isolamento & purificação , Necatoríase/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tailândia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 23(1): 80-4, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24728365

RESUMO

Trichostrongylids infection has gained significant public health importance since Trichostrongylus spp. infections have been reported in humans in Lao PDR. In this study, gastrointestinal nematodes were identified and the intensity of infections was determined in goats and cattle, which are animals greatly used for meat production in Lahanam Village, Lao PDR. The total number of goats and bovines was 23 and 29, respectively, pertaining to 32 households surveyed in the area. Feacal samples were randomly collected from 14 goats and 11 bovines. Ninety three percent (13/14) of goats and 36% (3/11) of cattle were infected, with an average of 1,728 and 86 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. Coproculture showed Trichostrongylus spp. (goats 16%; bovines 48%), Haemonchus spp. (goats 69%; bovines 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovines 8%) and Oesophagostomum spp. (goats 15%; bovines 6%). After performing the necropsy on an adult goat, Trichuris spp. was also found. We confirmed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus and T. colubriformis by morphology and DNA sequencing analysis of the ITS region of rDNA. Due to interactions between humans and goats in Lahanam Village and high EPG results, the diagnosis of species and the intensity of gastrointestinal nematode infection in these animals are important public-health issues. Other ruminant parasites, such as Oesophagostomum and Haemonchus, found in caprines and bovines, are reported to be causes of zoonosis and their presence in humans should be investigated in future field surveys in this area.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Clima , Cabras , Laos , Zoonoses
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(1): 80-84, Jan-Mar/2014. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-707182

RESUMO

Trichostrongylids infection has gained significant public health importance since Trichostrongylus spp. infections have been reported in humans in Lao PDR. In this study, gastrointestinal nematodes were identified and the intensity of infections was determined in goats and cattle, which are animals greatly used for meat production in Lahanam Village, Lao PDR. The total number of goats and bovines was 23 and 29, respectively, pertaining to 32 households surveyed in the area. Feacal samples were randomly collected from 14 goats and 11 bovines. Ninety three percent (13/14) of goats and 36% (3/11) of cattle were infected, with an average of 1,728 and 86 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. Coproculture showed Trichostrongylus spp. (goats 16%; bovines 48%), Haemonchus spp. (goats 69%; bovines 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovines 8%) and Oesophagostomum spp. (goats 15%; bovines 6%). After performing the necropsy on an adult goat, Trichuris spp. was also found. We confirmed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus and T. colubriformis by morphology and DNA sequencing analysis of the ITS region of rDNA. Due to interactions between humans and goats in Lahanam Village and high EPG results, the diagnosis of species and the intensity of gastrointestinal nematode infection in these animals are important public-health issues. Other ruminant parasites, such as Oesophagostomum and Haemonchus, found in caprines and bovines, are reported to be causes of zoonosis and their presence in humans should be investigated in future field surveys in this area.


Infecção por tricostrongilídeos ganhou significativa importância para a saúde pública, desde que infecções por Trichostrongylus spp. foram relatadas em humanos no Laos. Neste estudo, determinou-se a intensidade de verminoses gastrintestinais em caprinos e bovinos, importantes animais de produção na região de Lahanam Village, RPD do Laos. O número total de caprinos e bovinos foi 23 e 29, respectivamente, nas 32 famílias estudadas. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas, aleatoriamente, de 14 caprinos e 11 bovinos. Noventa e três por cento (13/14) dos caprinos e 36% (3/11) dos bovinos encontraram-se parasitados, com uma média de 1728 e 86 ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), respectivamente. Pela coprocultura, identificou-se Trichostrongylus spp. (caprinos 16%; bovinos48%), Haemonchus spp. (caprinos 69%; bovinos 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovinos 8%) e Oesophagostomum spp. (caprinos 15%; bovinos 6%). A necropsia de um caprino registrou também a presença de formas adultas de Trichuris spp. Morfologicamente e por análise do sequenciamento da região ITS do rDNA, foi confirmada a presença de Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus e T. colubriformis. Devido às interações entre seres humanos e caprinos, em Lahanam Village, o alto OPG demonstrando o grau elevado de infecção por nematóides gastrintestinais nesses animais e a comprovação de espécies causadoras de zoonoses, aponta-se uma importante questão de saúde pública. Outros parasitos de ruminantes, como Oesophagostomum e Haemonchus, encontrados nos caprinos e bovinos estudados, são também relatados como agentes de zoonose, e sua presença em seres humanos deve ser investigada em futuras pesquisas de campo no local.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Clima , Cabras , Laos , Zoonoses
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 51(1): 55-9, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23467439

RESUMO

Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/genética , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Genótipo , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taenia/isolamento & purificação
17.
Acta Trop ; 126(1): 37-42, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23318934

RESUMO

There have been few studies on human trichostrongyliasis in Southeast Asia, information on its clinical manifestations is also sparse. Trichostrongyliasis occurs predominantly in areas where poor hygiene is common especially where human/animal feces are used as a fertilizer, thereby contaminating vegetables and stream water. The intimate coexistence of domestic animals and humans explains the prevalence of Trichostrongylus infection in such areas. The goal of the current study was to determine the prevalence of trichostrongyliasis among villagers in Thakamrien village, Sonkon district, Savannakhet province, Laos, and to investigate potential relationships between clinical features, laboratory data, and severity of infection. Of 272 villagers examined, 160 (58.8%) were determined positive for helminthic infections by fecal examination, and 59 (36.9%) of these were infected with Trichostrongylus. Only 58 cases were in the inclusion criteria of the study and then underwent further assessment, including a questionnaire on personal behaviors, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Villagers in the trichostrongyliasis group were more likely than the control group to have consumed fresh vegetables, not washed their hands before meals or after using the toilet, and to have had close contact with herbivorous animals (goats and cows). Similarly, villagers in the trichostrongyliasis group were more likely than the control group to have a history of loose feces, rash, or abdominal pain; however, no obvious clinical symptoms were observed during physical examination of the trichostrongyliasis patients. The degree of infection was determined by both fecal egg counts and quantification of adult worms after deworming. Laboratory data were evaluated for any relationship with severity of infection. No significant differences were found in laboratory values between the trichostrongyliasis and control groups, with most values being within normal limits; however, both groups had high eosinophil counts. This study demonstrated that the useful clinical characteristics of trichostrongyliasis patients include history of loose feces, rashes, and abdominal pain, as well as in personal behaviors, such as the regular consumption of fresh vegetables, lack of hand washing, and close contact with cattle.


Assuntos
Tricostrongilose/epidemiologia , Tricostrongilose/patologia , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Parasitol ; 97(6): 1152-8, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21682557

RESUMO

Metacercariae, morphologically similar to those of small liver flukes, were found to parasitize red-tailed snakehead fish, Channa limbata, collected from the city of Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Adult worms that were recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters showed characteristics distinctly different from Opisthorchis viverrini, but closely similar to Opisthorchis lobatus, which was first reported in poultry (Anas sp.) from Pakistan. The present study aimed to redescribe O. lobatus based on the adult worms recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters. Additionally, it aimed to document the genetic relationships among O. lobatus and other opisthorchiid liver flukes using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. DNA alignment of the O. lobatus and O. viverrini COI partial sequences (330 bp) showed 3.03% fixed differences (2.72% of amino acids changed) while the ITS2 region (350 bp) indicated a 0.86% difference for nucleotides. Species boundaries between the 2 parasites were determined by neighbor-joining analysis using the molecular sequence data. The phenogram confirmed that O. lobatus was distinctly different from O. viverrini, representing the first reported instance of O. lobatus in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) and the first record of C. limbata as the second intermediate host of a small liver fluke. Questions regarding human infection and the extent of the geographic distribution of these species should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/veterinária , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Cricetinae , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA Intergênico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Água Doce , Laos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Músculos/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opisthorchis/anatomia & histologia , Opisthorchis/classificação , Opisthorchis/genética
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 84(1): 52-4, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21212201

RESUMO

In Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Laos, 125 of 253 villagers (49.4%) were found by fecal examination to harbor hookworm eggs. The eggs were heterogeneous in morphology and size, suggesting infections of mixed nematode species. To confirm the hookworm egg species, on a voluntary basis, 46 hookworm egg-positive participants were treated with albendazole, and post-treatment adult worms were collected from purged fecal samples. The common human hookworm was found in only 3 participants; 1 case of Necator americanus, and 2 cases of Ancylostoma duodenale. In contrast, adult Trichostrongylus worms were expelled from most participants (43 of 46, 93.5%). The Trichostrongylus species were confirmed by morphology and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences; all worms were of the same species (T. colubriformis). In addition, some Trichostrongylus worms were obtained from a goat in the same village and identified as T. colubriformis. The results suggested that T. colubriformis was the main zoonotic species causing hookworm infections in the village.


Assuntos
Tricostrongilose/epidemiologia , Trichostrongylus/classificação , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , População Rural , Tricostrongilose/tratamento farmacológico , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/genética , Trichostrongylus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Parasitol Int ; 59(4): 599-605, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20804856

RESUMO

While human gnathostomiasis cases have been reported sporadically in Lao PDR since 1975, little is known about the disease in this country. We aimed to investigate sero-prevalence of gnathostomiasis and Gnathostoma species in Lao PDR. One village each in the north, central and south regions of Lao PDR was selected as the study sites. Overall, 125 (29.8%) of 420 sera from the randomly selected participants were sero-positive by immunoblot technique, with anti-Gnathostoma IgG antibody against the 24 kDa fraction. The sero-prevalence was high in the central (47.1%) and south (38.6%), but low (3.6%) in the north. Risk factor analyses revealed that the consumption of raw/undercooked fish was significantly associated with Gnathostoma sero-positivity (95% CI 1.05-17.05, P=0.042). The sero-positivity significantly increased with the age of the participants. Several fish, swamp eels, and frogs collected from central and southern Lao were infected with G. spinigerum advanced 3rd-stage larvae. Channa limbata (red-tailed snakehead fish) was identified as a natural second intermediate host of G. spinigerum. Eggs of G. spinigerum were found in dog feces collected in the south. Gnathostomiasis is endemic in central and southern Laos, so that preventive measures should be introduced for people living in these regions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Cães/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Gnathostoma/imunologia , Gnatostomíase/epidemiologia , Ranidae/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Gnatostomíase/patologia , Mãos/patologia , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perciformes/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
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