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1.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821472

RESUMO

How Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occasionally occurs following chronic inflammation remains to be elucidated. The case of a 57-year-old man who developed pulmonary EBV-positive DLBCL from underlying silicosis lesions is presented. Immunohistochemical examination of the resected silicosis lesions showed predominant helper T cells and M1/M2 macrophages, with a lack of B cells, regulatory T cells, and resident memory T cells. Two years later, EBV-positive DLBCL emerged unexpectedly from the silicosis. The imbalance of the immune cells in the microenvironment, at least in part, may help explain how chronic inflammation contributes to EBV-positive DLBCL.

2.
Ocul Surf ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666148

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the alteration in lipid composition of meibum, objective clinical signs, and subjective symptoms associated with aging and meibomian gland (MG) dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: In 10 MGD patients [4 males/6 females, mean age: 65.6 ± 7.9 years (range: 50-79 years)] and 24 healthy volunteer subjects [young subjects: 6 males/6 females, mean age: 25.7 ± 3.8 years (range: 20-35 years), elderly subjects: 6 males/6 females, mean age: 58.4 ± 7.5 years (range: 50-79 years)], three objective clinical signs were evaluated: MG orifice obstruction, meibum score, and tear film lipid layer interference pattern. Subjective symptoms were analyzed via a 15-item questionnaire. After careful collection of meibum samples, comprehensive lipid analysis was performed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed via JMP® ver. 13 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) statistical analysis software. RESULTS: In the MGD patients and elderly subjects, there was a significant decrease in non-polar lipids such as cholesterol esters (ChEs), while a significant increase in polar lipids [cholesterol (Ch), (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acid (OAHFA), and free fatty acid (FA)] in total lipids (Tukey-Kramer test: p < 0.05). Triglyceride was significantly increased only in MGD patients (p < 0.05). Symptom scores representative of vision quality (i.e., blurred vision/haziness) were significantly negatively-correlated with the ratio of the non-polar lipid ChE, while significantly positively correlated with the polar lipids Ch, OAHFA, and FA (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that both MGD and aging affect the composition ratio of major meibum lipids, resulting in the appearance of subjective symptoms.

3.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2021: 5590109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393666

RESUMO

Objectives: We evaluated the thrombus-vaporizing effect of excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Background: Larger intracoronary thrombus elevates the risk of interventional treatment and mortality in patients with STEMI. Methods: A total of 92 patients with STEMI who presented within 24 hours from the onset and underwent ELCA following manual aspiration thrombectomy (MT) were analyzed. Results: The mean baseline thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade was 0.4 ± 0.6, which subsequently improved to 2.3 ± 0.7 after MT (p < 0.0001) and 2.7 ± 0.5 after ELCA (p=0.0001). The median residual thrombus volume after MT was 65.7 mm3, which significantly reduced to 47.5 mm3 after ELCA (p < 0.0001). Plaque rupture was identified by OCT in only 22 cases (23.9%) after MT, but was distinguishable in 36 additional cases after ELCA (total: 58 cases; 63.0%). Ruptured lesions contained a higher proportion of red thrombus than nonruptured lesions (75.9% vs. 43.3%, p=0.001). Significantly larger thrombus burden after MT (69.6 mm3 vs. 56.3 mm3, p < 0.05) and greater thrombus reduction by ELCA (21.2 mm3 vs. 11.8 mm3, p < 0.01) were observed in ruptured lesions than nonruptured lesions. Conclusions: ELCA effectively vaporized intracoronary thrombus in patients with STEMI even after MT. Lesions with plaque rupture contained larger thrombus burden that was frequently characterized by red thrombus and more effectively reduced by ELCA.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária , Terapia a Laser , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(4): 21, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003999

RESUMO

Purpose: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a major cause of evaporative dry eye. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of a mineral oil-containing ophthalmic solution (MO) in mitigating the evaporative dry eye phenotypes in a mouse model in which fatty acid elongase Elovl1 is disrupted. Methods: Elovl1-deficient mice were assessed in terms of number of plugged meibomian gland orifices, tear film breakup time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score, tear quantity, and histology. The effects of the MO on the dry eye phenotypes were compared with those in groups not treated or treated with blank ophthalmic solution (BL). Results: Untreated Elovl1-deficient mice exhibited dry eye phenotypes with MGD symptoms such as plugging of meibomian gland orifices (P = 0.002 compared with control mice), high CFS scores (P = 0.002), and shortened BUT (P < 0.001). Among three groups of Elovl1-deficient mice (MO treated, BL treated, and untreated), the MO-treated group exhibited fewer plugged orifices (MO treated, 7.6; BL treated, 10.5 [P = 0.033]; untreated, 13.0 [P < 0.001]), lower CFS scores (MO treated, 1.1; BL treated, 2.7 [P = 0.013]; untreated, 2.5 [P = 0.050]), and improved BUT (MO treated, 19.4 seconds; BL treated, 8.3 seconds [P = 0.098]; untreated, 1.5 seconds [P = 0.008]). Conclusions: Elovl1-deficient mice exhibited multiple MGD symptoms, which were improved by MO. Translational Relevance: Our findings reveal the usefulness of Elovl1-deficient mice as a model for dry eye with MGD and suggest the potential of mineral oil eye drops as a treatment for this condition.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Disfunção da Glândula Tarsal , Animais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Glândulas Tarsais , Camundongos , Óleo Mineral , Soluções Oftálmicas
5.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of precise information on the epidemiology of peripheral intravascular catheter (PIVC)-related phlebitis and complications in critically ill patients results in the absence of appropriate preventive measures. Therefore, we aimed to describe the epidemiology of the use of PIVCs and the incidence/occurrence of phlebitis and complications in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in 23 ICUs in Japan. All consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years admitted to the ICU were enrolled. PIVCs inserted prior to ICU admission and those newly inserted after ICU admission were included in the analysis. Characteristics of the ICU, patients, and PIVCs were recorded. The primary and secondary outcomes were the occurrence and incidence rate of PIVC-related phlebitis and complications (catheter-related blood stream infection [CRBSI] and catheter failure) during the ICU stay. RESULTS: We included 2741 patients and 7118 PIVCs, of which 48.2% were inserted in the ICU. PIVC-related phlebitis occurred in 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.2%) of catheters (3.3 cases / 100 catheter-days) and 12.9% (95% CI 11.7-14.2%) of patients (6.3 cases / 100 catheter-days). Most PIVCs were removed immediately after diagnosis of phlebitis (71.9%). Grade 1 was the most common phlebitis (72.6%), while grade 4 was the least common (1.5%). The incidence rate of CRBSI was 0.8% (95% CI 0.4-1.2%). In cases of catheter failure, the proportion and incidence rate per 100 intravenous catheter-days of catheter failure were 21% (95% CI 20.0-21.9%) and 9.1 (95% CI 8.7-10.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: PIVC-related phlebitis and complications were common in critically ill patients. The results suggest the importance of preventing PIVC-related complications, even in critically ill patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR, the Japanese clinical trial registry (registration number: UMIN000028019 , July 1, 2017).

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 33-36, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217572

RESUMO

A 60-year-old Japanese woman presented with subacute progressive muscle pain and weakness in her proximal extremities. She was diagnosed with influenza A (H3N2) infection a week before the onset of muscle pain. At the time of admission, she exhibited weakness in the proximal muscles of the upper and lower limbs, elevated serum liver enzymes and creatinine kinase, and myoglobinuria. She did not manifest renal failure and cardiac abnormalities, indicating myocarditis. Electromyography revealed myogenic changes, and magnetic resonance imaging of the upper limb showed abnormal signal intensities in the muscles, suggestive of myopathy. Muscle biopsy of the biceps revealed numerous necrotic regeneration fibers and mild inflammatory cell infiltration, suggesting immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Necrotized muscle cells were positive for human influenza A (H3N2). Autoantibody analysis showed the presence of antibodies against the signal recognition particle (SRP), and the patient was diagnosed with anti-SRP-associated IMNM. She was resistant to intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy but recovered after administration of oral systemic corticosteroids and immunoglobulins. We speculate that the influenza A (H3N2) infection might have triggered her IMNM. Thus, IMNM should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proximal muscle weakness that persists after viral infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/microbiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculares/microbiologia , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/análise , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Necrose
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2266-2268, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990189

RESUMO

A 68-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for an acute febrile illness with shivering and impaired consciousness. He was a previous smoker and had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, for which he inhaled steroid with a long-acting bronchodilator. He had received a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination 2 years previously. He was intubated and placed on a ventilator in intensive care unit because of acute respiratory failure and hypercapnia. Streptococcus pneumoniae was grown from his blood, sputum, and urine cultures, and he was diagnosed with invasive pneumococcal disease with acute renal failure. He was treated with intravenous beta-lactam and macrolide with continuous hemodiafiltration and was discharged 3 months later. The pneumococcus was identified as serotype 12F, and his serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic index against serotype 12F indicating a lack of protection from IPD among PPV23 serotypes. This case highlights that some individuals may have a serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody failure that makes them susceptible to serotype 12F invasive pneumococcal disease. This case also illustrates the need for serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic index titre cut-offs for each specific pneumococcal serotype in available vaccines to understand the vaccination protection for individual patients better.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinação
8.
J Chem Phys ; 153(2): 024120, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668912

RESUMO

A machine-learning approach to draw landscape maps in a low-dimensional control-parameter space is examined through a case study of three-dimensional alignment control of the asymmetric-top molecule SO2. As a minimal model, we consider the control by using a set of mutually orthogonal, linearly polarized laser pulses that are parameterized by the time delay and fluence ratio. The parameters are represented either by points in the parameter space or by time- and frequency-resolved spectra. Machine-learning models based on convolutional neural networks together with two considerably different representations, which are trained by using a reasonably small number of training samples, construct maps that have sufficient accuracy to predict temperature-dependent control mechanisms.

9.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 429-436, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281565

RESUMO

We studied the effects of mineral oil (MO) on the properties and structure of a spread monolayer of polar lipid constituents in meibum, by performing cyclic lateral compression-expansion experiments using a Langmuir trough. A meibum sample without nonpolar lipids (meibumΔnonpolar-lipid) was prepared by removing the nonpolar lipids from biological meibum extruded from rabbit eyelids and spread on a water surface for measuring the cyclic surface pressure (π)-film area (A) isotherms with in situ observation of the film morphology using a Brewster angle microscope. The meibumΔnonpolar-lipid formed a homogeneous fluid monolayer and underwent collapse upon compression. The π-A isotherm shifted to a smaller area upon repeating the compression-expansion cycles. These observations contrasted those obtained for meibum previously, which may have resulted from the absence of nonpolar lipids. The recovery of the film stability against the lateral compression-expansion cycles was analyzed by adding MO as a nonpolar compound to the film system. A spread film of 1:1 mixture (by weight) could recover the high reversibility of the π-A isotherms during the repeated compression and expansion processes.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Óleo Mineral , Lágrimas/química , Animais , Coelhos , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Med Mycol ; 58(7): 965-972, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943043

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for development of better diagnostic strategies to improve outcomes in patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). We hypothesized that lung perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be more sensitive and specific than computed tomography (CT) of the chest for detection of IPA because it is an angioinvasive pulmonary infection with characteristics that are different from those of bacterial pneumonia. We used SPECT with injection of technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin ([99mTc]MAA) to measure pulmonary perfusion in noninfected mice, mice with IPA, and mice with bacterial pneumonia. Histopathologic analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between the perfusion defect and mould invasion. We also attempted to quantitatively evaluate the SPECT images to identify differences in decreased perfusion levels in affected areas in the mouse lung. Histopathologic analysis in the IPA mouse model showed a clear match between areas with a perfusion defect and the presence of mold, indicating that the location of the perfusion defect on a SPECT image reflects angioinvasion of the mould in the lungs. Some of these perfusion defects could be seen before appearance of the infiltrate of CT images. Quantitative analysis confirmed that perfusion in the affected areas was significantly decreased in the IPA model but not in the bacterial pneumonia model (P < .0001). This imaging method may be preferable to the alternative methods presently used to identify the presence of mold in a patient's lungs.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico , Agregado de Albumina Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
11.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(2): 470-474, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908161

RESUMO

The association between gut microbiota and the lung immune system has been attracting increasing interest. Here, we report a case of pancreatic cancer in which the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin induced unusual manifestations of interstitial pneumonia, possibly under the influence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum probiotic supplementation. Chest computed tomography and positron emission tomography showed multiple ground-glass nodules (GGNs) mimicking metastatic lung cancer. Transbronchial biopsy specimens showed mild fibrosis and infiltration of lymphocytes consisting of more CD4+ than CD8+ cells. The CD4+ cells did not include FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed lymphocytosis with a markedly increased CD4+ /CD8+ ratio of 7.4. The nodules disappeared shortly after vildagliptin and probiotics were withheld. If unusual interstitial pneumonia is observed in some cancer patients, physicians should pay careful attention to their medication history, including probiotic supplements.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Lactobacillus/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico , Vildagliptina/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/etiologia
12.
Langmuir ; 35(25): 8445-8451, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140811

RESUMO

The property and structure of spread films of meibum extruded from rabbit eyelids and its fractions were investigated using the Langmuir film balance technique and Brewster angle microscopy in order to understand the influence of endogenous ingredients in meibum on the structure and stability of the tear film lipid layer against mechanical stimulus. Surface pressure (?)?film area ( A) isotherms for meibum were measured upon repetitive high-speed compression?expansion cycles and were found almost identical to each other with very small hysteresis, indicating the high stability of the meibum film. Brewster angle microcopy observation implied the spontaneous formation of condensed-phase network structures which consist primarily of wax esters and cholesteryl esters as nonpolar ingredients, coexisting with a monolayer phase of polar lipids two-dimensionally confined by the networks, which were spontaneously formed in the meibum film. The networks were gathered densely and deformed when the film was laterally compressed with barriers of Langmuir trough, but returned to the dispersed networks when expanded. The influence of temperature and salts dissolved in an aqueous subphase was also investigated. The results indicated that the temperature change (20 and 35 ?C) induced a difference of surface pressure at the same film areas in rather compressed films, and the presence of salts in the subphase expanded the films. However, the features of isotherm and surface morphology of the film, including their reversibility, were maintained. Phospholipid-removed meibum also formed a stable film, but slight changes were found in the hysteresis and film morphology compared to those in the meibum film. In contrast, in a film of phospholipid- and cholesterol-removed meibum, three-dimensional aggregates grew upon the first compression and not redispersed by the subsequent expansion, giving noticeable hysteresis between the isotherms. It is considered that high deformability upon compression and resilience upon expansion of the networks as well as reversible collapse and spreading property of the confined monolayer phase would hold the stability of the meibum film against repeated compressions.

13.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(11): 886-893, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113725

RESUMO

Oral treatment for elderly outpatients with pneumonia is becoming increasingly important in this super-aged society from the perspective of cost-effectiveness and limited hospital capacities. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of two oral respiratory quinolones, sitafloxacin and garenoxacin, in elderly patients with pneumonia. This randomized, multicenter, open-label trial was conducted among patients aged ≥65 years with clinically and radiographically confirmed pneumonia in Japan. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either sitafloxacin (100 mg/day) or garenoxacin (400 mg/day) for 3-10 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the clinical cure rate at 5-10 days after the end of treatment. From December 2013 to November 2017, we enrolled 120 patients at 11 hospitals and randomly assigned 59 patients to the sitafloxacin group (1 patient withdrew) and 61 patients to the garenoxacin group. These included 30 patients with nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) (18 receiving sitafloxacin, 12 receiving garenoxacin) and 37 patients with aspiration pneumonia (16 receiving sitafloxacin, 21 receiving garenoxacin). The clinical cure rates in the sitafloxacin and garenoxacin groups were 88.5% (95% confidence interval: 76.6-95.6) and 88.9% (95% confidence interval: 77.4-95.8), respectively. No significant differences were observed in the incidence rates of drug-related adverse events between the sitafloxacin (20.7%; 12/58 patients) and garenoxacin (27.9%; 17/61 patients) groups. The most common adverse event was hepatic dysfunction, which occurred in seven patients in each group. We conclude that sitafloxacin and garenoxacin are comparably effective and safe for the treatment of pneumonia, including NHCAP and aspiration pneumonia, in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico
14.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 58: 91-100, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of femoropopliteal artery (FP) continues to be a lesion subset where maintaining long-term patency after endovascular treatment is challenging. We evaluated the efficacy of cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) for de novo FP-CTOs in patients with symptomatic lower limb ischemia. METHODS: Seventy-three limbs of 67 symptomatic patients with de novo FP-CTOs successfully recanalized using CBA alone were enrolled in this study. Primary patency was defined as the absence of recurrent symptoms and no deterioration of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) >0.10 from the immediate postinterventional value. RESULTS: The mean age was 73.5 ± 7.3 years, and 59.7% of patients had diabetes mellitus. Most lesions were classified as Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II type C (n = 18; 24.7%) or type D (n = 44; 60.3%), with mean lesion and occluded lengths of 24.8 ± 11.4 and 17.8 ± 11.2 cm, respectively. No procedure-related adverse events occurred, except one distal embolization. The ABI significantly increased after intervention from 0.52 ± 0.12 to 0.80 ± 0.15 (P < 0.0001), with marked improvement in clinical symptoms (Rutherford stage: 2.7 ± 1.0 to 1.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.0001). The mean follow-up period was 31.2 ± 18.0 months, and the primary patency rates at 12 and 24 months were 75.3% and 60.6%, respectively. The independent predictive factors of failed patency were baseline hemoglobin A1c (P = 0.031, hazard radio [HR] 1.51 per 1%), occluded length ≥15 cm (P = 0.036, HR 2.90), and severe dissection (P = 0.033, HR 2.85). Vessel calcification and diameter did not affect primary patency. CONCLUSIONS: CBA is a feasible option for endovascular treatment of FP-CTOs. Diabetic status, occlusion length, and severe dissection after CBA are independent negative predictors of long-term patency.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Artéria Poplítea/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Doença Crônica , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Poplítea/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
15.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(3): 250-255, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695818

RESUMO

The three-dimensionally real position and movement of the scapula in the lateral side of the ribcage could not be clarified in the horse, since the body size of the horse is too large to apply the CT scanning and image analysis methods. In this study, therefore, we examined the position and the movability of scapula using a carcass of the Falabella which is one of the smallest breeds of the horse. The whole skeletal system in thoracic part of the Falabella could be three-dimensionally observed by CT scanning method. The three-dimensional images show that the scapula cranially slides and the ventral part of the scapula dorso-cranially rotates, when the shoulder joint moves to the most cranial position as simulation. The three-dimensional rotation angle was approximately 10 degrees. As a result of comparative osteology of the scapula between Falabella and the large draft horse, the infraspinous fossa was caudally enlarged in the larger draft horse, whereas the Falabella had narrower infraspinous fossa. We suggest that it may be due to the adaptational morphological change in the scapula bearing various body weights among breeds. The three-dimensional CT image analysis and the simulation in carcass contribute to the analysis of the bone movements of the horse during walking and running locomotion as well as the motion analysis from external functional-morphological data.


Assuntos
Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Escápula/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Cadáver , Cavidade Glenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Glenoide/fisiologia , Cavalos/classificação , Cavalos/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Masculino , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
16.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(2): 341-346, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582295

RESUMO

Several recent studies have shown that salvage chemotherapy following PD-1 blockade produces high antitumor activity in some patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the underlying synergistic mechanisms remain uncertain. The blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) can reflect the number of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated neutrophils. The immunosuppressive status of the tumor microenvironment could be monitored by the time-series patterns of NLR and ANC. The dynamics of NLR and ANC during nivolumab treatment were retrospectively explored in 15 patients: 8 patients receiving subsequent salvage chemotherapy (2 groups: 3 non-responders and 5 responders), and 7 responders to nivolumab alone (2 groups: 4 partial response and 3 complete response). The dynamics of NLR and ANC during nivolumab differed among these four groups (NLR P = 0.045, ANC P = 0.067). NLR and ANC during nivolumab treatment increased over time in non-responders to salvage chemotherapy, with an inverse relationship between drug response and NLR or ANC at four to six weeks among the four groups. We hypothesize that the early dynamics of NLR and ANC during nivolumab may be associated with the late efficacy of subsequent salvage chemotherapy. Further studies involving a large cohort are needed to confirm these findings, which could provide insight into the role of myeloid immunosuppressor cells in combination PD-1 blockade and chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Terapia de Salvação , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Ácido Oxônico/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tegafur/administração & dosagem
17.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(1): 3-11, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318610

RESUMO

Semiaquatic walking has resulted in the evolution of functional and morphological changes in various hoofed mammals, such as hippopotamus and Brazilian tapir. The biomechanics of skilful walking in wetlands or at the bottom of a waterbody involve the medio-lateral opening and closing of the feet to effectively support and stabilize the body on soft ground and to reduce the water resistance during recovery stroke, respectively. We demonstrate that the opening and closing of the feet in hippopotamus and Brazilian tapir are mediated by the adduction and abduction of the most medial and lateral phalanges from the CT examination. The axial toes, metacarpals and metatarsals do not contribute to changes in the width and shape of the feet, unlike the medial and lateral toes. We suggest that this semiaquatic walking motion is derived from the original terrestrial mode of locomotion, in contrast to the highly functional swimming motion using webs or fins in morphologically modified feet and tail. From the present data we demonstrate that semiaquatic locomotion evolved due to the acquisition of adductor-abductor mobility in the phalanges of the most medial and lateral digits, as shown in hippopotamus and Brazilian tapir.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Metatarso/anatomia & histologia , Perissodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Dedos do Pé/anatomia & histologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Ossos do Metatarso/anatomia & histologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13448, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194349

RESUMO

Mass migration of photo-isomeric azo-polymers occurs according to the light intensity gradient, and the morphological surface structure can be fabricated by the artificial distribution of light by applying the interference properties of coherent laser light. Recently, the optical radiation force has played an important role in the morphology for dielectric targets, and chiral structures have been fabricated according to the spirally gathering force distribution that arises due to the electric susceptibility. On the contrary, interference laser processing has been applied to process the surface or interior of the material, and nano- or micro-structures in the lattice have been fabricated in a single exposure to the interference pattern. The unit structures are mostly axisymmetric nanowhiskers, nanodrops and nanobumps, among others. In this experiment, interference laser processing of an azo-polymer dielectric target using a circularly polarised continuous-wave (CW) laser was examined, and a spiral structure was successfully fabricated. From the viewpoint of laser processing method, an optical spiral radiation force was introduced in interference laser processing for the first time.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 149(6): 064302, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111151

RESUMO

We apply nonlinear optimal control simulation to design a non-resonant control pulse that maximizes the probability of specified photodissociation of IBr by utilizing the non-resonant dynamic Stark effect in the presence of a predetermined pump pulse. The optimal pulses are always composed of several subpulses that increase the target probability considerably depending on the wavelength of the pump pulse. Focusing on the cases of high target probabilities, we systematically examine how the subpulses cooperate with each other on the basis of pulse-partitioning analyses. We show that the subpulses largely cooperate with the pump pulse, which can explain their irradiation timings. On the other hand, the cooperation between the subpulses is mainly expressed as the sum of the contribution from each subpulse.

20.
Thorac Cancer ; 9(10): 1305-1311, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of PD-1 inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs is reported to enhance anti-tumor activity in non-small cell lung cancer; however, the underlying synergistic mechanisms remain uncertain. This retrospective case series was designed to investigate objective response and survival rates of salvage chemotherapy following nivolumab and explore the immunohistochemical profiles of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: The medical records of 37 patients administered nivolumab were retrospectively reviewed. Overall response rate and progression-free survival were compared among three groups: salvage chemotherapy following nivolumab, nivolumab therapy alone, and chemotherapy preceding nivolumab. RESULTS: Eight cases met the study criteria. Salvage chemotherapy following nivolumab improved the overall response rate to 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.4-90.6%; P = 0.004) and median progression-free survival to six months (95% CI 4.6-7.4; P = 0.016), compared to nivolumab alone and preceding chemotherapy. The response to salvage chemotherapy was not associated with tumor PD-L1 expression. A partial response was achieved in four cases with ≤ 5% and ≤ 2.9 cells/mm2 of PD-1+ immune cells, whereas stable disease and progressive disease were observed in three cases with ≥ 30% and ≥ 12.7 cells/mm2 . Responders had fewer PD-1+ immune cells than non-responders (percentage P = 0.028; density P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Salvage chemotherapy following nivolumab improved anti-tumor activity regardless of tumor PD-L1 status, but nivolumab following chemotherapy did not. The presence of few PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating immune cells may serve as a potential predictor of response to salvage chemotherapy. Further studies involving a large cohort are needed to clarify how nivolumab re-sensitizes the tumor immune microenvironment to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Microambiente Tumoral
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