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1.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 47(13): 1780-1782, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468827

RESUMO

A 77-year-old man was given a diagnosis of pT4aN0M1a(PUL2), stage Ⅳ, RAS mutant type, after the operation for advanced ascending colon cancer. He was administered mFOLFOX6 plus Bmab as first-line chemotherapy. He showed consciousness disturbance on the 2nd day during the 6 cycles. Because of head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showing no abnormal findings, we diagnosed convulsive seizure. His consciousness level gradually improved after intravenous infusion. He showed consciousness disturbance on the 2nd day during the 7 cycles again. Because blood ammonia level were high at 400µg/dL, he was diagnosed as hyperammonemic encephalopathy. His consciousness level rapidly recovered after branched chain amino acid(BCAA)infusion. SOX plus Bmab therapy was started as a post-treatment, he developed hyperammonemia(NH3 288µg/dL)again, on the 4th day during the 3 cycles. After taking of oral administration of BCAA and lactulose, the recurrence of hyperammonemic encephalopathy was not found. Therefore, 3 cycles of SOX plus Bmab therapy and 12 cycles of IRIS plus Bmab therapy were administered.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Neoplasias do Colo , Hiperamonemia , Neoplasias Retais , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperamonemia/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17205, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748671

RESUMO

Adaptive hunting management is commonly used for controlling the populations of overabundant large herbivores; however, induced behavioural changes can make the effective control of target populations difficult. However, few studies have compared the impact of different levels of hunting intensities on the activity patterns of ungulates before, during, and after a culling program. We investigated how different culling intensities affect the activity patterns of sika deer on Nakanoshima Island in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan using camera-trap surveys comparing the period of treatment before, during, and after a culling program. We used the number of deer photographed per hour per camera as an index of activity. Sika deer showed consistent crepuscular activity patterns (i.e., dawn and dusk) during spring-summer and trimodal activity patterns (i.e., dawn, dusk, and midnight) in autumn throughout the study period. In response to increased culling intensity, the activity peaks shifted slightly towards the night. The shift towards nocturnal activity persisted during post-culling period. Understanding the changes in activity patterns in response to culling intensity could be used to facilitate population control and assist in establishing a night shooting program. Thus, wildlife managers should consider night shooting once hunting during day time has shifted the normal diurnal activity of deer to nocturnal activity.


Assuntos
Abate de Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Animal , Cervos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Animais
3.
Opt Express ; 27(17): 24654-24669, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510351

RESUMO

We present a low-complexity fully pilot-based digital signal processing (DSP) chain designed for high spectral efficiency optical transmission systems. We study the performance of the individual pilot algorithms in simulations before demonstrating transmission of a 51×24 Gbaud PM-64QAM superchannel over distances reaching 1000 km. We present an overhead optimization technique using the system achievable information rate to find the optimal balance between increased performance and throughput reduction from adding additional DSP pilots. Using the optimal overhead of 2.4%, we report 9.3 (8.3) bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency, or equivalently 11.9 (10.6) Tb/s superchannel throughput, after 480 (960) km of transmission over 80 km spans with EDFA-only amplification. Moreover, we show that the optimum overhead depends only weakly on transmission distance, concluding that back-to-back optimization is sufficient for all studied distances. Our results show that pilot-based DSP combined with overhead optimization can increase the robustness and performance of systems using advanced modulation formats while still maintaining state-of-the-art spectral efficiency and multi-Tb/s throughput.

4.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(11): 1166-1173, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Edge artifacts have been reported on in relation to F-PET using point spread function correction algorithms. The positron range of Ga is longer than F, and this difference is thought to result in different edge artifacts. The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference in edge artifacts in PET images using point spread function correction in Ga- and F-PET. METHODS: We used a National Electrical Manufacturers Association International Electrotechnical Commission body phantom. The phantom was filled severally with Ga and F solution. The PET data were obtained over a 90 minutes period using a True Point Biograph 16 scanner. The images were then reconstructed with the ordered subset expectation maximization with point spread function correction. The phantom image analyses were performed by a visual assessment of the PET images and profiles, and an absolute recovery coefficient, which was the ratio of the maximum radioactivity of any given hot sphere to its true radioactivity. RESULTS: The ring-like edge artifacts of Ga-PET were less prominent than those in F-PET. The relative radioactivity profiles of Ga-PET showed low overshoots of the maximum radioactivity although high overshoots did appear in F-PET. The absolute recovery coefficients of Ga-PET were smaller than those of F-PET. CONCLUSION: The edge artifacts of Ga-PET were less prominent than those of F-PET, and their overshoots were smaller. The difference in the positron range between Ga and F may possibly result in the difference in edge artifacts of images reconstructed using the point spread function correction algorithm.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Imagens de Fantasmas , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Ann Nucl Med ; 32(1): 1-6, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: On 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), signal-to-noise ratio in the liver (SNRliver) is used as a metric to assess image quality. However, some regions-of-interest (ROIs) are used when measuring the SNRliver. The purpose of this study is to examine the different ROIs and volumes of interest (VOIs) to obtain a reproducible SNRliver. METHODS: This study included 108 patients who underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans for the purpose of cancer screening. We examined four different ROIs and VOIs; a 3-cm-diameter and a 4-cm-diameter circular ROI and a 3-cm-diameter and a 4-cm-diameter spherical VOI on the right lobe of the patients' livers. The average of SUV (SUVmean), standard deviation (SD) of SUV (SUVSD), SNRliver and SD of the SNRliver obtained using ROIs and VOIs were then compared. RESULTS: Although the SUVmean was not different among the ROIs and VOIs, the SUVSD was small with a 3-cm-diameter ROI. The largest SUVSD was obtained with a 4-cm-diameter spherical VOI. The SNRliver and the SD of the SNRliver with a 4-cm-diameter spherical VOI were the smallest, while those with a 3-cm-diameter circular ROI were the largest. These results suggest that a small ROI may be placed on a relatively homogeneous region not representing whole liver unintentionally. CONCLUSION: The SNRliver varied according to the shape and size of ROIs or VOIs. A 4-cm-diameter spherical VOI is recommended to obtain stable and reproducible SNRliver.


Assuntos
Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
PeerJ ; 5: e3869, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038752

RESUMO

The sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) population in the Ramsar-listed Kushiro Wetland has increased in recent years, and the Ministry of the Environment of Japan has decided to take measures to reduce the impact of deer on the ecosystem. However, seasonal movement patterns of the deer (i.e., when and where the deer inhabit the wetland) remain unclear. We examined the seasonal movement patterns of sika deer in the Kushiro Wetland from 2013 to 2015 by analyzing GPS location data for 28 hinds captured at three sites in the wetland. Seasonal movement patterns were quantitatively classified as seasonal migration, mixed, dispersal, nomadic, resident, or atypical, and the degree of wetland utilization for each individual was estimated. The area of overlap for each individual among intra-capture sites and inter-capture sites was calculated for the entire year and for each season. Our results showed that the movement patterns of these deer were classified not only as resident but also as seasonal migration, dispersal, and atypical. Approximately one-third of the individuals moved into and out of the wetland during the year as either seasonal migrants or individuals with atypical movement. Some of the individuals migrated to farmland areas outside the wetland (the farthest being 69.9 km away). Half of the individuals inhabited the wetland all or most of the year, i.e., 81-100% of their annual home range was within the wetland area. Even among individuals captured at the same site, different seasonal movement patterns were identified. The overlap areas of the home ranges of individuals from the same capture sites were larger than those for individuals from different capture sites (e.g., mean of annual home range overlap with intra-capture sites: 47.7% vs. inter-sites: 1.3%). To achieve more effective ecosystem management including deer management in the wetland, management plans should cover inside and outside of the wetland and separate the population into multiple management units to address the different movement patterns and wetland utilization of the population.

7.
J Dermatol ; 44(2): 135-142, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543197

RESUMO

Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of bexarotene, a novel retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoid, were evaluated in Japanese patients with stage IIB-IVB and relapsed/refractory stage IB-IIA cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). This study was conducted as a multicenter, open-label, historically controlled, single-arm phase I/II study. Bexarotene was p.o. administrated once daily at a dose of 300 mg/m2 for 24 weeks in 13 patients, following an evaluation of safety and tolerability for 4 weeks at a dose of 150 mg/m2 in three patients. Eight of 13 patients (61.5%) with an initial dose of 300 mg/m2 met the response criteria using the modified severity-weighted assessment tool (mSWAT) at 24 weeks or discontinuation. Dose-limiting toxic effects (DLT) were present in four of 13 patients (31%) at a dose of 300 mg/m2 : two neutropenia, one abnormal hepatic function and one hypertriglyceridemia. No DLT was observed in patients received 150 mg/m2 bexarotene. In the 13 patients at 300 mg/m2 , common drug-related adverse events (AE) included hypothyroidism (92%), hypercholesterolemia (77%), leukopenia or neutropenia (39%), nasopharyngitis or anemia (31%). The treatment-related grade 3 AE included hypertriglyceridemia (4/16 patients, 25%), increased alanine aminotransferase, increased aspartate aminotransferase, dyslipidaemia, leukopenia and neutropenia (1/16 patients, 6%), and one of 16 patients experienced grade 4 hypertriglyceridemia. No patients discontinued bexarotene due to the AE during the study, but dose reduction or suspension was required. Bexarotene was shown to be well tolerated at 300 mg/m2 once daily and effective in Japanese patients with CTCL.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores X Retinoide/agonistas , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticarcinógenos/farmacocinética , Bexaroteno , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm ; 60(1): 55-61, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925294

RESUMO

We examined the 68 Ga labeling of the α-helical peptide, DOTA-FAMP, and evaluated conformational changes during radiolabeling. 68 Ga-DOTA-FAMP is a positron emission tomography probe candidate for atherosclerotic plaques. The labeling yield achieved by Zhernosekov's method (using acetone for 68 Ga purification) was compared with that achieved by the original and 2 modified Mueller's methods (using NaCl solution). Modified method I involves desalting the 68 Ga prior to labeling, and modified method II involves the inclusion of ethanol in the labeling solution. The labeling yield using Zhernosekov's method was 62% ± 5.4%. In comparison, Mueller's original method gave 8.9% ± 1.7%. Modified method I gave a slight improvement of 32% ± 2.1%. Modified method II further increased the yield to 66% ± 3.4%. Conformational changes were determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy, revealing that these differences could be attributed to conformational changes. Heat treatment affects peptide conformation, which leads to aggregation and decreases the labeling yield. Mueller's method is simpler, but harsh conditions preclude its application to biomolecules. To suppress aggregation, we included a desalting process and added ethanol in the labeling solution. These changes significantly improved the labeling yield. Before use for imaging, conformational changes of biomolecules during radiolabeling should be evaluated by circular dichroism spectroscopy to ensure the homogeneity of the labeled product.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Peptídeos/síntese química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Etanol/química , Radioisótopos de Gálio/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel/química , Peptídeos/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química
9.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 44(12): 1182-1184, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394574

RESUMO

Gallbladder carcinoma producing alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)is rare.We report a case of AFP producing carcinoma of the gallbladder with huge metastatic hepatic tumor.A 81-year-old female with a hepatitis B virus(HBV)had a fever and right hypochondralgia.Abdominal CT showed an enlarged gallbladder with gallbladder stones, a huge tumor in the right lobe of liver, and swelling paraaortic lymph nodes.Acute cholecystitis was treated by percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD).The hepatic tumor was diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma for HBV carrier and the high level of AFP and PIVKA- II .We performed right lobectomy, cholecystectomy and the resection of paraaortic lymph nodes.In the resected gallbladder, the papillary tumor was detected.Histopathological diagnosis was moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.The liver tumor and paraaortic lymph nodes were metastases of the gallbladder carcinoma.The both of gallbladder and liver tumor immunohistochemically stained positive to AFP.It was difficult to diagnose the hepatic tumor because of HBV carrier, the high level of AFP and the unnoticed gallbladder tumor.Gallbladder carcinoma with the high level of AFP might have relation to liver metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/química , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/complicações , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/biossíntese
10.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164345, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711181

RESUMO

Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR) methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006. This deer population experienced two large reductions in density; approximately 200 animals in total were taken from the population through a large-scale population removal and a separate winter mass mortality event. Although the drive counts tracked temporal changes in deer abundance on the island, they overestimated the counts for all years in comparison to the MR method. Increased overestimation in drive count estimates after the winter mass mortality event may be due to a double count derived from increased deer movement and recovery of body condition secondary to the mitigation of density-dependent food limitations. Drive counts are unreliable because they are affected by unfavorable factors such as bad weather, and they are cost-prohibitive to repeat, which precludes the calculation of confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of drive counts to infer the deer abundance needs to be reconsidered.


Assuntos
Densidade Demográfica , Animais , Cervos , Modelos Teóricos
11.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163602, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732611

RESUMO

The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels), nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons), crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares), and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears). Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring-autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter-summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Japão , Estações do Ano , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
J Biochem ; 159(6): 619-29, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26802742

RESUMO

Pxt peptides (Pxt-1 through Pxt-12) have been isolated from amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis Pxt-related peptides (Pxt-2, Pxt-5, Pxt-12, reverse Pxt-2, reverse Pxt-5 and reverse Pxt-12) with significant foaming properties were further characterized. In the physicochemical experiments, all Pxt-related peptides formed significant amphiphilic α-helices in 50% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol by circular dichroism measurements. Among Pxt-related peptides, both Pxt-5 and reverse Pxt-5 were the most effective in reducing their surface tensions. Moreover, Pxt-2, Pxt-5 and reverse Pxt-5 produced constant surface tensions above their critical association concentrations, suggesting the micelle-like assemblies. In the biological experiments, Pxt-5 possessed the most potent hemolytic activity, while reverse Pxt-5 exhibited the most remarkable gene expression of interleukin 8 and heme oxygenase 1 and the most potent cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells. In contrast, Pxt-12 and reverse Pxt-12 were much weaker in antimicrobial assays for Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts, as well as in hemolytic, cell viability and cytotoxicity assays in HaCaT cells. All Pxt-related peptides exhibited about 20-50% of the total cellular histamine release at 10(-5) M, as well as mastoparan and melittin in mast cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the gene expressions of Pxt-5 in testis and Pxt-12 in muscle, in addition to skin, while Pxt-2 was only in skin.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citotoxinas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Xenopus , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/metabolismo , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Xenopus , Proteínas de Xenopus/biossíntese , Proteínas de Xenopus/química , Proteínas de Xenopus/farmacologia
13.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(22): 6696-702, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25941835

RESUMO

The solvent effect of ionic liquids on the lifetime of singlet molecular oxygen, O2((1)Δg), was investigated by means of time-resolved near-IR emission spectroscopy. O2((1)Δg) was generated by photosensitization of methylene blue in morpholinium and imidazolium ionic liquids, both comprising various alkyl chains of different lengths. The measured time profiles of O2((1)Δg) luminescence for the (1)Δg → (3)Σg(-) transition were represented by a single-exponential decay function. The phosphorescence lifetime was found to be correlated with the alkyl chain length of the morpholinium ionic liquids. This observation was interpreted by considering efficient quenching of O2((1)Δg) through energy transfer to the high-frequency C-H stretching modes of the N-alkyl chain in the morpholinium cation. Interestingly, we found that O2((1)Δg) quenching by the C-H stretching modes of the ring of the cations was remarkably depressed. The kinetics of the O2((1)Δg) emission decay process was discussed on the basis of the heterogeneous structure of ionic liquids consisting of polar and nonpolar domains.

14.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 15(2): e139-46, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25454690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program is defined as cancer screening for asymptomatic subjects using FDG-PET/computed tomography with or without combination of other screening tests. The aim of this study was to analyze the detection rate and effectiveness of the FDG-PET cancer screening program for breast cancer between 2006 and 2009 in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62,054 asymptomatic female subjects underwent FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed 473 cases with findings of possible breast cancer in any screening tests. RESULTS: Among 473 possible cases, 161 were verified as breast cancer. The relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of FDG-PET for breast cancer were 83.9% and 41.7%, respectively. The relative sensitivity and PPV of mammography (MMG) for breast cancer was less than for FDG-PET; results for breast ultrasonography (US) were close to FDG-PET. The combination of FDG-PET with MMG and US might contribute to increased sensitivity but does not improve PPV. Most breast cancer cases (83.0%) detected using the FDG-PET cancer screening program were stage 0 or I based on the Union for International Cancer Control criteria. CONCLUSION: The FDG-PET screening program in Japan detected breast cancer at an early stage. A combination of FDG-PET and MMG and/or breast US yields the best results for detecting breast cancer. The FDG-PET cancer-screening program alone cannot detect all breast cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Japão , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
15.
Anticancer Res ; 34(8): 4439-45, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25075083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program is defined as a cancer screening for asymptomatic subjects using FDG-PET (including PET/ computed tomography [CT]) with or without combination of other screening tests. The aim of the present study was to analyze the thyroid cancer detection rate in asymptomatic individuals through a FDG-PET cancer screening program in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 153,775 asymptomatic individuals underwent FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed 1,308 cases for possible thyroid cancer in all screening tests. RESULTS: Among the 1,308 possible cases, 353 were verified as thyroid cancer. The relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of FDG-PET were 90.7% and 29.5% for thyroid cancer, respectively. The relative sensitivity was equivalent to thyroid ultrasonography (US) (90.9%) and higher than neck computed tomography (CT) (75.7%, p<0.001), thyroglobulin (36.1%, p<0.001), and carcinoembryonic antigen (5.6%, p<0.001). The sensitivity with a PET/CT scanner was higher than that with a dedicated PET scanner (94.1% vs. 85.0%, p<0.001). Combining thyroid US with FDG-PET increased the relative sensitivity and PPV. The majority of thyroid carcinomas detected by FDG-PET screening were Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage I, but a significant number of cases were also detected as stage III or IV. CONCLUSION: The FDG-PET cancer screening program in Japan detected thyroid cancer at an early stage. FDG-PET showed high sensitivity in detecting thyroid cancer, and it may be more effective if combined with thyroid US.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Int J Otolaryngol ; 2014: 451612, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24959178

RESUMO

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tonsillectomy as a treatment for IgA nephropathy in relation to renal pathological findings. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 13 patients having IgA nephropathy treated by tonsillectomy. Results. UP/UCre levels decreased from 820.8 to 585.4 one month postsurgery and then showed slight worsening to 637.3 at the most recent follow-up. There was no significant difference in the improvement rate between pathological grades I-III and IV. There was positive correlation between Pre-UP/UCre level and the reduction rate of UP/UCre, which was statistically significant (R = 0.667, R (2) = 0.445, and P = 0.01). Conclusions. Reduction of UP/UCre at one month postsurgery is considered to be an overall prognostic factor, and tonsillectomy is considered to be an effective therapy for IgA patients regardless of the grade of renal pathology.

17.
Opt Express ; 22(7): 8798-812, 2014 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24718249

RESUMO

In this paper, we examine the performance of several modulation formats in more than four dimensions for coherent optical communications systems. We compare two high-dimensional modulation design methodologies based on spherical cutting of lattices and block coding of a 'base constellation' of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) on each dimension. The performances of modulation formats generated with these methodologies is analyzed in the asymptotic signal-to-noise ratio regime and for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. We then study the application of both types of high-dimensional modulation formats to standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission systems. For modulation with spectral efficiencies comparable to dual-polarization (DP-) BPSK, polarization-switched quaternary phase shift keying (PS-QPSK) and DP-QPSK, we demonstrate SNR gains of up to 3 dB, 0.9 dB and 1 dB respectively, at a BER of 10(-3).

18.
J Nucl Med ; 55(5): 736-42, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24665089

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: In oncology, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and the standardized uptake value (SUV) from (18)F-FDG PET have similar clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the ADC and SUV and compare their potential in the diagnosis and prediction of prognosis in breast tumors. METHODS: Seventy-nine female patients (age range, 19-69 y; average, 49.1 y) with 83 pathologically proven breast tumors were recruited. The diagnoses consisted of 70 malignant breast tumors (65 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, 1 of medullary carcinoma, 1 of mucinous carcinoma, 1 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 2 of micropapillary carcinoma) and 13 benign breast tumors (4 cases of fibroadenoma, 4 of mastopathy, 3 of adenosis with atypia, and 2 of benign phyllodes tumor). All patients underwent mammary gland MR imaging with DWI and (18)F-FDG PET within a 2-wk interval. The patients' ADCs and SUVs were measured within the tumor by DWI and (18)F-FDG PET, respectively. For the malignant tumors, we evaluated the relationships among ADC, SUV, histopathologic appearance, and long-term prognosis. RESULTS: A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in both parameters (ADC and SUV) between the benign and malignant breast tumors, and the difference was more significant when we introduced a new parameter, SUV/ADC. There was a weak inverse correlation between ADC and SUV (r = -0.36; P = 0.06) among the total tumors; however, this correlation was not significant within the group of malignant tumors. High SUV was found to correlate with larger tumor size, higher nuclear grade, and the triple-negative hormonal receptor profile. High ADC was revealed to be correlated with negative progesterone receptor and positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 profile. Higher SUVs also showed a correlation with poor prognosis. No correlation was seen between ADC and prognosis. CONCLUSION: Both SUV and ADC are helpful parameters in differentiating benign from malignant breast tumors. The use of SUV and ADC in combination may help in the diagnosis because of their inverse relationship. High preoperative SUV was associated with poor prognosis, but the contribution of ADC to prognosis prediction was small.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto , Idoso , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Jpn J Radiol ; 32(5): 253-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24562822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been reported that gastric cancer is the sixth most common cancer found during the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program, which is defined as cancer screening of asymptomatic subjects using FDG-PET(/CT) (in combination with other screening tests or not). The aim of this study was to analyze the detection rate and the effectiveness of the FDG-PET cancer screening program at detecting gastric cancer between 2006 and 2009 in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 153,775 asymptomatic subjects (92,255 men, 61,520 women) between 30 and 80 years old underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, we analyzed 790 cases with findings of possible gastric cancer in any screening test. RESULTS: The number of cases who were verified to have gastric cancer was 124. Among these, only 47 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which resulted in a relative sensitivity of 37.9% and a positive predictive value of 33.6%. The relative sensitivity of FDG-PET was much lower than those of gastric endoscopy and the serum pepsinogen test. CONCLUSION: The FDG-PET screening program in Japan detected some cases of early-stage gastric cancer, but this was not achieved using FDG-PET alone but in combination with gastric endoscopy. Gastric endoscopy should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pepsinogênio A/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
20.
Anticancer Res ; 34(1): 183-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24403460

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the lung cancer detection rate in asymptomatic individuals by the Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography FDG-PET cancer screening program in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 153,775 asymptomatic individuals underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program; the 854 cases with findings that indicated suspected lung cancer by any detection method were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 854 cases, 319 were verified as lung cancer. The relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of FDG-PET were 86.5% and 38.9% for lung cancer, respectively. The sensitivity of PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner was higher than that of dedicated PET (100.0% vs. 63.2%), indicating that CT imaging was effective for lung cancer screening. The majority of lung carcinomas detected by FDG-PET screening were UICC stage IA or IB, but detection of smaller or less invasive carcinomas was limited. CONCLUSION: The FDG-PET screening program in Japan detected lung cancer at an early stage.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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