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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22789, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815510

RESUMO

Elderly cancer patients requiring surgical treatment are increasing, and the deterioration of quality of life and shortening of healthy life expectancy due to postoperative complications represent major problems. This study investigated the current status of medical treatment, including perioperative evaluations, for elderly cancer patients requiring surgical treatment at cancer treatment facilities nationwide. A total of 436 cancer care facilities around Japan were invited to participate in this web-based survey regarding management of cancer patients ≥ 65 years old who had undergone surgical treatment in 2018. A total of 919 department heads from 245 facilities agreed to participate. Although most respondents answered that performance status, preoperative examinations, and comorbidities were important when deciding on a treatment plan, age, Geriatric Assessment (GA), and guidelines were "not important" for > 10% of all respondents. GA was familiar to 195 department heads (21%), and awareness of GA was significantly lower among respondents from medical education institutions than the other types of hospitals (18.5% vs 26.3%; P = 0.006). This large survey revealed that the use of GA is not widespread, and its awareness in medical education institutions remains low. We believe that accumulating evidence of geriatric oncology surgery is an urgent issue in Japan.

2.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791299

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults with cancer encounter age-related challenges. Cancer treatment and support are not always tailored to the needs of each patient due to difficulty in the collection of accurate data. The present study aimed to investigate cancer among children and adolescents and young adults in the four adjacent prefectures of Japan (Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui and Nagano) by analyzing data from a unique regional cancer database. We retrieved and analyzed the data of pediatric and adolescent and young adult patients aged between 0 and 39 years at cancer diagnosis (including carcinoma in situ), which was registered in the Hokushin Ganpro database between 2010 and 2015. A total of 5718 cases (1571 males and 4147 females) were identified during this period. The overall male-to-female ratio was 1:2.6. There was no distinct difference in the number of cancer cases per 100 000 population between males and females until 19 years of age. The difference became more pronounced after 20 years of age. The number of cancer cases (per 100 000 population) in the 0-14-, 15-19-, 20-29- and 30-39-year age groups was estimated to be 13.4, 14.5, 44.0 and 101.5, respectively. Carcinomas were the most common type of cancer in the adolescents and young adults (15-39 years) population (74%), whereas they were not the predominant cancer type in the pediatric (0-14 years) population. Although further research is needed to understand the needs of adolescents and young adults with cancer, we believe that our findings will help guide efforts to improve the management strategy for adolescents and young adults with cancer.

3.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 68: 126865, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascites is associated with the poor prognosis of malignant tumors. The biological importance of the changes in the content of trace elements in the ascitic fluid is unknown. Herein, we analyzed trace elements in the ascitic fluid of patients with ovarian tumors and used cultured cells to determine the copper (Cu)-induced changes in gene expression in ovarian cancer. METHODS: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to compare ascitic fluid trace element levels in patients with benign ovarian tumors (n = 22) and borderline/malignant tumors (n = 5) for primary screening. Cu levels were validated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 88 benign, 11 borderline, and 25 malignant ovarian tumor patients. To confirm Cu-induced gene expression changes, microarray analysis was performed for Cu-treated OVCAR3, A2780, and Met5A cells. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in the cell supernatant or ascitic fluid (ovarian cancer samples) was measured using ELISA. RESULTS: ICP-MS showed that Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Mo levels significantly increased in patients with malignant/borderline ovarian tumors compared to those in patients with benign ovarian tumors. AAS showed that malignant ovarian tumors were independently associated with elevated levels of Cu in ascites adjusted for age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, and supplement use (p < 0.001). Microarray analysis of both Cu-treated ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 and A2780 and the mesothelial cell line Met-5A revealed the upregulation of the angiogenesis biological process. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA demonstrated that an increased Cu content significantly enhanced VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion in OVCAR3, A2780, and Met-5A cells. VEGF levels and clinical stages of the tumors correlated with the ascitic fluid Cu content in patients with malignant ovarian tumors (correlation coefficient 0.445, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.069-0.710, p = 0.023 and correlation coefficient 0.406, 95 % CI: 0.022-0.686, p = 0.040, respectively). CONCLUSION: Cu levels significantly increased in patients with malignant ovarian cancer. Cu induced angiogenic effects in ovarian cancer and mesothelial cells, which affected ascites fluid production. This study clarifies the link between elevated Cu in ascites and malignant ovarian tumor progression. Strategies to decrease Cu levels in the ascitic fluid may help downregulate VEGF expression, thereby improving the prognosis of ovarian malignancies.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27500, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622884

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected various aspects, including socioeconomic status and health. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on oral health based on the number of teeth that contribute to mastication, and the nutritional status of elderly patients with digestive cancers.The authors defined the before and during COVID-19 periods in this study as January 2019 to December 2019 and January 2020 to December 2020, respectively. Patients with digestive cancer who underwent general, laboratory, and orthopantomograph examinations for preoperative oral health assessment before general anesthesia participated in this study. The authors investigated the following general characteristics: (1) sex, (2) age, and (3) the organ affected by disease and scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia. The authors collected information about (4) the number of teeth that could contribute to mastication as a clinical oral health parameter. The parameters: (5) body mass index, (6) serum total protein levels, and (7) serum albumin levels were used to indicate the nutritional status.A total of 233 elderly patients with digestive cancer participated in this study. There was no significant difference between the age of the patients with digestive cancer. There was also no significant difference in the number of teeth that could contribute to mastication. Additionally, there was no significant difference in nutritional status as indicated by the body mass index, serum total protein levels, and serum albumin levels.This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 did not have a significant influence on the oral health and nutritional status of elderly patients with digestive cancer. However, the influence of COVID-19 on community oral health may become apparent in the future. Thus, dental professionals should continue further research regarding the effects of COVID-19 on oral health.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mastigação/fisiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Albumina Sérica , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia
5.
Case Rep Womens Health ; 32: e00342, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354931

RESUMO

Aortic dissection during pregnancy is rare but can be life-threatening to both the mother and the foetus. Marfan syndrome is a major risk factor for acute aortic dissection during pregnancy. Here, we present the case of a woman who had not been diagnosed with Marfan syndrome prior to pregnancy and who developed acute type B dissection at 32 weeks of gestation. The maternal hemodynamic status was stable, and foetal well-being was ensured. However, under conservative treatment, the dissection extended to the descending aorta, reaching the bilateral iliac artery 2 days later. Due to foetal distress, preterm delivery was performed via caesarean section. The primary treatment of type B aortic dissection is conservative medical treatment, with the goals of hemodynamic stabilisation, minimising the extent of the dissection and decreasing the risk of rupture. However, type B aortic dissection, even the uncomplicated type, in pregnant women may require early and aggressive obstetric interventions to improve maternal and foetal prognoses.

6.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(12): 2318-2330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to conduct a detailed survey of radical hysterectomy in Japanese patients with early-stage cervical cancer, and to compare oncologic outcomes between open and minimally invasive radical hysterectomy. METHODS: In Japan during 2015, the medical records of 929 patients with FIGO stage IB1 and IIA disease treated with radical hysterectomy were retrospectively reviewed. We assessed patients' characteristics, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors for survival. RESULTS: The median patient age was 44 (20-80) years. Most patients (94.4%) had stage IB1 disease. Of the patients who underwent radical hysterectomy, 91.2% underwent open surgery and 8.8% underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The median follow-up period was 40.8 months (range, 0.49-51.1 months). The rate of DFS and OS at 4 years in all patients was 88.3% and 96.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified age (≥ 47), adenocarcinoma histology, tumor size (≥ 2 cm), parametrial invasion, positive lymph node metastasis and institutional accreditation as independent predictors of recurrence, and adenocarcinoma, other cell types, and positive lymph node metastasis as independent predictors of death. Oncologic outcomes in all patients were similar between open and MIS, including DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: The survival rate of the Japanese patients underwent radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer was favorable. No significant differences were observed for DFS and OS between open and MIS performed by a limited number of surgeons at a limited number of facilities in Japan. Further investigations are required to identify the appropriate patients might benefit from MIS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(7): 2261-2270, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880829

RESUMO

AIM: Since there are no established guidelines for the treatment of gynecological cancer in the elderly, medical treatment policy is currently decided by discussion with patients and their families based on doctors' experiences, referring to data from nonelderly patients and healthy elderly patients. The aim of this review was to clarify the current position of chemotherapy for elderly gynecological cancer patients and discuss the problems to be addressed in the future. METHODS: Little evidence has been accumulated for anticancer drug treatment in elderly individuals with gynecological cancer. This review presents outlines and representative papers on general cancer chemotherapy for the elderly, and problems that need to be solved in gynecological cancer fields in the future are identified. RESULTS: In 2018, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) published guidelines for "Practical Assessment and Management of Vulnerabilities in Older Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: ASCO Guideline for Geriatric Oncology Summary". This guideline emphasizes that, when administering chemotherapy to patients over 65 years of age, vulnerabilities should be identified using geriatric assessment (GA). However, there have been no reports of clinical studies using GA in patients with cervical or uterine cancers, and only a few clinical studies using GA have been reported in patients with ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Scoring systems suitable for elderly Japanese patients remain lacking. A Japanese gynecological GA needs to be developed in cooperation with other disciplines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Idoso , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos
8.
Reprod Med Biol ; 20(2): 169-175, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850449

RESUMO

Background: The process of follicle development is tightly regulated by pituitary gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and intraovarian regulators (eg, steroids, growth factors, and cytokines). Methods: This review outlines recent findings on the mechanisms of human follicle development, based on the research on animal models such as mice, rats, cows, and sheep. Main findings: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway and anti-Müllerian hormone are involved in primordial follicle activation during the gonadotropin-independent phase. The intraovarian regulators, such as androgen, insulin-like growth factor system, activin, oocyte-derived factors (growth differentiation factor-9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15), and gap junction membrane channel protein (connexin), play a central role in the acquisition of FSH dependence in preantral follicles during the gonadotropin-responsive phase. Antral follicle development can be divided into FSH-dependent growth and LH-dependent maturation. The indispensable tetralogy for follicle selection and final maturation of antral follicles involves (a) acquisition of LH dependence, (b) greater capacity for E2 production, (c) activation of the IGF system, and (d) an antiapoptotic follicular microenvironment. Conclusion: We reproductive endocrinologists should accumulate further knowledge from animal model studies to develop methods that promote early folliculogenesis and connect to subsequent gonadotropin therapy in infertile women.

9.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(5): 1763-1771, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733569

RESUMO

AIM: To clarify the mentality of pregnant women and obstetric healthcare workers about prenatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening testing. METHODS: A multicenter questionnaire survey about prenatal SARS-CoV-2 screening testing was conducted among pregnant women, midwives and nurses (M&Ns), and obstetricians at all delivery facilities in Fukui Prefecture between June 30, 2020 and July 22, 2020. RESULTS: Of 297 pregnant women, 150 (50.5%) underwent prenatal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and 107 of them (71.3%) answered that because of prenatal PCR tests, they could give birth with relief. One hundred forty-five (48.8%) were concerned about the disadvantages of receiving positive prenatal PCR results. Of 287 M&Ns, 151 (52.6%) answered that prenatal PCR screening testing could reduce anxiety about infection to themselves; this belief was more common among M&Ns working at the nonreception facility than among those at COVID-19 reception facilities (60.7% vs. 47.1%, P = 0.02). Of 57 obstetricians, 31 (54.4%) agreed to prenatal SARS-CoV-2 PCR screening testing, the rate of which was significantly higher among obstetricians at nonreception facilities than those at reception facilities (70.3% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.01). Fourteen obstetricians (24.6%) were concerned about excessive medical treatment for asymptomatic pregnant women with false-positive PCR results. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women experience anxieties during the COVID-19 pandemic, and prenatal SARS-CoV-2 screening may reduce their anxiety to some extent. However, obstetrics staff at COVID-19 reception facilities are aware of the limits of prenatal screening and are concerned about excessive medical intervention due to false-positive results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 26(6): 1009-1014, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential disparities between cancer patients with and without disabilities remained to be validate in Japan. METHODS: We surveyed retrospective data on hospital cancer registration as well as information on disability certificates obtained through the Hokushin Ganpro database. In total, 93,545 cancer patients in 10 principal hospitals covering the region of northwestern Japan were registered with the Hokushin Ganpro database between 2010 and 2015. The database included the following data: diagnosis date, cancer type, staging, treatment, cancer detection process, and possession of a disability certificate. RESULTS: We found that 2983 patients, which accounted for 3.2% of the total patients, had disabilities. No significant differences in gender, age at diagnosis, cancer stage distribution, and cancer incidence rates were observed between the disabled and non-disabled patients. Even though the proportion of early-stage cancer among disabled patients differed only slightly from that in non-disabled patients, early-stage cancer was more frequently diagnosed in patients with disabilities during their regular hospital visits than in those without disabilities, who had more opportunity for early cancer detection during cancer screening. According to in-house data reflecting treatment period and process from a single hospital, all 16 disabled patients treated with chemotherapy completed the treatment until disease progression or end of predetermined cycles. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that deep disparities between cancer patients with and without disabilities are not apparent and that the disabled patients in the region of northwestern Japan receive appropriate hospital follow-up.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of PET/MRI with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in cervical cancer based on the revised 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with biopsy-proven primary cervical cancer underwent pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/MRI, CT, and pelvic MRI. The diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/MRI and MRI for assessing extent of the primary tumor and 18F-FDG PET/MRI and CT for assessing nodal and distant metastases was evaluated by two experienced readers. Histopathological and follow-up imaging results were used as the gold standard. McNemar test was employed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Accuracy for the invasion of vagina, parametrium, side wall, and adjacent organs was 97.2%, 93.1%, 97.2%, and 100% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI; and 97.2%, 91.7%, 97.2%, and 100% for pelvic MRI, respectively (p > 0.05). Patient-based accuracy for metastasis to pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes and distant organs was 95.8%, 98.6%, and 100% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI; and 83.3%, 95.8%, and 97.2% for CT, respectively; metastasis to pelvic lymph nodes was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Lesion-based sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for lymph nodes were 83.3%, 95.9%, and 94.8% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI; and 29.2%, 98.9% and 93.1% for CT, respectively; sensitivity was statistically significant (p < 0.001). After excluding patients diagnosed by conization, accuracy for revised FIGO staging 2018 was significantly better for 18F-FDG PET/MRI (82.1%) than for CT and MRI (60.7%) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: 18F-FDG PET/MRI offers higher diagnostic value for revised 2018 FIGO staging, suggesting that 18F-FDG PET/MRI might provide an optimal diagnostic strategy for preoperative staging.

12.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 3, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The careful preoperative oral assessment may be useful for safe surgery under general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of periodontitis in patients with malignant digestive disease before surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: Patients with digestive malignant disease who underwent periodontal examination and orthopantomograph examination for preoperative oral health assessment were participated. The authors investigated the patients' general characteristics and clinical oral information, including the presence of periodontitis. RESULTS: One hundred twenty patients participated in this study. The mean and standard deviation of the number of teeth was 20.8 ± 8.2, and there was a statistically significant correlation between age and number of teeth. The periodontal pocket depth was 3.0 ± 1.0, and mobile teeth were observed in 62 patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between number of teeth and number of mobile teeth. However, there was no significant difference between the age of patients without mobile teeth and the age of patients with mobile teeth. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study performed in single-institution clarified the presence of periodontitis in patients with malignant digestive disease before surgery. Regardless of age, it is important to assess the oral health, including periodontitis, for safe surgery under general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Nucl Med ; 62(5): 636-642, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008930

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of 16α-18F-fluoro-17ß-estradiol (18F-FES) PET to predict prognosis in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods: In total, 67 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-IV EC underwent 18F-FES and 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment. The SUVmean of the primary tumor was compared with the clinical characteristics, and the relationships between SUV and progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival were analyzed. Results: 18F-FES SUV was significantly associated with stage, histology, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis, and 18F-FDG SUV was significantly associated with stage, myometrial invasion, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that 18F-FES SUV could significantly detect tumor progression and survival, with areas under the curve of 0.813 and 0.790, respectively, whereas 18F-FDG SUV could detect them with areas under the curve of 0.557 and 0.635, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with a low 18F-FES SUV had significantly poor PFS (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.001) compared with patients with a high SUV, whereas 18F-FDG showed no significant differences. In a subanalysis of 27 patients with a low risk of recurrence (FIGO stage IA endometrioid carcinoma [grade 1 or 2] without LVSI), those with a low 18F-FES SUV also had poorer PFS than those with a high SUV (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, an 18F-FES SUV of less than 2.63 (P = 0.037; hazard ratio, 10.727; 95% CI, 1.16-99.35) and FIGO stages III and IV (P = 0.042; hazard ratio, 8.838; 95% CI, 1.09-71.84) were significantly associated with PFS. Conclusion: A low 18F-FES for the primary tumor was strongly associated with prognostic factors of EC such as LVSI and lymph node metastasis, and a low 18F-FES SUV was an independent prognostic factor for PFS in patients with EC. These data suggest that pretreatment 18F-FES PET might be useful in determining the appropriate treatment for patients with EC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 14(1): 21, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363731

RESUMO

Little is known about preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for postoperative complications in older patients with gynecological cancer. The present retrospective multi-institutional study included 173 older patients with primary gynecological cancer between January 2015 and December 2015 at four institutions. The cancer stage, medical history, Charlson comorbidity score, body mass index (BMI), subjective global assessment, fall risk assessment, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, surgical Apgar score (SAS), type of surgery and 1-year postoperative mortality were investigated. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI and mental illness were risk factors for postoperative complications, and low SAS increased the risk for both postoperative complications and mortality within 1 year. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of postoperative complications in terms of SAS revealed that low SAS predicted high risk with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 46.5%, and high SAS predicted low risk with a sensitivity of 21.4% and a specificity of 95%. The present results suggest that SAS, which is an intraoperative assessment, may be useful for assessing the risks of postoperative complications and mortality within 1 year. It is important to develop a preoperative assessment tool that can predict a low SAS score and reflect the postoperative prognosis of older patients with gynecological cancer.

16.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1056, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In general, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in young women worldwide, but there is limited evidence on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine in adult women and no evidence of its effectiveness in Japanese adult women in particular. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine for persistent HPV16/18 infection in Japanese women aged 27-45 years. METHODS: This is an interventional, nonrandomized, non-double-blind prospective cohort study designed to compare the rates of persistent HPV16/18 infection between the vaccinated arm and unvaccinated arm. The subjects will consist of all women aged 27-45 years who have normal cytology results confirmed by cervical cancer screening from May 2019 to March 2021. The follow-up time is two years. The subjects will be divided into two groups: the vaccinated group and the unvaccinated group. The study will need to enroll 600 vaccinated participants (experimental arm) and 2200 unvaccinated participants (control arm). DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial (HAKUOH study) might provide the first local evidence on the subject and be significantly useful not only to medical academia but also to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The findings could contribute to public health improvement by providing local supportive knowledge on the prevention of HPV infection through HPV vaccination in young adult women in Japan, where active recommendations have been suspended for a long time due to adverse effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: NCT04022148 . Registration began on December 1, 2019.


Assuntos
Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/administração & dosagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 18/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/farmacologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16/efeitos dos fármacos , Papillomavirus Humano 18/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Japão , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Cancer Imaging ; 20(1): 75, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative accurate assessment of endometrial cancer can assist in the planning of additional surgical options, and in predicting the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of non-contrast PET/MRI with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) for assessment in preoperative staging of endometrial cancer. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven endometrial cancer underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET/MRI, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) and pelvic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) for initial staging. The diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/MRI and ceMRI for assessing the extent of the primary tumor (T stage), and 18F-FDG PET/MRI and ceCT for assessing nodal (N stage) and distant (M stage) metastasis, was evaluated by two experienced readers. Histopathological and follow-up imaging results were used as the gold standard. The McNemar test was employed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Accuracy for T status was 77.8 and 75.0% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI and ceMRI, respectively. Patient-based accuracy for detecting regional nodal and distant metastasis was 91.3 and 81.8% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI, and 87.0 and 81.8% for ceCT. None of these parameters was statistically significant (p > 0.05). Lesion-based sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting regional nodal metastasis were 100, 96.9 and 97.0% for 18F-FDG PET/MRI, and 14.3, 97.6 and 93.3% for ceCT; sensitivity was statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Non-contrast 18F-FDG PET/MRI, which combines the individual advantages of PET and MRI, offers a high diagnostic value equivalent to that of ceMRI for assessment of the primary tumor, and equivalent to that of ceCT for the assessment of nodal and distant metastatic staging, in patients with endometrial cancer. These findings suggest that 18F-FDG PET/MRI might provide an alternative diagnostic strategy to conventional imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/normas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas
18.
EJNMMI Res ; 10(1): 117, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of PET/MRI with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) in ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants comprised 103 patients with suspected ovarian cancer underwent pretreatment [18F]FDG PET/MRI, contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) and pelvic dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI). Diagnostic performance of [18F]FDG PET/MRI and ceMRI for assessing the characterization and the extent of the primary tumor (T stage) and [18F]FDG PET/MRI and ceCT for assessing nodal (N stage) and distant (M stage) metastases was evaluated by two experienced readers. Histopathological and follow-up imaging results were used as the gold standard. The McNemar test was employed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Accuracy for the characterization of suspected ovarian cancer was significantly better for [18F]FDG PET/MRI (92.5%) [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] than for ceMRI (80.6%) (95% CI 0.72-0.83) (p < 0.05). Accuracy for T status was 96.4% (95% CI 0.96-0.96) and 92.9% (95% CI 0.93-0.93) for [18F]FDG PET/MRI and ceMRI/ceCT, respectively. Patient-based accuracies for N and M status were 100% (95% CI 0.88-1.00) and 100% (95% CI 0.88-1.00) for [18F]FDG PET/MRI and 85.2% (95% CI 0.76-0.85) and 30.8% (95% CI 0.19-0.31) for ceCT and M staging representing significant differences (p < 0.01). Lesion-based sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for N status were 78.6% (95% CI 0.57-0.91), 95.7% (95% CI 0.93-0.97) and 93.9% (95% CI 0.89-0.97) for [18F]FDG PET/MRI and 42.9% (95% CI 0.24-0.58), 96.6% (95% CI 0.94-0.98) and 90.8% (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for ceCT. CONCLUSIONS: [18F]FDG PET/MRI offers better sensitivity and specificity for the characterization and M staging than ceMRI and ceCT, and diagnostic value for T and N staging equivalent to ceMRI and ceCT, suggesting that [18F]FDG PET/MRI might represent a useful diagnostic alternative to conventional imaging modalities in ovarian cancer.

19.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 13(4): 22, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765870

RESUMO

Cervical cancer screening has been shifting from primary cytology to primary HPV testing worldwide as primary HPV testing is more sensitive than primary cytology. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first in Japan to examine the feasibility of primary HPV testing. One of the disadvantages of this shift is that hrHPV-/≥LSIL/CIN2+ (high-risk HPV negative cancers or pre-cancerous lesions with abnormal cytology results) can be missed. The objectives of the present study are to clarify in detail CIN2+ missed by this shift and to evaluate the feasibility of primary HPV testing in Japan. Data from 115,273 women who underwent co-testing with cytology and HPV testing in cancer screening were used in the current study. The cases with hrHPV-/≥LSIL ('hrHPV-/≥L-SIL' include CIN2-, in contrast, 'hrHPV-/≥L-SIL/CIN2+' doesn't include CIN2-) were analysed in detail. Women with hrHPV-/≥LSIL comprised 0.3% of the total. The prevalence of CIN2, CIN3, SCC or cervical adenocarcinomas in the lesions with HPV-/≥LSIL was 0.03% in the cancer screening group. Only one case of 14 cervical adenocarcinomas in ≥LSIL was hrHPV-. The prevalence of cancer missed by the shift in patients >50 years of age was significantly higher compared with patients younger than 49 years. In conclusion, the prevalence of CIN2+, which might be missed by the shift from primary cytology to primary HPV testing, was remarkably low in this Japanese cancer screening. The data indicated that primary HPV testing, which was more sensitive for CIN2+ than primary cytology, was a feasible method that can be used in Japan. In particular, primary HPV testing should be introduced for women <50 years old.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13878, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807812

RESUMO

We identified predictors for bone-marrow [18F]FDG uptake and MR signals among complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and anthropometric factors, and demonstrated the bone-marrow physiology using integrated [18F]FDG-PET/MRI. 174 oncology patients without bone-marrow lesions underwent whole-body [18F]FDG-PET/MRI. The standardized uptake value (SUV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), proton density fat-fraction (PDFF), and a reciprocal of T2* relaxation time (R2*) were measured in lumbar vertebrae (L3-5) and bilateral ilia. Vertebrae, pelvis, and ribs were evaluated by 3-point visual scoring on DWI. The association of the PET/MR features with the predictors was examined. Multi-regression analyses identified CRP as the strongest predictor for lumbar and iliac SUVs (standardized coefficient: ß = 0.31 and ß = 0.38, respectively), and for lumbar and iliac R2* (ß = 0.31 and ß = 0.46, respectively). In contrast, age was the strongest factor influencing lumbar and iliac ADCs (ß = 0.23 and ß = 0.21, respectively), and lumbar and iliac PDFFs (ß = 0.53 and ß = 0.54, respectively). Regarding DWI-visual scores, age was the strongest predictor for vertebrae (ß = - 0.47), and the red cell distribution width (RDW) was the strongest predictor for pelvis and ribs (ß = 0.33 and ß = 0.47, respectively). The bone-marrow [18F]FDG uptake and R2* reflect anemia of inflammation (increased granulopoiesis and reduced iron metabolism), whereas bone-marrow DWI and PDFF reflect age and anemia-responsive erythropoiesis.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Anemia/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Ferro/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anemia/sangue , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa , Eritropoese , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Humanos , Ílio , Inflamação , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
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