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1.
World J Surg ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omentectomy is considered an essential part of curative gastrectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer (GC), albeit without solid evidence. We conducted a randomized phase II trial (the TOP-G trial) comparing omentectomy and omentum preservation for gastric cancer. This report describes the short-term findings regarding the trial's secondary endpoints. METHODS: The trial protocol was submitted to the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ : UMIN000005421). The key eligibility criteria were histologically confirmed cT2-4a and N0-2 gastric adenocarcinoma. Short-term surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality, were compared between the omentectomy group (group A, control arm) and the omentum-preserving surgery group (group B, test arm). All procedures were performed via an open approach. Based on a non-inferiority margin of 7%, statistical power of 0.7, and type I error of 0.2, the sample size was set to 250 patients. RESULTS: A total of 251 patients were eligible and randomized (group A: 125 patients, group B: 126 patients) between April 2011 and October 2018. After excluding patients who had peritoneal metastasis or laparotomy history, safety outcomes were analyzed for 247 patients. Group A had a significantly longer median operation time (225 min vs. 204 min, p = 0.022) and tended to have greater median blood loss (260 mL vs. 210 mL p = 0.073). The incidences of morbidity were similar and < 10% in both groups (8% vs. 9%, p = 1.000). There was no mortality in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Operative risk was generally similar between omentectomy and omentum-preserving surgery for locally advanced gastric cancer.

2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lymph node (LN) ratio (LNR) and the log odds of positive LNs (LODDS) have been proposed as sensitive prognosticators in patients with primary gastric cancer, especially in patients with an insufficient number of harvested LNs. We investigated the association of LNR and LODDS with survival in patients with remnant gastric cancer (RGC) and explored whether these staging methods are prognostic factors in patients with an insufficient number of harvested LNs. METHODS: The present study retrospectively examined 95 patients with RGC who received gastrectomy between January 2000 and December 2018. The patients were classified according to the adjusted X-tile cutoff for LNR and LODDS. The association between survival rates and clinicopathological features was investigated. The predictive accuracy of the LNR and LODDS was compared with that of the Union for International Cancer Control pathological N factor. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that the LNR and LODDS were independent risk factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) [hazard ratio (HR) 2.623, p = 0.020; HR 3.404, p = 0.004, respectively] and overall survival (OS) (HR 3.694, p = 0.003; HR 2.895, p = 0.022, respectively) in patients with RGC. Moreover, even in patients with 15 or fewer harvested LNs, only the LNR was a significant independent risk factor for RFS (HR 21.890, p < 0.001) and OS (HR 6.597, p = 0.002). The receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the prognostic accuracy of the three methods was comparable (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: LNR has significant prognostic value for patients with RGC, including those with an insufficient number of harvested LNs.

3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(Supplement): S116-S121, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380664

RESUMO

Background: We investigated the impact of the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) on the pancreatic cancer survival and recurrence after curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: This study included 155 patients who underwent curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer between 2005 and 2014. The risk factors for the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were identified. Results: An ACCI of 8 was regarded as the optimum critical point of classification considering the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates. The OS rates at 3 and 5 years after surgery were 25.7% and 19.0% in the ACCI-low group, respectively, and 7.6% and 0% in the ACCI-high group, which amounted to a statistically significant difference (P = 0.019). The RFS rates at 3 and 5 years after surgery were 17.3% and 13.8% in the ACCI-low group, respectively, and 7.1% and 0% in the ACCI-high group, which amounted to a marginally statistically significant difference (P = 0.104). A multivariate analysis showed that the ACCI was a significant independent risk factor for both the OS and RFS. Conclusions: The ACCI was a risk factor for the OS in patients who underwent curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. An effective plan is needed for determining the optimum surgical strategy according to the ACCI.

4.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific treatment strategies are sorely needed for scirrhous-type gastric cancer still, which has poor prognosis. Based on the promising results of our previous phase II study (JCOG0210), we initiated a phase III study to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in type 4 or large type 3 gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients aged 20-75 years without a macroscopic unresectable factor as confirmed via staging laparoscopy were randomly assigned to surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 (Arm A) or NAC (S-1plus cisplatin) followed by D2 gastrectomy plus adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 (Arm B). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Between October 2005 and July 2013, 316 patients were enrolled, allocating 158 patients to each arm. In Arm B, in which NAC was completed in 88% of patients. Significant downstaging based on tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, and peritoneal cytology was observed using NAC. Excluding the initial 16 patients randomized before the first revision of the protocol, 149 and 151 patients in arms A and B, respectively, were included in the primary analysis. The 3-year OS rates were 62.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 54.1-69.6] in Arm A and 60.9% (95% CI 52.7-68.2) in Arm B. The hazard ratio of Arm B against Arm A was 0.916 (95% CI 0.679-1.236). CONCLUSIONS: For type 4 or large type 3 gastric cancer, NAC with S-1 plus cisplatin failed to demonstrate a survival benefit. D2 surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy remains the standard treatment.

5.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 289, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumors that commonly originate from the stomach and small intestine. A primary schwannoma of the diaphragm is rare and does not show any symptoms until it grows to a certain size. Hence, it is extremely rare that it was found at a size that allowed resection under videoscopic surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgical treatment of a tumor located near the gastric fornix. She underwent a routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy 2 years and 7 months prior to the referral. It was suspected that she had a submucosal tumor measuring 10 mm, located in the fornix, and was then referred to her previous physician. During her follow-up, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed that the cystic structure had continued to grow toward the gastric wall, and she was then referred to the endoscopy division of our hospital. She continued to be followed-up, and it was noted that the tumor was gradually increasing in size. Therefore, she requested surgical resection, and was finally referred to our division. Since the tumor was rather small, we planned a laparoscopic surgery. An initial examination during the operation revealed that the tumor was located on the left diaphragm. Since the tumor was relatively small and visibility was good, we decided to continue with the laparoscopic surgery. Partial diaphragmectomy with complete inclusion of the tumor was performed, and the defect of the diaphragm was directly closed by a running suture. Pathological examination revealed a benign schwannoma that had originated from the diaphragm. To support our findings, we also reviewed the scientific literature on diaphragmatic schwannoma cases reported up to April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In this extremely rare case, we successfully resected the diaphragmatic schwannoma using laparoscopic surgery.

6.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241322

RESUMO

Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies have improved the overall survival of various types of cancers including advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Until now, two ant-PD-1 inhibitors were approved for AGC in Japan: nivolumab as third- or later-line treatment for AGC and pembrolizumab for previously treated patients with microsatellite instability-high tumours. However, a limited number of patients achieved clinical benefit, highlighting the importance of the better selection of patients or additional treatment to overcome resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. This review focused on pivotal clinical trials, biomarkers and novel combination therapy of immune checkpoint inhibitors forAGC.

7.
Ann Gastroenterol Surg ; 4(5): 540-548, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005849

RESUMO

Aim: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is promising to improve the survival of resectable gastric cancer. However, suitable regimen and treatment duration for NAC have not yet been established. Methods: We conducted a randomized phase II trial to compare two and four courses of neoadjuvant S-1/cisplatin (SC) and S-1/cisplatin/docetaxel(DCS) using a two-by-two factorial design for locally resectable advanced gastric cancer. Patients with M0 and either T4 or T3 in case of junctional cancer or scirrhous-type cancer received two or four courses of SC or DCS. Then, patients underwent D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy for 1 year. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival. The planned sample size was 120 eligible patients. Results: Between October 2011 and September 2014, 132 patients were assigned to CS (n = 66; 33 in 2-courses and 33 in 4-courses) and DCS (n = 66; 33 in 2-courses and 33 in 4-courses). The 3-year OS was 58.1% in CS and 60.0% in DCS with hazard ratio of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.48-1.34), while it was 53.1% in the two courses and 65.0% in the four courses with hazard ratio of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.43-1.22). In the survival analysis by duration in each regimen, the 3-year OS was 58.1% for both two and four courses in CS, while it was 48.5% for two courses of DCS and 71.9% for four courses of DCS. Conclusions: Considering high 3-year OS, four courses DCS has a value to be tested in a future phase III study to confirm superiority of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer.

8.
Oncotarget ; 11(30): 2906-2918, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The findings of COMPASS, a randomized phase II study, suggested that the regimens and courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced gastric cancer (GC) did not affect the pathological response. However, pathological complete response was achieved in 10% patients who received four courses of either S-1/cisplatin or paclitaxel/cisplatin. We hypothesized that if relevant biomarkers could be used to predict the suitable NAC regimen before treatment initiation, further improvements could be ensured in the outcomes of locally advanced GC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: mRNA extraction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed using endoscopic biopsy specimens of primary tumors, collected prior to NAC, to determine the clinically relevant biomarkers. RESULTS: TIMP1, DSG2, RRM1, MUC2, EGFR, ZDHHC14, and CLDN18.2 were identified as biomarker candidates, since their expression was significantly associated with the pathological responses to each NAC regimen. Furthermore, TIMP1 and DSG2 were identified as predictive biomarkers of the pathological response to each NAC regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The effective prediction of the pathological response to NAC regimens in locally advanced GC using biomarkers identified from endoscopic biopsy specimens indicates the possibility of personalizing NAC based on biomarker analysis.

9.
Surg Today ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Surgery-induced factors such as postoperative infectious complications (PICs) and intraoperative blood loss (IBL) have a negative impact on the survival of patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. A recent study showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) could reduce the negative impact of PICs; hence, we conducted the present study to investigate if NAC can also reduce the negative prognostic impact of IBL. METHODS: We reviewed 115 gastric cancer patients treated with NAC and radical gastrectomy. The cut-off for IBL predicting the long-term survival was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic curve. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the association between patient characteristics including IBL, overall survival, and disease-free survival. RESULTS: The cut-off for IBL was set at 990 ml. Twenty-six patients had excessive IBL exceeding 990 ml (22.6%) and PICs developed in 33 patients (28.7%). The body mass index, IBL, ypT, and ypN were significant independent prognostic predictors, but PICs were not. CONCLUSION: NAC did not decrease the risk induced by excessive IBL. The prophylactic effect of NAC on surgery-induced risk was inconsistent.

11.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gastric cancer is one of the Lynch syndrome (LS)-related tumors, the clinicopathological features of gastric cancer in patients with LS remain uncertain. To investigate the incidence risk and clinicopathological features of gastric neoplasms in LS, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Japanese LS patients. METHODS: LS patients with pathogenic mismatch repair (MMR) gene variants were extracted from the LS registry of the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. Cumulative risks of gastric neoplasm, including dysplasia and cancer, were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Gastric atrophy was evaluated endoscopically and/or histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for MMR proteins was performed for all available specimens. RESULTS: Of 118 eligible patients, 26 patients were diagnosed with 58 gastric neoplasms. The cumulative incidence of gastric neoplasm was 41.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9-55.0) at the age of 70. Of these, 13 (50%) patients developed synchronous and/or metachronous multiple gastric neoplasms. Among the 49 gastric neoplasms available for detailed pathological evaluation, all were associated with intestinal metaplasia. Immunohistochemically, 42 (86%) were MMR-deficient. The individuals with gastric atrophy had a significantly higher risk of developing gastric neoplasms compared with those without gastric atrophy (26 cases/54 individuals vs. 0 cases/53 individuals) (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: LS patients, particularly those with atrophic gastritis, are at high risk of gastric neoplasm and often develop multiple tumors. Endoscopic surveillance for gastric cancer is recommended for LS patients, especially those with atrophic gastritis.

12.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We had previously reported that surgical palliation could maintain quality of life (QOL) while improving solid food intake among patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) caused by advanced gastric cancer. The present study aimed to perform a survival analysis according to the patients' QOL to elucidate its impact on survival. METHODS: Patients with GOO who underwent either palliative gastrectomy or gastrojejunostomy were included in this study. A validated QOL instrument (EQ-5D) was used to assess QOL at baseline and 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months following surgical palliation. Postoperative improvement in oral intake was also evaluated using the GOO scoring system (GOOSS). Thereafter, univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to determine independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: The median survival time of the 104 patients included herein was 11.30 months. Patients who received postoperative chemotherapy, PS 0/1, baseline EQ-5D ≥ 0.75, improved or stable EQ-5D, and improved oral intake expressed as GOOSS = 3 had significantly better survival. Multivariate analysis identified postoperative chemotherapy, a better baseline PS, a better baseline EQ5D, improved or stable EQ5D scores, and improved oral intake 3 months after surgical palliation as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Apart from preoperative PS and postoperative chemotherapy, the present study identified better baseline QOL, improvement in postoperative QOL, and improvement in oral intake as prognostic factors among patients who underwent palliative surgery for advanced gastric cancer with GOO.

13.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 150, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surgical Apgar score (SAS) or modified SAS (mSAS) has been reported as a simple and easy risk assessment system for predicting postoperative complications in primary surgery for gastric cancer. However, few studies have described the SAS's utility in gastric surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: One hundred and fifteen patients who received NAC and radical gastrectomy from 2008 and 2015 were included in this study. The SAS was determined by the estimated blood loss (EBL), lowest intraoperative mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate. The mSAS was determined by the EBL reassessed using the interquartile values. The predictive values of the SAS/mSAS for postoperative complications were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Among the 115 patients, 41 (35.7%) developed postoperative complications. According to analyses with receiver operating characteristic curves of the SAS and mSAS for predicting postoperative complications, the cut-off value of the mSAS was set at 8. The rates of anastomotic leakage, pancreatic fistula, and arrhythmia in patients with high mSAS (> 8) values were higher than in those with low (0-3) and moderate [1-4] mSAS values. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the operation time, body mass index, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for postoperative complications. The mSAS was not a significant predictor. CONCLUSION: The predictive value of SAS or mSAS for morbidity may be limited in patients who undergo gastric cancer surgery after NAC. Future prospective studies with a large sample size will be needed to confirm the present results.

14.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(11): 1321-1324, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638017

RESUMO

Gastrectomy with omentectomy and D2 lymph node dissection is the current standard procedure for locally advanced gastric cancer. However, some retrospective studies have reported that omentectomy increased post-operative abdominal complications but provided no survival advantage over omentum preservation. Therefore, we plan a randomized controlled phase III trial to confirm the non-inferiority of omentum preservation compared with omentectomy in patients with cT3 (SS) or cT4a (SE) gastric cancer. A total of 1050 patients will be enrolled from 62 institutions over a period of 6.5 years. The primary end point is relapse-free survival, and the secondary end points are overall survival, blood loss, operation time and adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000036253.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia , Omento/patologia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Omento/cirurgia
15.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found a negative impact of postoperative complications on long-term survival outcomes, but it has not been confirmed by data obtained from a prospective study with a large sample size. This study investigated the impact of postoperative complications on long-term survival outcomes, and considered the optimal definition of complication, using data from JCOG1001, which compared bursectomy and non-bursectomy for patients with cT3/4a locally advanced gastric cancer. METHODS: This study included 1191 of 1204 patients enrolled in the JCOG1001 trial. Complications were graded by Clavien-Dindo (C-D) classification. Impact of the grade (≥ C-D grade II or ≥ grade III) or type (any or intra-abdominal infectious) of complication on survival outcome was evaluated by univariate and multivariable analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The incidence of any ≥ C-D grade II and ≥ grade III complication was 23.0% and 9.7%, respectively, and that of ≥ grade II and ≥ grade III intra-abdominal infectious complication was 13.4% and 6.9%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed all four definitions of complications were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Conversely, only any ≥ C-D grade III complication was found to be an independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.445; 95% confidence interval, 1.026-2.036; P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative complications adversely affect the long-term survival outcomes of patients with cT3/4a gastric cancer. Any ≥ C-D grade III complication seems to be the most suitable definition of complication for predicting negative long-term survival outcomes.

16.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 183, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) arising from sites other than the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, termed extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGIST), are rare. Among EGIST, those with platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations are even rarer, with only a few cases reported. About 80% of GIST has KIT mutations, and 10% of GIST have PDGFRA mutations, which commonly affect the TK2 domain (exon 18). Among the exon 18 mutations, the D842V substitution is limited to gastric GIST. In EGIST, the degree of KIT and PDGFRA mutations varies on where the location of the tumor is, and it is suggested that omental EGIST is similar to gastric GIST. Adjuvant imatinib therapy is recommended for high-risk GIST; however, it is known that imatinib is less effective against GIST with a PDGFRA D842V mutation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old man was referred to our hospital with an extrinsic tumor of the lesser curvature of the gastric body. Intraoperative findings showed a tumor located outside of the lesser omentum with no connection between the tumor and the gastric wall. The tumor was subsequently resected. Pathological examination indicated a GIST arising in the lesser omentum measuring 70 mm in its longer dimension. Because the tumor had a PDGFRA mutation (D842V substitution), imatinib was suspected to lack efficacy to the tumor. Thus, although the tumor was considered clinically to have a high risk of recurrence, adjuvant imatinib therapy was not indicated. The patient has been free of recurrence for 29 months since the surgery. CONCLUSION: We described a case of EGIST with a PDGFRA mutation arising in the lesser omentum. And we reviewed 57 cases of omental EGIST and showed that the clinicopathological characteristics and mutation status in omental EGIST were very similar to gastric GIST. In particular, PDGFAR D842V mutation rate in omental EGIST seemed as high as that in gastric GIST. These results suggested that omental EGIST is strongly related to gastric GIST, so the behavior of omental EGIST might be akin to gastric GIST. However, further studies are required to determine the prognosis and the necessity of adjuvant therapy for EGIST with a PDGFRA mutation.

17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 4067-4074, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of postoperative infectious complications on long-term outcomes after curative resection of gastric cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer at Yokohama City University and Kanagawa Cancer Center from January 2000 to August 2015 were retrospectively selected from medical records. Clinicopathological factors between patients with and without infectious complications were compared. Prognostic factors of long-term survival were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses. RESULTS: A total of 2,254 patients were eligible for inclusion in the present study. Fifty-eight patients had postoperative infectious complications (IC group); 2,196 had no postoperative infectious complications (NC group). In the IC group, the median age (p=0.031), body mass index (p=0.004), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (p=0.006) and percentage of male patients (p<0.001) were higher in comparison to the NC group. The operation time was longer (p<0.001) and the incidence of intestinal-type histology was higher (p=0.017) in the IC group. The 5-year overall survival rates of the IC and NC groups were 59.8% and 83.2%, respectively (p<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that postoperative infectious complications were a significant risk factor for poorer overall survival (hazard ratio=2.38; 95% confidence interval=1.47-3.85, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Perioperative management is necessary to reduce the incidence of postoperative infectious complications and improve the survival of patients after curative resection of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Infecções/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Infecções/mortalidade , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 6(4): 273-282, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592447

RESUMO

The biological complexity reflected in histology images requires advanced approaches for unbiased prognostication. Machine learning and particularly deep learning methods are increasingly applied in the field of digital pathology. In this study, we propose new ways to predict risk for cancer-specific death from digital images of immunohistochemically (IHC) stained tissue microarrays (TMAs). Specifically, we evaluated a cohort of 248 gastric cancer patients using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in an end-to-end weakly supervised scheme independent of subjective pathologist input. To account for the time-to-event characteristic of the outcome data, we developed new survival models to guide the network training. In addition to the standard H&E staining, we investigated the prognostic value of a panel of immune cell markers (CD8, CD20, CD68) and a proliferation marker (Ki67). Our CNN-derived risk scores provided additional prognostic value when compared to the gold standard prognostic tool TNM stage. The CNN-derived risk scores were also shown to be superior when systematically compared to cell density measurements or a CNN score derived from binary 5-year survival classification, which ignores time-to-event. To better understand the underlying biological mechanisms, we qualitatively investigated risk heat maps for each marker which visualised the network output. We identified patterns of biological interest that were related to low risk of cancer-specific death such as the presence of B-cell predominated clusters and Ki67 positive sub-regions and showed that the corresponding risk scores had prognostic value in multivariate Cox regression analyses (Ki67&CD20 risks: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.89, p = 0.002; CD20&CD68 risks: HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.07-1.67, p = 0.009). Our study demonstrates the potential additional value that deep learning in combination with a panel of IHC markers can bring to the field of precision oncology.

19.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative treatment is an accepted standard approach for treating locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC). Histopathological tumor regression with < 10% residual tumor is a globally accepted prognosticator in LAGC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and curative surgery. However, despite a response of the primary tumor, a significant percentage of patients dies from recurrence and identification of those at risk for relapse remains challenging. We re-estimated the value of histopathological tumor regression as a prognosticator alongside other factors, especially posttherapy topographical nodal status, ypN-site. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individual patient data including clinicopathological variables were used from the four JCOG trials investigating NAC (JCOG0001, JCOG0002, JCOG0210, JCOG0405) for analyzing prognosticators in patients with curative surgery excluding those with type 4 AGC by univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Among 85 patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 46.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.0-56.4] with a median follow-up of 3.2 years. On univariable analysis, histopathological tumor regression with ≥ 10% residual tumor and ypN-site 2-3 were negatively associated with OS [≥ 10% residual tumor: hazard ratio (HR) 2.60; 95% CI 1.22-5.54; P = 0.014; ypN2-3: HR 3.59; 95% CI 1.60-8.06; P = 0.002). On multivariable analysis, only ypN-site 2-3 was predictive of OS (HR 3.67; 95% CI 1.55-8.69; P = 0.003), whereas histopathological tumor regression with ≥ 10% residual tumor was not (HR 2.24; 95% CI 0.98-5.10; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: ypN-site may have greater impact on OS than histopathological tumor regression in patients who received NAC plus surgery for non-type 4 LAGC.

20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(11): 4235-4247, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymph node ratio (LNR), defined as the ratio of metastatic nodes to the total number of examined lymph nodes, has been proposed as a sensitive prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer (GC). We investigate its association with survival in pathological stage (pStage) II/III GC and explore whether this is a prognostic factor in each Union for International Cancer Control pStage (7th edition). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 838 patients with pStage II/III GC who underwent curative gastrectomy between June 2000 and December 2018. Patients were classified into low-LNR (L-LNR), middle-LNR (M-LNR), and high-LNR (H-LNR) groups according to adjusted X-tile cutoff values of 0.1 and 0.25 for LNR, and their clinicopathological characteristics and survival rates were compared. RESULTS: The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates postsurgery showed significant differences among the groups (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LNR was a significant predictor of poor RFS [M-LNR: hazard ratio (HR) 3.128, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.254-4.342, P < 0.001; H-LNR: HR 5.148, 95% CI 3.546-7.474, P < 0.001] and OS (M-LNR: HR 2.749, 95% CI 2.038-3.708, P < 0.001; H-LNR: HR 4.654, 95% CI 3.288-6.588, P < 0.001). On subset analysis stratified by pStage, significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of the RFS curves of pStage II and III GC (P < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively) and OS curves of pStage II and III GC (P = 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: High LNR is a predictor of worse prognosis in pStage II/III GC, including each substage.

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